Prospects and Challenges to
Promote E-Learning
in Developing Countries: A Case Study of
Ethiopian Higher Education
Berhanu Beyene
Computer Science Department
University of Hamburg
October 2004
Introduction
 Background
 Education in Ethiopia: At Crossroad
 ICT: The last truck left
 E-Learning: What is the problem to which e-learning is the solution
 Objective
 ICT and Education:
 E-Learning:
October 2004
Think global act local
Opportunities vs. Challenges
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Why this Topic?
Status quo
River to cross
• Country
• Population
• Language
Challenges
Education
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?
Goal/ Destination
?
ICT
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ICT
Knowledgeeconomy
ICT-Supported
Education
3
Education in Ethiopia
ቀዳሚሃ ለጥበብ ፈሪሃ እግዚአብሔር
The fear of God is the Beginning of Knowledge
 Objectives




Education for all
Manpower Development
Knowledge Creation
Poverty Reduction - Ultimate goal
 Type of Education
 Traditional - Religion
 Non-Formal
 Formal
 Regular
 Distance and Open Learning
 Life-Long Learning (continuing)
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The Nonformal and Adult Education
 What is Nonformal Education
 Educational activity organized outside of the established formal
system. There are no hierarchy, classrooms, registration,
examination, etc.
 Role of Nonformal
 Socio-economic development
 Community Skill Training Center (CSTC)
 Indigenous Knowledge (Knowledge Creation)
 Basic (Adult) Education
 Education to All (ETA)
 Alternative to Formal education for children out of school
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The Regular Education System
 Primary School
 Secondary (Comprehensive)
 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
 Tertiary (University/College)
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Grade/Level
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
T
E
R
T
.
S
E
C
O
N
D
A
R
Y
Higher
Education
Higher general
Education
general
Education
World of Work
Life Long
Learning
Medium
Vocational
Training (10+1
Technical Educ.
And Vocational
Training (10+2)
Junior Vocational
Training (6 Months)
P
R
Basic Vocational
Training (4 Months)
I
M
A
Basic
Education
R
Y
Training Program
Education Program
Regular Education and Training Program (Source: MOE, 1998)
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Information Communication Technology
(ICT) in Ethiopia
 The Concepts ICT
 Information: Knowledge
 Communication: Exchange of information
 Technology: Tool used to process, store, transmit information
 Diffusion
 As early as 1963
 UN- ECA, OAU
 Establishment of NICT-Center (State intervention )
 Breakthrough




PCs and price of ICT
Education and Training
Application software
Email, Internet
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ICT in Ethiopia: leapfrogging
 Market
 Mainly service (manpower development, Networking, Internet, etc.)
 Software and Application Development (Font, Website, DB, etc.)
 Establishment of ICT-Development Authority
 Establish ICT infrastructure
 Design and maintain appropriate system to capture indigenous knowledge
 Facilitating and directing ICT use in the country
 and more
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Impact of ICT on Education and Culture
 Culture
 Awareness (Computer literacy)
 Readiness (and Capacity Building)
 Indigenous knowledge and Innovation
 Teaching / Learning
 Spread of ICT field of studies and Training
 Teaching / Learning Material (Presentation)
 Distance and Open Learning
 Learn Material Preparation
 Course Delivery
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E-Learning: Defintion
 What is E-Learning?
 INSTRUCTION -- CAI, CAE
 TRAINING (CBT, WBT, IBT, etc.)
 Interactive Learning system
 What is not E-Learning?
 Substitute traditional face-to-face education system
 A solution to all ills in the Education System
 Not a panacea for all ills
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E-Learning: Metamorphosis
2001
1995
1990
?
E-Learning
WBT
Merried
with
Commerc
e (?)
Back home
E-Learning
(Web-based
interactive
Learning)
Globalizatio
n
CBT
Invisible
1980
CAE
1960
CAI
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Experimental
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E-Learning: Components
 Learning Management Systems (LMS)
 Student Registration (On-line)
 Course Management
 Collaboration
 Content Production and Management
 Authoring (Reduction) System
 Content Management System
 Delivery Management
 Synchronous
 Asynchronous
 Evaluation and Accreditation
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Learn Management System (LMS)
Administration
Learning
environment
Authoring
User
Courses
Interface design
Courses
Communication
Learn Objects
Instructions
Tools
Assignments
Evaluation
Personalization
Tests
Administration
Content
Management
User Data
Learn Object
Course Data
Meta data
Repository – Data Base
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LCMS: The Concept
 Definition
 Tools to assure content quality
 Tools to deliver that content to the end consumers.
 Tools to manage communication among participants and administer
their roles
 Principles
 Separation of:
 Structure,
 content and
 Presentation
 Storage of Contents in a media-independent format
 Aim
 improved quality, fitting with the consumers need
 better (re)usability and
 reduced cost of production and management could be
assured.
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LCMS: Features
Input
Content(n)
Creating
(New)
Integrating
(Available)
Choice of
Learn object
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Choice of
Processing
Technology
Process
Output
CMS
Content(m)
Numerous
tools and
processes
Consumers
Utilities
Presentation
and Delivery
media
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Evaluation
and
deployment
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LCMS: Points to consider
•
•
•
•
Software and hardware independence
Support for distributed production
Reusability
Improving the quality of the e-learning product by
– Considering the end users during the whole life cycle,
– Taking into account the existing IT systems,
– Detailed requirements specifications, and
– Continuous evaluation
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LCMS: Specification
Pedagogy
Specifying the
need for training
Curriculum
Identifying goals
and priorities
Specifying the
learning content
Technology
Standards and
regulations
Finding available
products
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Finding
available
content
Processmodel
Processmodelling
Selecting suitable
methods
Identifying and
accumulating
content
Training
content and
structure
Contentmatrix
Requirements
elicitation
requirements
analysis and
classification
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Requirements
validation
Requirements
specification
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LCMS: Content Production with Ethiopic
 Points to Consider
 Multi-lingual (National and Local Languages)
 Non-Latin script – Ethiopic (with over 450 characters)
 Cultural values
 Metadata with Language Preference
 Learn Platform with choice of Preferred Language(s)
 Integrated Online Lexica
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The Prospects
“(The) Internet has distinctive powers to complement, reinforce, and enhance
some of our most effective traditional approaches to university teaching and
learning. We should embrace those capacities, not resist them.”
Harvard President Neil L. Rudenstine
 General Premises
 Reduced Costs Education Technology: ICT-Technology, i.e. Hardware,
Software, etc.
 Accessibility (in quantity and quality and yet real time)
 Innovative and Collaborative: Self-paced and Self-directed Learn System
 Distributed (Distance never hampers from learning)
 Global Influence on Education
 Global pressures for more education
 Exponential growth of knowledge
 Cost-effective education technology
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Prospects: Factors
 Comparative Advantage of ICT-Supported Education
 Extenal Factors
 Technological (Global ICT)
 Political (The New order and Globalization system)
 Economical (Market – Material Knowledge)
 Internal Factors
 Emanated from External Factors
 Policy Issues - ICT Capacity Building measures
 The Learning Society
 Awareness and Supporting Policy Issues
 Capacity Building and NITC
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General Agreement o Trade in Services
(GATS)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Liberalization of trade in services
Education one of twelve service sectors
Five levels of education services
21 of 44 countries committed to trade in HE
Request/offer stage ends 30/03/03
Negotiations close 31/01/05
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The Challenges
Education System at Cross-road
Human Resource
Educatiton
Challenges
Knowledg
e
Economy
ICT
Poverty
Reduction
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Challenges: Conceptual
“We tend to under-estimate change in the longer term and overestimate it in the shorter term.” Gill Ringland 1998

ICT
 Information
 Information Technology
 Communication Technology
 E-Learning
 Learning (Teaching)
 Training (WBT, CBT, IBT, etc.) – in enterprises
 Instruction (CAI) – Traditional System
 Technology Choice (depends on the concept)

Motive: Tension between two functions
 Assuring continuity (i.e. passing on what is known)
 Fostering creativity and change (i.e. propelling learners into the
unknown)
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Forces Driving Change in HE
•
•
•
•
•
•
Continuing growth in demand
Increased recognition of the economic returns
Expanding and shifting frontiers of knowledge
Communications and information technology
Economic globalisation and internationalisation
Democratic quest for cohesion, justice and equity in
social arrangements
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Challenges: The Technology
 Overall Management of E-Learning
 LMS
 CMS
 Platform
 Technical Skill
 Expertise beyond Computer Literacy
 Skill needed to develop or use tools & Equipment
 Teaching/Learning Knowledge
 Infrastructure
 Delivery - Networking
 Technical Capabilities
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Challenges: The Infrastructure
 Delivery
 Networking (LAN, WAN, MAN, Wireless, etc.)
 Mode
 Asynchronous
 Synchronous
 Technical Capabilities




Connection Speed and Quality
Computer Capability
Power and Phone Services
Internet Access
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Challenges: Infrastructure – Internet Access
At what cost?
Proprietors
ETC’s HUB
InternationalTeleport
Source: ETC, with little modification
Schools/End
Consumers
Challenges: The Socio-Economical
 Investments and Incentives (ROI)
 Individuals
 Public
 Is learning rewarding?
 Coordination and Collaboration
 Policy Makers
 Teaching Body
 Learning Body
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Cultural and pedagogical relevance
• Can a global curriculum serve the needs of students in all
•
•
•
countries?
What adaptations need to be made?
How does the level of Internet access affects the
pedagogical process?
What are the challenges facing locally based tutors?
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Challenges: Culture
• Cultural beliefs about teaching and
learning have some impact on the way the
Program is taught
• Lack of experience and understanding of
how traditional instruction interfaces with
web based teaching materials
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Challenges: Culture
Recognition of the need for cultural adaptation
 Local tutors are important in helping to make
resources pedagogically and culturally relevant
 Support for local tutors is vital in helping them to use
and adapt global e-learning resources with students
 The variations in ease and cost of access to the
Internet will affect the way programmes are used
and taught
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Recommendations
• user-friendly, flexible,
adaptable desktop
• reliable technical support
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Recommendations
• consider the attitude
of the learners
• motivated and able
to handle online learning
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Recommendations
of trust within a protected
• establishing an atmosphere
learning environment
• individual learning processes
have to be synchronised
• self-discipline and shared
responsibilities
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Recommendations
• fix a clear time-schedule
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Recommendations
• create
a suitable learning framework
• recognise participants’ needs
• dealing with queries and giving
sufficient feedback
• make sure that course structure,
tasks, materials and support are as
participant-centred as possible
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Summary and Conclusion
 E-Learning in Ethiopia
 The Prospects
 Global and Internal Factors
 Comparative Advantages
 The initiative ICT projects spearheaded by MCB insight a lot
of promises to change this picture
 Challenges
The poor states of Institutional capacity; Infrastructure; Infostructure and Human Resource have denied Ethiopia from
benefiting by ICT
 Technological
 Socio-Economic
 Cultural (Public Awareness)
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Pilot Project:
Promoting E-Learning in Ethiopian HE
• Objective
 Providing Multi-Lingual E-Learning Platform
 Support Traditional Teach/Learn system with ICT
 Promote Virtual Teach/Learn system
 Target Group
 Higher Education Society
 Those who are unable to join Higher Education
 Life-long Learning Society
 Implementation
 Prototyping
 Testing the Prototype
• Evaluation and Documentation
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References
•
[Bate2001] Bates, Tony: “Fundamentals of Educational Planning: National strategic for elearning in post-secondary education and training”, UNESCO-IIEP, Paris
• [BaPo2003] Bates, Tony and Gary Poole: “Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher
Education: Foundations for Success”, Jonh Wiley & Sons Inc., USA
•
[Berh2003] Berhanu Beyene: “Project Proposal (Draft) -The Establishment of ICT-Center and
Local Community Development Networks (LCDNs) for E-Learning and E-Healthcare in
Ethiopia - Application for Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF)/Seed Fund”
•
[EndFul2002] Enders, Jürgen and Oliver Fulton: “Higher Education in Globalising World:
International Trends and Mutual Observations, A Festschfift in Honour of Ulrich” Teichler,
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2002
•
[Horton2000] Horton, William: “Designing Web-Based Training: How to teach anyone
anything anywhere anytime”, John Wiley & Inc., Totonto, 2000
•
[Tekeste1996] Tekeste Nagash: “Rethinking Eduation in Ethiopia”, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
Uppsala 1996
•
[FDRE-MOE2002] The FDRE Ministry of Education (Revised Draft): “Educaiton Sector Development
Program II 2002/2003 – 2004/2005 (1995-1997 EFY):Program Action Plan”, Addis Ababa May 2002
(unpublished document)
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Discussion
 Comments
 Q & A
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***** END *****
Thank you for your attention
Contact:
e-mail: [email protected]
Download:
http://berhanu.geez.org/public-docu
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