INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS IN CDIO PROGRAMS Patrick H. Oosthuizen Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Queen‘s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada INTRODUCTION Large numbers of engineers are today involved in many different ways in projects that require them to work in an international environment. Some of the ways in which engineers work in an international environment are: 1. By working on international development projects in or with workers from developing countries, the work usually being supported by governmental or non-governmental aid agencies. (Water supply, housing, medical related problems, etc.). 2. By working on projects in foreign countries on behalf of a home based company under contract to some level of government in the foreign country or to companies operating in these countries. (design and construction of hydroelectric plants, dams, bridges, transportation systems, etc.). 3. In opening new manufacturing plants in foreign countries, these plants being designed to meet a demand in the home country, and in the training of local workers for these plants. In some cases this will involve the engineer spending significant periods of time in the foreign country while in other cases it will only involve a number of relatively short visits to the foreign country. 4. Implementing modifications to existing products designed for and previously only sold in the home country that will make them acceptable for sale in foreign countries. This may involve modifications to meet differing government regulations and modifications that ensure that the product is socially acceptable in these countries. Work in this area often involves interacting with people in the foreign country who will be selling and in some cases manufacturing the modified product. 5. Working on projects in the home country in which part of the design process will be subcontracted to engineers in foreign countries. Examples of this are the subcontracting of cfd studies to workers in India and the subcontracting of significant portions of the design of new automobiles to engineers in Eastern Europe. 6. In working on complex engineering systems in which large parts of the system are manufactured and in many cases largely designed in a number of different foreign countries around the world. Modern commercial aircraft are examples of this type of activity. Both Boeing and Airbus now have large parts of their new aircraft produced and designed in various different foreign countries. This is by no means a complete list of the ways in which engineers undertake work in an international environment. Work of this nature has long existed but has not in the past involved so many practicing engineers. To illustrate how great the number of companies involved in producing a complex modern system can be, consider the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. • the flight deck and fuselage will be manufactured by Boeing at Wichita, • the wings and the fuselage fairings will be manufactured by Boeing in Winnipeg, Canada, • the moving leading and trailing edges of the wings will be manufactured by Boeing at Tulsa and at Boeing Australia. • manufacture of the centre wing box and installation of the wells will be undertaken by Japan's Fuji Heavy Industries. • the mid-forward section of the fuselage will be manufactured by Kawasaki Heavy Industries • the wing box will be manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries • the all-composite nose section will be built by Spirit Aerosystems of Wichita. • the main and nose landing gear will be supplied by Messier-Dowty of Velizy, France • the landing gear actuation systems will be provided by Smiths Aerospace • the electric braking system will be supplied by Goodrich and Messier-Bugatti. • the pilot controls will be provided by Kaiser Electroprecision • the common core system (CCS) will be supplied by Smiths Aerospace UK • the integrated standby flight display will be supplied by Thales • the flight control electronics, autopilot and the navigation package will be provided by Honeywell, of Phoenix, Arizona, • the mid-section and rear-section of the fuselage including the tailplane will be manufactured by a joint venture company, Global Aeronautica, set up by Vought Aircraft Industries and Alenia Aeronautica, • the cabin lighting, which will include a 'simulated sky' ceiling effect produced by arrays of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) which can change in colour and brightness will be supplied by Diehl Luftfahrt Elektronik • the passenger doors will be provided by the French company Latecoere • the nacelles and thrust reverser will be provided by Goodrich • the primary power distribution system, auxiliary power unit, environmental control system, primary and remote power distribution system and the electrical power generating and start system will be supplied by Hamilton Sundstrand of Windsor Locks Connecticut Another recent example is the Siemens’ share of a contract to supply 100 high-speed trains to China. They will supply a number of components such as various pieces of electrical equipment and the chassis. The Siemens work will be undertaken in Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany, in Nuremberg, Germany, in Graz, Austria, and in Shanghai, Tianjin and Jinan, China. IMPLICATIONS FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION In order to work effectively in an international environment the graduate engineer (1) needs to appreciate and respect the fact that there are cultural differences between countries and that these differences need to be recognized and taken into account when developing and working in international teams, (2) needs to recognize that engineers in different countries may have somewhat different approaches to engineering and that they may have somewhat different engineering skills, (3) must clearly recognize that having a different approach and somewhat different skills does not make these engineers from other countries inferior in any way and, depending upon the job being undertaken, they may in some areas provide an advantage, (4) should realize that when working in international teams communication problems can arise that are not connected with language problems but arise from different social norms. Engineering programs should, therefore, introduce students to the reasons why engineering projects, in so many cases, have become international and also introduce students to the need to be able to work effectively in international situations. Engineering programs should introduce students to the importance of being aware of societal differences that while very important are often very subtle, and should lead to awareness of the problems that may arise when working internationally. Email from Canada: “I’m arriving in Chicago very late at night so I’m afraid I’ll be rather bagged at the meeting” INTRODUCING INTERNATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO ENGINEERING PROGRAMS Among the possible ways of introducing engineering students to the skills and personal outlooks required to work effectively and productively in foreign countries and with engineers and other professionals from other countries: 1. Have class discussions and have students prepare brief reports on the reasons why engineering has become such an international activity. 2. Have students work in project teams that have members from institutions in other countries. While it is desirable for team members to meet in person, much can also be learned from having the team members communicate by e-mail. 3. Arrange to have students spend a period of study or work in a foreign country and have these students share their experiences with other students upon their return. 4. Have students undertake international development type projects. 5. Have engineers with experience in working internationally address the students and discuss their experiences. 6. Have class discussions of the ethical and other problems that can arise when working internationally. 7. Introduce case studies of problems that have arisen in international engineering projects. Problems experienced by Airbus and Boeing in the development of their newer projects are examples. The introduction of a course that is concerned with the practice of engineering in an international environment and with the skills required to work effectively in such an environment into the curriculum is one approach to introducing the methods discussed above into an engineering program. This course could include topics such as international cultural differences and their influence on the success of international teams and international ventures. The course could involve a combination of project work, class discussions, case studies and talks by experienced engineers. However, the introduction of such a course should not exclude the discussion of aspects of the practice of engineering in an international environment in conventional courses in the program. Whatever procedures are adopted to develop student awareness of the practice of engineering in an international environment, the end result should be graduate engineers who are comfortable when working in an international environment, who understand that there are societal and regulatory differences between countries that need to be accounted for in undertaking work of this type, and who are accepting of the fact that different groups may have different strengths and weaknesses. INTERNATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS IN A CDIO PROGRAM CDIO, with its international membership and commitment to the development of curricula that consider all aspects of engineering, would seem to be an ideal organization to develop sound methods for bringing international considerations into engineering curricula. Of course, a number of universities have adopted various approaches to try to internationalize their programs and have achieved varying degrees of success. However, none of these universities has had the benefit of working within an international initiative of the CDIO type which has collaborators from so many different parts of the world At present the CDIO Syllabus only clearly mentions international considerations in 3.2 COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES and today this does not by itself seem to be an adequate way of bringing international considerations into the curriculum. Instead it would appear that this area of the Syllabus needs to be updated. It is suggested therefore that CDIO should establish a group that would evaluate what has been done in the area of trying to bring international considerations into engineering curricula and have this group also gather the views of CDIO member institutions on how this should be done. Based on this, the group should produce a set of recommendations as to how best to bring international considerations into CDIO curricula. They should also recommend how the CDIO Syllabus should be modified to more completely reflect the need to bring these considerations into the curriculum. CONCLUSIONS With engineering activities being increasingly undertaken on an international stage it appears that it is important to provide exposure to this in engineering educational programs. Some possible methods of doing this have been discussed here. A brief discussion of the need for CDIO to take an active role in developing improved methodologies for bringing international considerations into engineering curricula has also been given.