ENGINEERING YOUR FUTURE
An Introduction to
Engineering:
A Comprehensive Approach
1
CHAPTER 1
The History of Engineering
2
1.1 Introduction

Definition of Engineering

The profession in which knowledge of the
mathematical and natural sciences, gained
by study, experience, and practice, is
applied with judgment to develop ways to
use, economically, the materials and forces
of nature for the benefit of mankind.
3
1.2 Getting Started

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Prehistoric Culture
Our Computer Age
The Speed of History
Quick Overview
4
1.3 The Beginnings of
Engineering


The Earliest Days
Egypt and Mesopotamia (add picture)**
5
1.3 Pictures of Pyramids
6
1.4 The Overview Approach

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
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Engineering the Temples of Greece
The Roman Roads and Aqueducts
The Great Wall of China
**FROM HERE MIGHT WANT TO ADD
PICTURES FROM BOOK
7
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages

1200 B.C. – A.D. 1

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
Quality of wrought iron is improved
Swords are mass produced
Siege towers are perfected
Greeks develop manufacturing
Archimedes introduces mathematics in
Greece
Concrete is used for arched bridges, roads
and aqueducts in Rome.
8
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: A.D. 1-1000



Chinese further develop the study of
mathematics
Gunpowder is perfected
Cotton and silk manufactured
9
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1000-1400


Silk and glass industries continue to
grow
Leonardo Fibinacci, a medieval
mathematician, writes the first Western
text on algebra
10
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1400-1700


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First toilet is invented in England
Galileo constructs a series of telescopes, with
which he observes the rotation about the sun
Otto von Guerick first demonstrates the
existence of a vacuum
Issac Newton constructs first reflecting
telescopes
Boyle’s Gas Law, stating pressure varies
inversely with volume, is first introduced.
11
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1700-1800




Industrial Revolution begins in Europe
James Watt patents his first steam
engine
Society of Engineers, a professional
engineering society, is formed in
London
First building made completely of cast
iron built in England
12
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1800-1825


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
Machine automation is first introduced
in France
First railroad locomotive is designed and
manufactured
Chemical symbols are developed, the
same symbols used today (Au, He)
Single wire telegraph line is developed
13
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1825-1875

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Reinforced concrete is first used
First synthetic plastic material is created
Bessemer develops his process to
create stronger steel in mass quantities
First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania
Typewriter is perfected
14
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1875-1900

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Telephone is patented in the US by
Alexander Graham Bell
Thomas Edison invents the light bulb
and the phonograph
Gasoline engine developed by Gottlieb
Daimler
Automobile introduced by Karl Benz
15
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1900-1925


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
Wright brothers complete first sustained
flight
Ford develops first diesel engines in
tractors
First commercial flight between Paris
and London begins
Detroit becomes center of auto
production industry
16
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1925-1950


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John Logie Baird invents a primitive
form of television
The VW Beetle goes into production
First atomic bomb is used
The transistor is invented
17
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1950-1975

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Computers first introduced into the
market, and are common by 1960
Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite, put
into space by USSR
First communication satellite—Telstar—
is put into space
The U.S. completes the first ever moon
landing
18
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1975-1990



The Concord is first used for supersonic
flight between Europe and the U.S.
Columbia space shuttle is reused for
space travel
First artificial heart is successfully
implanted
19
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1990-Present



Robots travel on Mars
The “Chunnel” between England and
France is finished
GPS is used to predict and report
weather conditions, as well as many
other consumer applications
20
1.6 Case Study of Two Historic
Engineers


Leonardo Da Vinci
Gutenberg and His Printing Press
21
1.7 The History of the
Disciplines

Aerospace Eng.

Computer Eng.

Agricultural Eng.

Electrical Eng.

Chemical Eng.

Industrial Eng.

Civil Eng.

Mechanical Eng.
22
1.7 History: Aerospace
Engineering

“Aerospace engineering is concerned
with engineering applications in the
areas of aeronautics (the science of air
flight) and astronautics (the science of
space flight).
23
1.7 History: Agricultural
Engineering

Agricultural engineering focuses on:

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

Soil and water
Structures and environment
Electrical power and processing
Food engineering
Power and machinery
24
1.7 History: Chemical
Engineering

Chemical engineering applies chemistry
to industrial processes, such as the
manufacture of drugs, cements, paints,
lubricants, and the like.
25
1.7 History: Civil Engineering

Civil engineering focuses on structural
issues, such as:

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Bridges and Highways
Skyscrapers
Industrial Plants and Power Plants
Shipping Facilities and Railroad Lines
Pipelines, Gas Facilities, Canals
26
1.7 History: Computer and
Electrical Engineering



The world’s business is centered
around computers, and their uses are
only increasing
Electrical is the largest branch of
engineering
Involved in:



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Communication Systems
Computers and Automatic Controls
Power Generation and Transmission
Industrial Applications
27
1.7 History: Industrial
Engineering

Industrial engineers design, install, and
improve systems that integrate people,
materials, and machines to improve
efficiency.
28
1.7 History: Mechanical
Engineering

Deals with power, the generation of
power, and the application of power to
a variety of machines, ranging from
HVAC to space vehicles.
29
CHAPTER 2
Engineering Majors
30
2.1 Introduction

Several characteristics of students that
might have an interest in engineering
are:

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Proficient skills in math and physical science
An urging from a high school counselor
Knows someone who is an engineer
Knows that engineering offers literally dozens, if
not hundreds of job opportunities
Is aware that a degree in engineering is quite
lucrative
31
2.1 Engineers and Scientists



Scientists seek technical answers to
understand natural phenomenon
Engineers study technical problems with
a practical application always in mind
For example

“Scientists study atomic structure to
understand the nature of matter; engineers
study atomic structure to make smaller and
faster microchips”
32
2.1 The Engineer and the
Engineering Technologist

Main difference between the two is:


Engineers design and manufacture
machines and systems, while engineering
technologists have the technical know-how
to use and install the machines properly
An example:

“The technologist identifies the equipment
necessary to assemble a new CD player;
the engineer designs said CD player”
33
2.1 What Do Engineers Do?

Ways to get information about careers:



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
Visit job fairs
Attend seminars on campus by various
employers
Contact faculty with knowledge of
engineering fields
Get an intern or co-op position
Enroll in an engineering elective course
34
2.1 What Engineers Do
35
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Research



Research engineers are knowledgeable
in principles of chemistry, biology,
physics, and mathematics
Computer know-how is also
recommended
A Masters Degree is almost always
required, and a Ph. D is often strongly
recommended
36
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Development



Development engineers bridge the gap
between the laboratory and the
production facility
They also identify problems in a
potential product
An example is the development of
concept cars for companies like Ford
and GM
37
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Testing


Testing engineers are responsible for
testing the durability and reliability of a
product, making sure that it performs
how it is supposed to, every time. T.E.s
simulate instances and environments in
which a product would be used
Crash testing of a vehicle to observe
effects of an air bag and crumple zone
are examples of a testing engineer’s
duties
38
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Design



Design aspect is where largest number
of engineers are employed
Design engineers often work on
components of a product, providing all
the necessary specifics needed to
successfully manufacture the product
Design engineers regularly use
computer design software as well as
computer aided drafting software in
their jobs
39
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Design


Design engineers must also verify that
the part meets reliability and safety
standards required for the product
A concern always on the mind of design
engineers is how to keep the
development of a part cost effective,
which is taken into account during a
design process
40
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Analysis


Analysis engineers use computational
tools and mathematic models to enrich
the work of design and research
engineers
Analysis engineers typically have a
mastery of: heat transfer, fluid flow,
vibrations, dynamics, acoustics, and
many other system characteristics
41
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Systems


Responsible on a larger scale for
bringing together components of parts
from design engineers to make a
complete product
Responsible for making sure all
components of a product work together
as was intended by design engineers
42
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Manufacturing & Construction




Work individually or in teams
Responsible for “molding” raw materials
into finished product
Maintain and keep records on
equipment in plant
Help with design process to keep costs
low
43
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Operations & Maintenance



Responsible for maintaining production
line
Must have technical know-how to deal
w/ problems
Responsible for inspecting facility and
equipment, must be certified in various
inspection methods
44
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Technical Support



Works between consumers and
producers
Not necessarily have in depth
knowledge of technical aspects of
product
Must have good interpersonal skills
45
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Customer Support


Often have more of a technical
knowledge than Tech. Support, because
they must be able to work with basic
customers
Evaluate whether or not a current
practice is cost effective via feedback
from customers
46
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Sales


Sales engineers have technical
background, but are also able to
communicate effectively w/ customers
Job market for sales engineers is
growing, due to the fact that products
are becoming more and more
technically complex
47
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Consulting



Are either self-employed, or work for a
firm that does not directly manufacture
products
Consulting engineers might be involved
in design, installation, and upkeep of a
product
Sometimes required to be a registered
professional engineer in the state where
he/she works
48
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Aerospace Engineering



Previously known as aeronautical and
astronautical engineering
First space flight Oct. 4, 1957 (Sputnik
I)
KEY WORDS:


Aerodynamics: The study of the flow of air over
a streamlined surface or body.
Propulsion engineers: develop quieter, more
efficient, and cleaner burning engines.
49
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Aerospace Engineering

KEY WORDS:



Structural engineers: use of new alloys,
composites, and other new materials to
meet design requirements of new
spacecraft
Control systems: systems used to
operate crafts
Orbital mechanics: calculation of where
to place satellites using GPS
50
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Agricultural Engineering


Concerned with finding ways to produce
food more efficiently
KEY WORDS


Harvesting Equip. - removes crops from
field, and begins processing of food
Structures: used to hold crops, feed, and
livestock; Agricultural engineers develop
and design the structures that hold crops
51
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Agricultural Engineering


Food process engineers: concerned
with making healthier processed food
products
Soil/Water Resources: working to
develop efficient ways to use limited
resources
52
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Architectural Engineering


Structural: primarily concerned with
the integrity of the building structure.
Evaluates loads placed on buildings,
and makes sure the building is
structurally sound
Mechanical systems: control climate
of building, as well as humidity and air
quality
(HVAC)
53
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Biomedical

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
First recognized in 1940’s
Three basic categories: Bioengineering,
Medical, and Clinical
Bioengineering is application of engineering
principles to biological systems
Medical engineers develop instrumentation
for medical uses
Clinical engineers develop systems that help
serve the needs of hospitals and clinics
54
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Chemical



Emphasizes the use of chemistry and
chemical processes in engineering
Chemical engineers develop processes
to extract and refine crude oil and gas
resources
Chemical engineers also develop circuit
boards, and work in the pharmaceutical
industry, where processes are designed
to create new, affordable drugs
55
2.3 Engineering Majors
Civil Engineering




First seen in pyramids of Egypt
Structural engineers most common type
of civil engineer
Transportation engineers concerned
w/ design and construction of
highways, railroads, and mass transit
systems
Surveyors start construction process by
locating property lines and property
56
areas
2.3 Engineering Majors
Computer Engineering



Focuses primarily on computer
hardware, not software
Work w/ electrical engineers to develop
faster ways to transfer information, and
to run the computer
Responsible for the “architecture” of the
computer system
57
2.3 Engineering Majors
Electrical Engineering



More engineers are electrical than any
other discipline
With an ever growing technological
society, electrical engineers will ALWAYS
have a job
Work in communications,
microelectronics, signal processing,
bioengineering, etc
58
2.3 Engineering Majors
Environmental Engineering


Often coupled with Civil Engineering
3 aspects of environmental engineering:



Disposal: disposing of industrial/residential
waste products
Remediation: clean up of a contaminated
site
Prevention: working with corporations to
reduce and/or prevent emissions and work
to find ways to “recycle” products to be
used again to reduce waste
59
2.3 Engineering Majors
Industrial Engineering




“Design, improvement, and installation
of integrated systems of people,
material, and energy”
Emphasis placed on: Production,
Manufacturing, Human Factors Area, and
Operations Research
Production focuses on plant layout,
scheduling, and quality control
Human Factors focuses on the efficient
placement of human resources within a
plant/facility
60
2.3 Engineering Majors
Marine and Ocean Engineering



Concerned with the design, development, and
operation of ships and boats
Marine engineer designs and maintains the
systems that operate ships, I.e. propulsion,
communication, steering and navigation
Ocean engineer design and operates marine
equipment other than ships, such as
submersibles. O.E.s might also work on
submarine pipelines and/or cables and drilling
platforms
61
2.3 Engineering Majors
Materials Engineering



Study the structure, as well as other
important properties of materials, I.e.
strength, hardness, and durability
Run tests to ensure the quality of the
performance of the material
Material Engineers also study
metallurgy, and the development of
composites and alloys
62
2.3 Engineering Majors
Mechanical Engineering



Concerned with machines and
mechanical devices
Work in design, development,
production, control, and operation of
machines/devices
Requires a strong math and physics
background. Often 4 or more math
classes required for graduation
63
2.3 Engineering Majors
Mining Engineering


Work to maintain constant levels of raw
minerals used every day in industrial
and commercial settings
Must discover, remove, process, and
refine such minerals
64
2.3 Engineering Minerals
Nuclear Engineering



Most concerned with producing and
harnessing energy from nuclear sources
Propulsion and electricity are the main
uses of nuclear power
Engineers also responsible for disposal
of the nuclear waste byproduct, and
how to keep people safe from harmful
nuclear products
65
2.3 Engineering Majors
Petroleum Engineering


Discover, remove, refine, and transport
crude and refined oil around the world
PE’s design and operate the machinery
used to refine crude oil into its many
forms
66
Chapter 3
Profiles of Engineers
67
3.1 Introduction


Diversity of the engineering work force
Wide range of engineering careers that
are possible
68
3.1 Profile of a Biomedical
Engineer


Sue H. Abreu, Ft. Bragg, North Carolina
Occupation:



Lieutenant Colonel, Medical Corps, United States
Army
Medical Director, Quality Assurance, Womack Army
Medical Center
Education:


IDE (BSE, Biomedical Engineering), 1978
MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health
Sciences, 1982
69
3.1 Profile of an Aerospace
Engineer


Patrick Rivera Anthony
Occupation:


Project Manager, Boeing Space Beach
Education:

BS, Aerospace Engineering
70
3.1 Profile of a Civil Engineer


Sandra Begay-Campbell, Boulder,
Colorado
Occupation:


AISES Executive Director
Education:

BSCE, 1987; MS, Structural Engineering,
1991
71
3.1 Profile of an Electrical
Engineer


Ryan Maibach, Farmington, Michigan
Occupation:


Project Engineer at Barton Malow Company
Education:

BS-CEM (Construction Engineering and
Management), 1996
72
3.1 Profile of an Agricultural
Engineer


Mary E. Maley, Battle Creek, Michigan
Occupation:


Project Manager, Kellogg Company
Education:

BS, Agricultural Engineering (food
engineering)
73
Chapter 4
A Statistical Profile of the
Engineering Profession
74
4.1 Statistical Overview

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How many people study engineering?
What are the most common majors?
What kind of job market is there for
engineers?
How much do engineers earn?
How many women and minorities study
engineering?
75
4.2 College Enrollment Trends
of Engineering Students



1950s-1960s: 60,000-80,000
engineering students
1970s marked the lowest number of
students, at 43,000
Engineering peaked in 1980s, with
around 118,000 students
76
4.3 College Majors of Recent
Engineering Students


Of approximately 350,000 full-time
undergrad engineering students, just
less than 1/3 (124,000) were majoring
in computer and electrical engineering
Just over 32,000 were “undecided”
77
4.4 Degrees in Engineering


Steady decline in Engineering degrees
awarded between 1986 and 1995.
Since then, there have been many
fluctuations, but as of data of 2000,
there were 63,300 engineering degrees
awarded
For a long time, electrical awarded the
highest number of degrees, but that
was eventually replaced by mechanical
engineering
78
4.5 Job Placement Trends


1999-2000 was the hottest year for
engineering majors to find jobs
As the number of engineering students
declines, employers must “fight” harder
to get whatever students they can get
their hands on to fill vacant positions.
This has led to a very promising job
placement ratio
79
4.6 Salaries of Engineers



On the whole, engineers make more money
than any other graduate with another degree
Electrical, computer, and computer science
recently have led the way, with average
salaries from a Bachelor degree starting at
around $52,000
A Ph.D. in computer science will earn a
starting average of around $84,000
80
4.7 Diversity in the Profession


For a long time, white males dominated
engineering
Recently, women, foreign nationals, and
various minority students have entered
colleges and universities with an
engineering diploma in mind
81
4.8 Distribution of Engineers
by Field of Study



Electrical engineering employs the
highest number of engineers, nearly
25%, numbering close to 375,000
Mechanical employs almost 250,000
Civil is the next highest “populated”,
with 200,000 workers
82
4.11 Words of Advice from
Employers

Looking for graduates who possess:





Excellent communication skills
Teamwork
Leadership
Computer/Technical proficiency
Hard working attitude
83
Chapter 5
Global and International
Engineering
84
5.1 Introduction


After WWII, engineering became a
more “global” business.
Taking a few foreign language classes in
college cannot hurt, but only help your
chances at getting a job after college.
85
5.2 The Evolving Global
Market: Changing World Maps &
Alliances


Breakup of former USSR
New laws, regulations, policies have
affected the spread of international
engineering
86
5.2 NAFTA



1994 North American Free Trade
Agreement (US, Mexico, Canada)
Designed to reduce tariffs, and increase
international competition
Manufacturing trade has increased by
128% between Canada, US, and Mexico
since 1994
87
5.3 International Opportunities
For Engineers

Engineers are employed internationally in:








Automobile Industry
Manufacturing
Construction
Pharmaceuticals
Food Industry
Petroleum and Chemical Industry
Computer and Electronics Industry
Telecommunications
88
5.4 Preparing for a Global
Career

Students who look to work
internationally should:



Be language and culturally proficient
Should participate in study abroad
programs
Look into work international work
experience
and Co-Op opportunities
89
Chapter 6
Future Challenges
90
6.1 Expanding World
Population


1900-2000, world population climbs
from 1.6 billion to 6 billion people
Places new stress on conservation of
resources, and gives engineers new
challenges to compensate for high population
91
6.2 Pollution

Engineers concerned with management
and the control of pollution, especially:



Air pollution
Water pollution and the depletion of
freshwater resources
Management of solid waste
92
6.3 Energy


It is predicted that energy usage in the
Developing Countries will more than
double in the next 30 years
Engineers must find new ways to
generate power in an effort to conserve
natural resources (fossil fuels)
93
6.5 Infrastructure

With mass transportation an everpresent problem, engineers will be
responsible in the future for designing
and maintaining a system by which the
transportation of raw materials, as well
as the human capital that process them,
can easily and efficiently move from
place to place
94
CHAPTER 7
Succeeding in the Classroom
95
7.2 Attitude



Success in an engineering curriculum
depends largely on a student’s attitude
and work ethic
If the student’s attitude is one of
failure, the student will most likely fail
Keep an open mind, and be willing to
“work” with the professor in order to
best understand the material
96
7.3 Goals



Set goals that will be difficult to attain,
but not impossible
This will motivate the student to work
hard, not just hard enough to do the
minimum, but to reach their higher
standard/goal
Set short, intermediate, and long term
goals

GPA for a semester, grade on an upcoming
exam, GPA for a year/college career
97
7.4 Keys to effectiveness







GO TO CLASS
Allow 2 hrs. of study time outside of class for
every hour in class
Re-read sections of book covered in class
Keep up with class and reading
Take good notes
Work lots of problems, not just the minimum
amount for homework
Study in groups
98
7.5 Test Taking





Obtain past exams
Ask professor for practice exams
Work problems in book
Start with problems you know how to
do, then work on the harder problems
Skim test first, to see what will basically
be covered
99
7.6 Making the Most of Your
Professor



Don’t wait until the end of the semester
to go for help
If you make yourself visible in class and
during office hours, the professor may
remember you while grading
Teaching is not professors only
responsibility, often the are researchers
and advisors as well, so give them the
benefit of the doubt
100
7.7 Learning Styles



Each person’s brain is unique to him or
her
Proper nutrition, stress, drugs and
alcohol are some of the factors that can
affect a developing brain
Each person is born with all the brain
cells, or neurons, they will ever have
(estimated at 180 billion neurons)
101
7.7 Learning Styles


None of us is ever too old or too dumb
to learn something new!
People think and memorize in several
different ways
102
7.7 Learning Styles

Memorizing:


Refers to how people assimilate new
material to existing knowledge and
experience
How we accommodate, or change our
previous way of organizing material
103
7.7 Learning Styles

Thinking:

Refers to how we see the world, approach
problems and use the different parts of our
brain.
104
7.7 Learning Styles


We all have different learning styles
Memory Languages:



Auditory
Visual
Kinesthetic
105
7.7 Learning Styles

Auditory Learner:






Buy a small tape recorder and record
lectures
Sit where you can hear the professor well
Focus on what is said in class, take notes
from the tape recorder later
Ask the professor questions
Read out loud to yourself
Keep visual distractions to a minimum
106
7.7 Learning Styles

Visual Learner:
 Sit where you can see the professor and
board or screen clearly
 Write notes during lecture with lots of
pictures and meaningful doodles
 Rewrite notes later in a more organized
fashion and highlight main ideas
 Write out questions to ask the professor
 Highlight and take notes in your book
107
7.7 Learning Styles

Kinesthetic Learners:




TAKE Labs!
Make connections between what is being
said and what you’ve done in the past
Talk to professor about ways to gain more
hands-on experience, such as volunteering
in his/her lab
Use models or experiments at home
108
7.7 Learning Styles

Thinking Skills:



Refers to how we see the world, approach
problems and use the different parts of our
brain
Different people think differently
Two hemispheres in our brain, and four
quadrants generally categorize how we
think
109
7.7 Learning Styles
110
7.8 Well Rounded Equals
Effective


Make sure to balance social, intellectual,
and physical activities in your schedule
Well rounded students are generally
more effective than students with a
“one-track” mind
111
7.9 Your Effective Use of Time






Decide in advance what to study and when
Make schedules
Use calendars effectively
Organize tasks by priority level
Stay focused on task
**Remember, everyone will “fail” at some
point, it’s how you respond to a failure that
determines your future success or failure
112
Chapter 8
Problem Solving
113
8.1 Introduction

Problem solving requires many “tools”
and skills. Make sure that you have
them, or at least know where to find
them and how to use them
114
8.2 Analytic and Creative
Problem Solving



Two basic types of problem solving
involved in design process: creative
and analytic
More students familiar with analytic,
where there is one right answer
Creative problem solving has no right
answers
115
8.2 Analytic and Creative
Problem Solving

Steps that typically help w/ problem
solving





Make a model/figure
Identify necessary, desired and given info
Work backwards from answers
Restate problem in one’s own words
Check the solution and validate it
116
8.3 Analytic Problem Solving

Six steps to analytic problem solving:






Define the problem and create a problem
statement
Diagram and describe the problem
Apply theory and any known equations
Simplify assumptions
Solve necessary problems
Verify accuracy of answer to desired level
117
8.4 Creative Problem Solving






Use divergence and convergence to gather
and analyze ideas. Divergence is
brainstorming. Convergence is analyzing and
evaluating the ideas, seeking out the best
possible solutions
What is wrong?
What do we know?
What is the real problem?
What is the best solution?
How do we implement the solution?
118
Chapter 9
Visualization and Graphics
119
9.1-9.2 Visualization


Visualization is often used as a mode of
communication between engineers
Sketches, tables, graphs, computer
generated drawings, blueprints are
various ways in which engineers
communicate via visual mediums
120
9.3 Sketching


Although most final drawings are computer
generated, initial and freehand sketches are
vital to the design process
Freehand does not mean messy. Sketches
should display an adequate amount of detail,
and any pertinent notes/comments pertaining
to the drawing

For instance, if a line is supposed to be straight,
make it as straight as possible. A square will not
pass for a circle.
121
9.7 Graphical Communication



Oblique and isometric drawings are 3D
and general
Orthographic drawings are 2D, more
detailed, and often have dimensions for
the part
Object, Hidden, Centerline, and
Construction are 4 common types of
lines used in engineering graphics
122
Chapter 10
Computer Tools
123
10.1-10.6 Computer Tools for
Engineers




There are many aspects to the design process
of a product
Engineers must be competent in basic
computer tools such as the internet, word
processing, and basic spreadsheets
Engineers will most likely be required to have
some knowledge of mathematical software,
such as MatLab
Engineers also make computer presentations
using most commonly, Microsoft PowerPoint
124
10.7-10.8 Operating Systems
and Programming Language



Engineers may be required to have
experience or be expected to be able to
work in UNIX, MS-DOS, or a Microsoft
Windows System
Computers work on series of 1’s and
0’s, called binary code
FORTRAN, BASIC, C, and C++ are all
programming languages used by
engineers to communicate with the
computer
125
Chapter 11
Teamwork Skills
126
11.1 Teamwork

Corporations develop teams for many
reasons



Projects are becoming increasingly complex
Projects often span international borders,
and require workers all over
Projects are requiring more speed, which
require more workers
127
11.2 What Makes a Successful
Team?






A common goal
Leadership
Each member makes unique
contributions
Effective communication
Creativity
Good planning and use of resources
128
11.4 Team Leadership
Structures



Traditional: One leader, who directs
subordinates. Leader typically is the
only one who “speaks”.
Participative: Leader is closer to
individual workers.
Flat: There is no “leader”. All members
are equal. The leadership “moves” with
the situation to the worker with the
most expertise in a given subject
129
11.5 Decisions within a Team




Consensus: All team members agree
on a decision
Majority Rule
Minority/Committee decision
Expert input
130
11.7 Grading a Team Effort






Did the team accomplish its goal?
Were results of a high quality? If not, why?
Did the team grow throughout the process?
Evaluate the team leader
Evaluate the other members of the team
Evaluate your own contribution to the project
131
Chapter 12
Project Management
132
12.1 Introduction



“Failure to plan is planning to fail.”
A good plan is one of the most
important attributes of successful teams
and projects.
Projects should be organized
systematically.
133
12.1 Eight Questions that can
be Addressed with a Plan








What to do first?
Next?
How many people?
What resources?
How long?
Time table?
Deadlines?
Objectives?
134
12.2 Creating a Project
Charter



A project summary
Defining what your project is and when
you will know when it is done
Elements include




Deliverables
Duration
Stakeholders
Team members
135
12.3 Task Definitions

Identify the completion tasks to achieve
the objectives and outcomes




Plan
Design
Build
Deliver
136
12.3 Plans

Plans should include:





Who to hold accountable for progress
Needed materials, resources, etc.
How to determine if the project is on
schedule
Manage people and resources
Determine the end!
137
12.4 Milestones



Monitoring of your plans progress
Deadlines for deliverables
Completion of subcomponents
138
12.5 Defining Times


Include the full time needed for tasks
As a student, you don’t have a full
eight-hour work day every day

Break tasks into week segments



Weekday and/or weekend
Class periods
Break tasks into short time periods

No more than a week or two
139
12.6 Organizing the Tasks


Determine task relationships and
sequencing
Relate the task groups from your
outline
140
12.7 PERT Charts
141
12.7 PERT Charts



Each task is represented by a box
containing a brief description of and
duration for the task
The boxes can be laid out just as the
project plan is laid out
Useful as a “what if” tool during
planning stages
142
12.8 Critical Paths

The longest string of dependant project
tasks


Ex. – prerequisites such as the math
curriculum for engineering
Some tasks can be accelerated by using
more people, others cannot

Ex. – nine people cannot have the same
baby in one month
143
12.9 Gantt Charts



Popular project management charting
method
Horizontal bar chart
Tasks vs. dates
144
12.9 Gantt Charts
145
12.10 Details, Details


Remember Murphy’s Law - “Anything
that can go wrong, will.”
Leave time to fix debug or fix errors
146
12.10 Details, Details




Don’t assume things will fit together the
first time
Order parts well in advance to leave
time for shipping, errors, or backorders
Leave time for parts malfunction
Push delivery times back to a week
before they’re actually due – this will
help to avoid panic if things go badly
147
12.11 Personnel Distribution




Get the right people on the right tasks
Assign people after developing a draft
of the plan
Balance the work between everyone
Weekly updates – does everyone
understand what they’re doing and is
everyone still on task?
148
12.12 Money and Resources

Develop a budget


Extra costs





Estimate with high, middle, and lower quality
products – offer a range of solutions
Shipping
Travel
Extra parts such as nails, screws, resistors
Material costs and labor
Have someone be responsible for managing
the budgets and financial aspects
149
12.13 Document As You Go


Document milestones as they occur
Leave time at the end for reviewing, not
writing
150
12.14 Team Roles

Roles





Project Leader or Monitor
Procurement
Financial Officer
Liaison
Project Management Software
151
12.14 – Project Leader or
Monitor




Designate a leader, or rotate leaders
Monitor and track progress of
milestones
Maintains timelines
Increases likelihood of meeting goals
152
12.14 – Procurement


Learns purchasing system
Tracks team orders
153
12.14 – Financial Officer



Manages teams expenses
Creates original budget
Makes identifying budgetary problems
easier
154
12.14 – Liaison


Responsible for keeping everyone
informed about the progress of the plan
and any changes
This includes outside customers,
management, professors, etc.
155
Chapter 13
Engineering Design
156
13.1 Engineering Design

Engineering design is the process of devising
a system, component, or process to meet
desired needs. It is a decision making
process in which the basic sciences and
mathematics and engineering sciences are
applied to convert resources optimally to
meet a stated objective. Among the
fundamental elements of the design process
are the establishment of objectives and
criteria, synthesis, analysis, construction, and
testing….
157
13.2 The Design Process
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Identify the problem
Define the working criteria/goals
Research and gather data
Brainstorm ideas
Analyze potential solutions
Develop and test models
Make decision
Communicate decision
Implement and commercialize decision
Perform post-implementation review
158
Chapter 14
Communication Skills
159
14.1 Why do we
Communicate?




Transfers important information
Provides basis for judging one’s knowledge
Conveys interest and competence
Identifies gaps in your own knowledge
160
14.2-14.3 Oral and Written
Communication Skills

Present communication on a level that
you believe will be easily understood by
whomever is to be receiving your
communication

Don’t use big words if a smaller, easier-tounderstand word will suffice.
161
14.5 Power of Language





Be as clear as possible
Avoid clichés
Avoid redundancy
Avoid using jargon specific to a certain
group of people
Don’t make sexual generalizations, I.e.
his, hers, he, she
162
14.6 Technical Writing







Identify thesis early
Follows a specific format
Follows a problem solving approach
Uses specialized vocabulary
Often incorporates visual aids
Complete set of references
Be objective, not biased either way
163
14.9 Formal Reports

Should include:




Title; short and
concise
Summary of what
will be discussed
Table of Contents
(not including
abstract)
Introduction






Analysis
Procedure and
Results
Discussion of results
Conclusions
References
Appendices
164
14.10 Other forms of
Communication





E-mail
Progress reports
Problem statements
Cover letters
Resumes
165
Chapter 15
Ethics
166
15. The Nature of Ethics


Ethics is generally concerned with rules
or guidelines for morals and/or socially
approved conduct
Ethical standards generally apply to
conduct that can or does have a
substantial effect on people’s lives
167
Chapter 16
Units
168
16.1 History of Units



A common denomination of units is essential
for the development of trade and economics
around the world
National Bureau of Standards, established by
Congress, adopted the English system of
measurement (12 inches, etc)
Majority of nations in the world today operate
on the metric system because of its simplicity
(multiples of 10)
169
16.1 History of Units - SI Units


Le Systeme International d’Unites,
French for the International System of
Units
Improvements in the definitions of the
base units continue to be made by the
General Conference of Weights and
Measures as science dictates
170
16.2 The SI System of Units



Modernized metric system adopted by
the General Conference, a multinational organization which includes the
United States
Built on a foundation of seven base
units, plus two supplementary ones
All other SI units are derived from these
nine units
171
16.2 The SI System of Units


Multiples and sub-multiples are
expressed using a decimal system
Generally, the first letter of a symbol is
capitalized if the name of the symbol is
derived from a person’s name,
otherwise it is lowercase
172
16.2 The SI System of Units

Base Units in the SI system







Meter = m
Kilogram = kg
Seconds = s
Ampere = A
Kelvin = K
Mole = mol
Candela = cd
173
16.3 Derived Units


Expressed algebraically in terms of base
and supplementary units
Several derived units have been given
special names and symbols, such as the
newton (N).
174
16.3 Derived Units

Quantities whose units are expressed in
terms of base and supplementary units
Quantity
Area
SI Unit
Square
meter
Speed,
Meter per
velocity
second
Density Kilogram per
cubic meter
SI Symbol
m2
m/s
Kg/m3
175
16.3 Derived Units

Quantities whose units have special
names
Quantity
SI Name
SI Symbol
Frequency
hertz
Hz
Other SI
Units
cycle/s
Force
newton
N
kg*m/s2
Electrical
Resistance
ohm
W
V/A
176
16.3 Derived Units

Units used with the SI System
Name
Symbol Value in SI Units
Minute
min
1 min = 60 s
Hour
h
1 h = 3600 s
Degree
°
1° = p/180 rad
177
16.4 Prefixes




Defined for the SI system
Used instead of writing extremely large
or very small numbers
All items in a given context should use
the same prefix, for example in a table
Notation in powers of 10 is often used
in place of a prefix
178
16.4 Prefixes
Multiplication Prefix Symbol
Factor
1000000 = 106 mega
M
Term (USA)
One million
1000 = 103
kilo
k
One thousand
.001 = 10-3
milli
m
One thousandth
m
One millionth
.000001 = 10-6 micro
179
16.5 Numerals

A space is always left between the numeral
and the unit name or symbol, except when
we write a degree symbol


SI units a space is used to separate groups of
three in a long number



3 m = 3 meters; 8 ms = 8 milliseconds
3,000,000 = 3 000 000
.000005 = .000 005
This is optional when there are four digits in a
number (3456 = 3 456; .3867 = .386 7)
180
16.5 Numerals



A zero is used for numbers between -1
and 1 to prevent a faint decimal point
from being missed
Rounding
Significant Digits
181
16.6 Conversions
To convert
from:
To:
Multiply by:
Degrees
Radians
0.017 453
Inches
Centimeters
2.54
Newtons
Pounds
0.224 81
182
Chapter 17
Mathematics Review
183
17.1 Algebra

Three basic laws



Commutative: a + b = b + a
Distributive: a ( b + c ) = a b + a c
Associative: a + ( b + c ) = ( a + b ) + c
184
17.1 Algebra

Exponents


Used for many manipulations
Examples



xa xb=xa+b
xab=(xa)b
Logarithms

Related to exponents


bx = y then x = logby
Table 17.1.5
185
17.1 Algebra

Quadratic Formula



Binomial Theorem



Used to expand (a+x)n
Formula 17.1.7
Partial Fractions



Solves ax2 + bx + c = 0
Formula 17.1.6
Used for simplifying rational fractions
Formulas 17.1.8, 17.1.9, 17.1.10, 17.1.11
Examples
186
17.2 Trigonometry



Involves the ratios between sides of a right triangle
sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and
cosecant are the primary functions
Trigonometry identities are often used



For all triangle we can also use the laws of sines and
cosines
Some other equations that can be found in your book
are



17.2.3, 17.2.4, 17.2.5, 17.2.6, 17.2.7
Pythagorean Theorem 17.2.10
Hyperbolic Trig Functions 17.2.11
Examples
187
17.3 Geometry


Used to analyze a variety of shapes and lines
The equation for a straight line

Ax + By + C = 0



This equation can also be written in Pint-slope, Slopeintercept, and Two-intercept forms
Distance between a line and a point is given
in Formula 17.3.5
The general equation of the second degree is
Ax  2 Bxy  Cy  2 Dx  2 Ey  F  0
2
2
188
17.3 Geometry

This equation is used to represent conic
sections


Classified on page 473
Ellipse, Parabola, Hyperbola


More information on pages 474-475
Examples
189
17.4 Complex Numbers

Complex numbers consist of a real (x) and imaginary
(y) part






x+iy where i=
In electrical engineering j is used instead of i because i is
used for current
x  iy  re
i
Useful to express in polar form
Euler’s equation is also commonly used
i
e  cos   i sin 
Other useful equations can be found on page 477
Examples
190
17.5 Linear Algebra

Used to solve n linear equations for n unknowns



Determinants of matrices are often used in
calculations



Uses m x n matrices
Many manipulations of this basic equation are shown on page
479
Illustrated on page 480
Eigenvalues are used to solve first-order differential
equations
Examples
c    a b 
n
ij
ik
k 1
kj
n
a ij 
a
ij
Aij
( A  I ) x  0
j 1
191
17.6 Calculus

We first write derivatives using limits



Some basic derivatives are shown on pages
484-485
Used to indicate points of inflection,
maxima, and minima
L’Hospial’s rule when f(x)/g(x) is 0 or
infinity 17.6.6
192
17.6 Calculus

Inversely we have integration








Used for finding the area under a curve
Equation 17.6.7
Can be used to find the length of a curve
Used to find volumes
Definite when there are limits
When indefinite a constant is added to the
solution
Basic Integrals on page 486
Examples
193
17.7 Probability and Statistics


The probability of one events’ occurrence
effects the probability of another event
Probabilities
P (n, r ) 

n!
( n  r )!
P (n, r ) 
( n  1)!
( n  r )!
C (n, r ) 
Many combinations can occur




n!
r ! ( n  r )!
P(A or B) = P(A)+P(B)
P(A and B)=P(A)P(B)
P(not A) = 1-P(A)
P(either A or B)=P(A)+P(B)-P(A)P(B)
194
17.7 Probability and Statistics


Probability ranges from 0 to 1
Additional equations on page 490






Arithmetic Mean
Median
Mode
Standard Deviation
Variance
Examples
195
Chapter 18
Engineering Fundamentals
196
18.1 Statics


Concerned with equilibrium of bodies
subjected to force systems
The two entities that are of the most
interest in statics are forces and
moments.
197
18.1 Statics

Force:



The manifestation of the action of one
body upon another.
Arise from the direct action of two bodies
in contact with one another, or from the
“action at a distance” of one body upon
another.
Represented by vectors
198
18.1 Statics

Moment:


Can be thought of as a tendency to rotate
the body upon which it acts about a certain
axis.
Equilibrium:

The system of forces acting on a body is
one whose resultant is absolutely zero
199
18.1 Statics

Free Body Diagrams
(FBD):

Neat sketch of the
body showing all
forces and moments
acting on the body,
together with all
important linear and
angular dimensions.
200
18.2 Dynamics

Separated into two sections:

Kinematics


Study of motion without reference to the forces
causing the motion
Kinetics

Relates the forces on bodies to their resulting
motions
201
18.2 Dynamics

Newton’s laws of motion:




1st Law – The Law of Inertia
2nd Law – F=ma
3rd Law – Fab=-Fba
Law of Gravitation
202
18.3 Thermodynamics

Involves the storage, transformation
and transfer of energy.



Stored as internal energy, kinetic energy,
and potential energy
Transformed between these various forms
Transferred as work or heat transfer
203
18.3 Thermodynamics

There are many definitions, laws, and
other terms that are useful to know
when studying thermodynamics.
204
18.3 Thermodynamics

A few useful definitions:

System


Control Volume (open system)


A fixed quantity of matter
A volume into which and/or from which a
substance flows
Universe

A system and its surrounding
205
18.3 Thermodynamics

Some Laws of ideal gases:

Boyle’s Law


Charles’ Law


Volume varies inversely with pressure
Volume varies directly with temperature
Avagadro’s Law

Equal volumes of different ideal gasses with the
same temperature and pressure contain an
equal number of molecules
206
18.4 Electrical Circuits

Interconnection of electrical
components for the purpose of:



Generating and distributing electrical
power
Converting electrical power to some other
useful form
Processing information contained in an
electrical form
207
18.4 Electrical Circuits




Direct Current (DC)
Alternating Current (AC)
Steady State
Transient circuit
208
18.4 Electrical Circuits
Quantity
Symbol
Unit
Charge
Q
coulomb
Current
I
ampere
Voltage
V
volt
Energy
W
joule
Power
P
watt
209
18.4 Electrical Circuits

Circuit Components:




Resistors
Inductors
Capacitors
Sources of Electrical Energy


Voltage
Current
210
18.4 Electrical Circuits

Kirchhoff’s Laws



Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)
Ohm’s Law

V=IR
211
18.4 Electrical Circuits


Reference Voltage Polarity and Current
Direction
Circuit Equations




Using Branch Currents
Using Mesh Currents
Circuit Simplification
DC Circuits
212
18.5 Economics

Value and Interest




The value of a dollar given to you today is
of greater value than that of a dollar given
to you one year from today
Cash Flow Diagrams
Cash Flow Patterns
Equivalence of Cash Flow Patterns
213
Chapter 19
The Campus Experience
214
19.1 Orienting Yourself to Your
Campus


Introduction to Campus Life
Tools to assist students to adjusting to
the college lifestyle
215
19.2 Exploring

Begin by becoming familiar with some
different locations on campus



Offices
Dorms
Classroom Buildings


Engineering Building
Sample map of Michigan State
University Campus
216
19.3 Determining and
planning your Major



Narrow down to a few different majors
Ask questions of insightful people
Look for any opportunity to learn more
about each field
217
19.4 Get into the Habit of
Asking Questions



Active questioners learn the most
Questions help students understand
and complete tasks
Communication skills are vital to
engineers


Understanding information given
Giving information that is understandable
218
19.5 The ‘People Issue’

Meeting People

Make friends of other engineers



Helpful as study partners
Offer perspective on engineering
Academic Advisor

Advisors are an excellent resource



Discuss problems
Information about the school, classes, and instructors
Offer guidance for graduating and careers
219
19.5 The ‘People Issue’

Instructors



Ask other students about an Instructor
before signing up for the class
Sit in on a class to see their teaching style
Networking


Keep in contact with friends and
acquaintances
Useful for assistance and support in and
out of the classroom
220
19.6 Searching for Campus
Resources


Every school has a document or website that
lists activities and opportunities
Examples

Things to Do, Places to Go


What’s Happening



Academic calendar, calendar of events
Library locations and hours
Services


Planetarium, Gardens, Museum, Union
Legal aid, counseling, financial aid
Extracurricular Activities
221
19.7 Other Important Issues

Managing Time



Control time to achieve success
Recommended Reading
The Usefulness of Reading

Engineering requires the extensive use of
technical and non-technical materials


Read each paragraph for its central point
Create outlines for each reading assignment
222
19.7 Other Important Issues

Fulfilling Duties



Using the Web


Engineers have a responsibility to society
Contributing to Society brings its own reward
Use the internet to look up more information on
topics of interest outside the classroom
Sending e-mail

Most contacts use email for some part of their
interaction
223
19.7 Other Important Issues

Test-taking Skills




Preparing outlines as subject matter is
presented will make studying easier
Form study groups
Ask questions
Taking Notes


Organize information
Highlight essential information
224
19.7 Other Important Issues

Study Skills




Teaching Styles



Should be calm, structured, and routine
Remember to get up and move a few times in an
hour
Reward yourself for studying
Variety of Instructors including graduate students
Fully engage professors and ask questions
Learning Styles

Discover your Learning Style and use it to your
advantage
225
19.7 Other Important Issues

Perspectives of others



Learn to listen to others respectfully
Be open to discussion of a variety of topics
Listening Skills



Dialogue does not need to be
confrontational
Allow others to express their opinions
Listen carefully to what other people say
226
19.7 Other Important Issues

Handling Stress








Include time to relax in your schedule
Take classes for the right reason
Do not resent required classes
Approach weak points with a positive attitude
Focus on learning instead of grades
Be patient for results of increased studying
Stress can not be avoided
Talking out problems can help
227
19.8 Final Thoughts


Use the concepts from this chapter to
make the college experience all it can
be.
Don’t forget to ask questions!!!
228
Chapter 20
Financial Aid
229
20.1 Intro

What costs are involved in going to
college?




Tuition
Other college or university fees
Cost-of-living expenses
Other “extras”
230
20.2 Parental Assistance


Some parents are able and willing to
cover all of your college expenses
On average, nine million students must
find ways to fund their college
education every fall
231
20.3 Is Financial Assistance for
You?

Applying for Financial Aid

Three areas:






Grants and scholarships
Loans
Work
Need vs. Non-need
Academic qualifications
Why apply?
232
20.3 Is Financial Assistance for
You?

Budgeting



Advisors available to assist with personal
budgeting
Help estimate costs and income and
develop a plan
How to apply

Free Application for Federal Student Aid
(FAFSA)
233
20.3 Is Financial Assistance for
You?

FAFSA




http://www.fafsa.gov
First thing to complete to become eligible
for aid
Can apply as early as January for the
following fall semester
Look up the information required before
starting to fill out the form
234
20.4 Scholarships


Educational funds that do not need to
be repaid
Public, private, or university sources


Local high school, professional groups,
corporations, service organizations,
government, college, etc.
It is your responsibility to seek out
private scholarships/grants
235
20.5 Loans



May be secured from lending institutions and
state and federal loan programs
Students who apply for financial aid will be
notified of their eligibility for both student and
parent federal loans
Loans can be obtained from parents or
relative who feel that you should repay the
money that is required to put you through
school
236
20.6 Work-Study

“Earning money the old-fashioned way”





On- or off-campus employment during
school
Summer jobs
Internships
Co-ops
Requires careful management of time
237
20.6 Work-Study

Work-Study:





Employment subsidized by the federal or
state government
Will be listed on your financial aid award
letter is you are eligible
“Just Plain Work”
Volunteering
Full Semester Off-Campus Employment
238
20.6 Work-Study

Cooperative Education


Academic program in which college
students are employed in positions directly
related to their major field of study
Alternating, Parallel, and Back-to-back
semesters
239
20.7 Scams to Beware



Do your own homework to avoid
scholarship service rip-offs
Check with the Federal Trade
Commission (FTC)
http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/menu-jobs.htm
240
20.8 The Road Ahead Awaits



Examine the many different sources
available to you for obtaining the funds
needed for your college expenses
How much do you actually need?
Correct forms and deadlines
241
Chapter 21
Engineering Work Experience
242
21.1 A Job and Experience



“How do you get experience without a job, and how do you get
a job without experience?”
Graduate schools and employers look for experiences outside
the classroom
Incorporating career experience is a worthwhile consideration


May extend college to 6 years
Many Economic shifts have happened in a college students
lifetime






1980-1983:
1983-1986:
1988-1994:
1994-2001:
2001-2003:
2004:
Major Recession
Revival of U.S. Economy
Restructuring of Corporate America
Vigorous Rebound of Economy
Recession
Signs of improvement in the labor market for engineers
243
21.1 A Job and Experience

In good and bad times employers look
for Engineers with job-related
experience



Engineers require less training
Faster results
Many different Experiences are available
244
21.2 Summer Jobs


Even jobs such as baby-sitting and mowing
lawns is a place to start
All jobs help develop basic employable skills



Provide stepping stone to better, more career
related jobs
Skills include teamwork, communication, and
problem solving
Help you discover what working environments
you like
245
21.3 Volunteer





Especially useful to freshmen and
sophomores to gain experience
Generally volunteer positions are with
non-profit organizations
Not a paid experience
Useful in developing skills
Able to experiment with different career
related fields
246
21.4 Supervised Independent
Study

Designed for the advanced undergraduate





Preparatory for grad school or a career in
Research
Some are paid and others award credit
Provides a unique experience
Challenging in many different areas
To learn more

Talk to professors that share similar interests
247
21.5 Internships

Paid or unpaid experience for a set period of time






Sometimes they support other engineers
Other times they are given individual projects
No official evaluation or credit given
Short term projects


Usually during the summer
No obligations for future employment
Obtain a description of these projects prior to employment
to assure it is of interest
Great for students with time, curriculum, and location
constraints
248
21.6 Co-operative Education



Cooperative Education is often the preferred form of
experimental Learning
Co-ops are considered to be academic and are
administered by the college
Assignments are directly related to field of study


Detailed job descriptions are used to create the best possible
matches
School and work are closely integrated

Alternating terms of school with work at the same company


Projects become more extensive throughout the experience
Term in school followed by a term at work followed by a term
at school and so on
249
21.6 Co-operative Education

Parallel co-ops is an alternative



Sometimes a longer alternating approach is used




Students work two consecutive semesters then attend
class for a semester or two
Allows for longer projects
Some schools use all three methods
Co-ops are rarely summer only


Students are partially enrolled in classes and spend 20 to
25 hours at work
Difficulties arise in allowing ample time for both areas
Break between work assignments is too long
Requires a three or four semester commitment
250
21.6 Co-operative Education

Advantages for Students





Consideration for employment and grad school
Improved technical skills
Helps determine career path
Excellent pay
Advantages for Employers




Recruiting Co-op students is more cost efficient
Many students accept full time positions with their employer
More diverse and dedicated students
Students free up other engineers and bring in fresh
approaches
251
21.6 Co-operative Education

Advantages for Schools





Integrates theory and practice
Keeps faculty informed of trends in industry
Creates relationships between schools and businesses
Improves a schools reputation
Other Benefits





Communication Skills
Networking
Self-discipline
Management Experience
Interactions with a variety of people
252
21.7 Which is Best for You?

Some Questions to help determine which is
best for you




Am I willing to sacrifice convenience for the best
experience?
How flexible can I be?
How committed do I want to be?
Seek out advice from professors, academic
advisors, and campus placement officers
253
Chapter 22
Connections: Liberal Arts and
Engineering
254
22.1 What are Connections?

Connections exist between engineering
and liberal arts






Literature
History
Music
Art
Social studies
Philosophy
255
22.1 What are Connections?



Look closely at what engineers really are and
what they really do
“liberal” comes from liberty, so that liberal
arts means “works befitting a free man”
Need for a general education


Developed because people have a need for a
strong, open mind in addition to a specialty in
order to be well-rounded
Not trapped by cultural blind-spots
256
22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?

Liberal arts help improve your
broadness



Look in many directions at once
Questions about areas that do not have
pre-set answers
Expected to be a leader
257
22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?

The Arts Improve:

Your Perspective


Your Balance


See the “big picture”
Practice dealing with a variety of diverse ideas
Your People Skills

Be aware of things that modern tendencies
avoid or neglect
258
22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?

The Arts Improve:

Your Sense of Duty and Responsibility


Elevate, integrate, and unify the standards of
the profession
Fulfill your duty in life, so society respects you
more
259
Appendix A:
The Basics of Power Point
260
A.1 Introduction

The purpose of this section is to
introduce a user to PowerPoint



Learn 20 key procedures
Be able to do 80% of everything you will
ever need to do
To learn more experiment with the
software
261
A.2 The Basics of PowerPoint

To begin open a blank presentation




Activate the standard, formatting, drawing,
picture, and WordArt toolbars
Select a slide type for the first slide
Select a background
Enter text into given text blocks



Edit the text and box sizes and shapes
Add additional text boxes selecting Insert-TextBox
Insert WordArt as necessary
262
A.2 The Basics of PowerPoint

Insert any pictures



Insert Clip Art




Click Insert-Picture-From File
Format the picture using the Picture toolbar
Click Insert-Picture-Clip Art
Picture Toolbar is used for formatting
Change visibility of an object by right clicking on an
object and then selecting Order from the menu
To Delete objects click on it and press backspace or
delete
263
A.2 The Basics of PowerPoint

To begin a new slide click the new slide button


View slides by thumbnails in the Slide Sorter View





Repeat from the beginning to format
Useful for arranging or hiding slides for presentations
Can be used when copying or deleting whole slides
Save your work when finished
Change slide transitions and animations
View the entire Show
264
Appendix B:
Introduction to MATLAB
265
B.1 Introduction




MATRIX LABORATORY
Powerful tool in performing engineering
computations
Many engineering curricula have moved to
making MATLAB the primary computing tool
in its undergraduate program
Can be run on many different platforms,
including UNIX, PC, and Macintosh.
266
B.2 MATLAB Environment

Command window


Command History window


Use to run your programs and see the results
Shows a history of the commands that have been
entered into the command window
Launch Pad window

Allows you to start applications and
demonstrations by clicking the icons in the
window
267
B.2 MATLAB Environment

Demonstration Programs


Help Files




>>demo
>>help <command name>
>>lookfor topic
>>helpwin
MATLAB is case sensitive

Apple ≠ apple ≠ APPLE ≠ aPPle
268
B.2 MATLAB Environment

Helpful commands

>>who


>>clear


Allows the user to see the variables currently in
memory
Erase the memory
>>clear <variable>

Clears just that variable
269
B.2 MATLAB Environment


MATLAB has some predefined functions that
should not be used to name variables
A few variable names to avoid:






ans
Inf
NaN
i
j
realmin
270
B.3 Symbolic Manipulations

To declare variables as a symbol


Algebraic expressions


>>solve (x^2-4)
Symbolic derivatives


>> syms x y
>>diff (y^3)
Symbolic integrals

>>int (sin(x))
271
B.4 Saving and Loading Files


To find out the identity of your working
directory, type pwd (print working
directory)
Use cd to change the working directory


>>cd c:\matlab\mystuff
The file can be saved using save at the
MATLAB prompt
272
B.4 Saving and Loading Files

Use the command load followed by the
file name to retrieve your file.



>>load my_workspace
path lists the directories that MATLA
will search for files
addpath <pathname> will add the
location to the path listing
273
B.5 Vectors


A vector is simply a row or column of
numbers
Vectors are enclosed in square brackets



>>row_vector = [1 2 6 9 12]
>>col_vector = [2;4;6;8;10]
To change a column vector into a row
vector and vice versa, use transpose
274
B.5 Vectors


For vectors to be added and subtracted,
they must be of the same type and size
To multiply or divide vectors, special
MATLAB symbols must be used


“.*” is used for multiplication
“./” is used for division
275
B.6 Matrices


A matrix is a group of numbers
arranged in columns and rows
Each element in a matrix is identified by
the use of two numbers or indices



The first index is the row number
The second index is the column number
MATLAB can extract an entire row or
column, or specific elements
276
B.7 Simultaneous Equations


Put the equations to be solved into
standard form
To solve for matrix x from Ax=b

X=A\b
277
B.9 Plotting

To generate linear xy plots use plot




>>plot(x axis values, y axis values, ‘symbol
or line type’)
Use hold on to plot multiple data sets
The axes can be labeled using the
commands xlabel, ylabel, and title
To generate multiple plots on a single
figure use subplot
278
B.9 Plotting

Semi-log and log plots



semilogx
semilogy
loglog
279
B.9 Plotting
280
B.10 Programming




Programs, called scripts, consist of a
series of MATLAB commands that can
be saved to run later
Select new, M-file to open the
programming editor
Enter MATLAB commands just like you
would type them into the workspace
Add comments by using the % symbol
281
B.10 Programming



Save the file with a .m extension
Remember to avoid file names that
MATLAB already uses
The file can then be executed by typing
the file name at the MATLAB prompt
282
B.10 Programming

Input commands

To ask the user to input a number


To ask the user to enter a string


>>W=input(‘Enter a number to be used by the
program’)
>>my_word=input(‘Enter a word:’,’s’)
The function disp can be used to
display data
283
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