Careers in Chemistry and PhysicsRelated Fields Developed by Mark Hartman, Emily Dunkel GK-12 Fellows: Harvard University & Cambridge Public Schools Sponsored by National Science Foundation How much is a “good” salary? City of Cambridge (2003) Apartment Size Typical Monthly Rent Minimum Household income required (assume 30% goes toward rent) 1 Bedroom $1400 $56, 000 2 Bedroom $1725 $69, 000 3 Bedroom $2300 $92, 000 HUD estimated median income for family of 4: $80,800 How to think about salary Some jobs are offered as a salary per year, others as wages by the hour. Assuming a 40 hour week, a year is 2000 hours and the following rates of pay are equivalent: Yearly salary $10,300 $20,000 $30,000 $50,000 $80,000 Hourly wage $5.15 (minimum wage) $10.00 $15.00 $25.00 $40.00 Higher Degree = More Earnings Average Yearly Salary / Cost 70,000 60,000 Salary 50,000 40,000 "1 bedrm Apt in Cambridge" doctorate master's bachelor's 2-yr college hs diploma no hs diploma 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Science/Engineering? – Salaries range from $30k – $100k/yr depending on education… – Training without 4 year college: Level of education Time commitment past high school Yearly tuition What you get Level of ($1k = $1000) when you science job come out you are prepared for High School -- -- Diploma Community college/Tech School 2 years $2k – $3k Associate in Technician / Science (A.S.) Data analyst degree Military service 2-3 years You GET paid Technical Technician/ skills, GI bill to Data analyst pay for college if you want Basic technician / Data entry Science/Engineering? – 4 year college/university and beyond: Level of education Time commitment Yearly tuition What you get Level of job when you you are come out prepared for College / University 4 years $5k – $15k (public) $20k – $35k (private) Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree Engineer, Programmer, Lab technologist, grad student Graduate School 2 years beyond University You GET paid OR Same as university above Master of Science (M.S.) degree Same as above, but with equivalent of 2-3 years experience Graduate School 5-6 years beyond University You GET paid $17k – $30k Ph.D. (Doctor Professor, of Philosophy) senior engineer, senior scientist Overarching Science/Engineering Skills Complex problem solving (analyzing): – Seeing a large problem as made of its essential parts. Teamwork: – Almost no one works on their own in the real world! Creativity (synthesizing): – Bringing together seemingly unrelated pieces of information and skills to accomplish a new task! Chemistry Chemical Technician (2 year degree) – Monitor production – Salary: $30k – $40k Chemical Sales (only 60% have chemistry degree) – Connect labs with customers – Speak foreign languages – Salary: $24k – high $40k Chemistry Forensic Chemist (4 year degree) – Give evidence in court – Salary: high $30k – $60k Oil and Petroleum chemist (graduate degree) – “Fingerprinting” oil from a spill – Develop new plastics – Salary: mid $40k – $60k (BS), mid $80k – $95k (doctoral) Physics Bachelor’s Degree Holders Salary Ranges Master’s Degree Holders Ph.D. Holders Physics Telescope operator (4 year degree) – Perform the art of accurate observations Video Game Designer (4 year degree) – Program realistic 3D motion String Theorist (graduate degree) – Question the beginning of the universe/nature of reality – Probe smallest and largest scales of the universe Engineering “Scientists discover the world that exists; engineers create the world that never was.” – Theodore Von Karman (aerospace engineer) Engineers turn scientific discoveries into useful products. Engineering is the second largest profession in America (teaching is the first). – 1,400,000 engineers – 500,000 medical doctors – 100,000 biologists Engineering Engineering jobs require varying levels of education. Engineering Technician: – Work is more practical and less theoretical than that of an engineer – Associate Degree (2-year degree) – average salary: $28,000-$47,000 per year Engineering: – BS College Degree (Bachelor of Science) – $42,000-75,000 Research and Development Engineer: – PhD degree (Doctor of Philosophy) – $75,000+ Mechanical / Aerospace Engineering Mechanical and Aerospace Engineers design and develop machines Mechanical Engineers: – air conditioning and refrigeration – automotives – robotics Aerospace Engineers: – commercial airplanes – fighter jets – space telescopes Chemical / Environmental Engineering Chemical Engineers turn raw materials into products – – – – pharmaceuticals petroleum plastics make-up Environmental Engineers prevent and fix environmental problems – reduce air pollution – reduce use of pesticides Electrical / Computer Engineering Electrical engineers move information from place to place – cellphones – satellite transmissions – television Computer engineers deal with design and operation of computer systems – networks – software – hardware Bio / Biomedical Engineering A relatively new field of engineering Bioengineers bring engineering into the fields of biology and medicine – medical instruments – artificial organs – prosthetic devices Cross-Disciplinary: Government/Policy Bioethics advisor (Ph.D) – Should we do cloning? NSF grant administrator (B.S. – Ph.D.) – Help determine who’s science gets your tax money Genetic counseling (B.S. – M.S.) – Explaining options to parents-tobe Congressional science advisor / lobbyist (B.S.) – Nuclear waste, alternative energy Media / Arts Science Journalist (B.S.) – Convey difficult topics to the public Playwright (B.S. or “Life experience”!) – “Copenhagen”: Best Play Tony Award 2000 Science museum staff / director (High School, B.S.) – Develop engaging programs/exhibits Technology artist (High School, B.S.) – Andrea Polli: Atmospherics/Weather Works Historian of science (B.S. – Ph.D.) – Letter from Einstein to Roosevelt Business / Law Wall Street Analyst (M.S. – Ph.D.) – Apply complex mathematical modeling – Predict behaviour of stock market Intellectual property / Patent law (J.D.—law degree) – guarding rights to original ideas Degree Statistics High School Diploma (or more) Some college (or more) Bachelor’s Degree (or more) All 90.2 58.0 30.5 Professional/speci alty 99.2 93.4 76.7 Technician and support 98.8 78.5 30.4 Administrative support: secretaries/office workers 96.3 55.2 15.6 Profession Source: US Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 1999 • Only about 25% of the US population has a bachelor’s degree! (34% in Massachusetts) • Although science jobs can be found at all levels, a B.S. degree gets you more opportunities and higher pay! If you forget everything else, remember this! The skills you develop in science classes are VERY widely applicable and valuable. Satisfying, well-paying jobs in science and engineering are available at ALL levels of education. Attempting higher degrees opens many more doors for interesting jobs and higher pay. If you don’t do it, who will be the engineers and scientists in the future?