ROMAN EMPIRE BELL WORK 11/25 Use the following words in a sentence Pompous- unnaturally and irritatingly grand, solemn, or selfimportant Crass- lacking sensitivity, refinement, or intelligence. Caesar Salad Also turn your homework into he bin! THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE REPUBLIC 133-31BCE 80% of the consuls come from 26 families, 50% came from just ten what type of government is this in reality? Capitalistic agriculture leads to a rise of a large urban proletariat proletariat= working class bourgeoisie= upper class, own all of the land Marius instigates a change where Roman soldiers pledge an oath to generals and not to the state What problems could this cause? ATTEMPTS AT REFORM: TIBERIUS & GAIUS GRACCHUS Two plebian brothers who were looking out for the common man Both elected as the head of their Tribune • Tried to distribute land to poor farmers • Tried to use public funds to buy grain to feed the poor. These reforms angered the senate • The brothers and thousands of their followers were killed in waves of street violence set off by senators and their hired thugs. Due to the social inequality present in Rome, a series of civil wars break out Generals become the real leaders, their legions are loyal to them, not Rome THE DEATH OF THE REPUBLIC: THE 1ST TRIUMVIRATE CRASSUS After the taxi driver called a homeless person a dirt bag a few people seemed shocked by her crass comments. POMPEY the pompous waiter served us in the manner of a person doing some poor soul a great favor CAESAR & THE DECLINE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Briefly summarize the story of Caesar In 58 B.C Caesar set out to conquer new lands after 10 years he had conquered most of Europe, including France and Belgium Fearful of Cesar's rising fame, Pompey gets the senate to demand Caesar disband his army and return to Rome. Caesar didn’t listen, instead he returned to Rome and crossed the Rubicon River with his army and took the city by force. Caesar forced the senate to name him dictator for life CAESAR’S LEADERSHIP AS AN ABSOLUTE RULER Reforms brought to the empire 1. Granted citizenship to people in provinces 2. Expanded the senate & added supporters from throughout Italy and other region 3. Jobs for poor (public buildings) 4. Started colonies for more people to own land 5. Increased pay for soldiers THE RESULTS OF REFORM 1. Nobles feared their own loss of power 2. Some considered him a tyrant and wanted him dead. Death of Julius Caesar: March 15, 44 BC 23 important senators led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius plotted to kill him in the senate chamberall stabbed him to death ROME AFTER THE ASSASSINATION OF JULIUS CAESAR After Caesar’s death civil war broke out in Rome Second Triumvirate came to rule consisting of • Octavian (Caesar’s adopted son) • Mark Antony (A general) • Lepidus (Powerful politician) Eventually Octavian came out on top Octavian took the title of Augustus which means: exalted one or emperor ACHIEVEMENTS OF AUGUSTUS’ RULE ROME BECOMES AN EMPIRE Page 149 What were his achievements? In what sense could this document be considered propaganda? Propaganda = ideas or statements that are often false or exaggerated and that are spread in order to help a cause, a political leader, a government, AUGUSTUS’ RULE USHERED IN THE PAX ROMANA MEANING: ROMAN PEACE 207 years • Time of prosperity • 3 million square miles • Population = 60-80 million • 1 million lived in the city of Rome REFORMS OF AUGUSTUS 27B.C.E TO 14.C.E Legislation was passed concerning the corruption of morals reduced spending on extravagant parties made adultery a crime Tax laws to penalize single people and married couples with less than 3 children Created an imperial cult based on worshipping old Roman gods, along with Augustus & Roma (the personification of the Roman State) BELL WORK 12/1 What was the Pax Romana? Who was Caesar Augustus (Octavian)? GOLDEN AGE OF LITERATURE Virgil writes a poem about the founding of Rome links the founding of Rome to a man named Aeneas who escapes Troy to found Rome Tips from Ovid: GOLDEN AGE OF LITERATURE Ovid writes the Art of Love, one of the first guide books on seduction, i.e how to find a girlfriend/boyfriend. Page 153 DON’T EXPECT THE ONE AND ONLY TO FALL OUT OF THE SKY AND LAND AT YOUR FEET. LEARN TO KNOW THE PLACES WHERE THE FAIR ONES DO MOST HAUNT. THE THEATRE IS A GREAT PLACE TO PICK UP GIRLS NEVER JUDGE A MAN, OR A WOMAN, BY CANDLELIGHT. PERSONAL HYGIENE IS ALWAYS IMPORTANT. NOTHING IS SO POTENT AS A HABIT DO NOT MAKE A PARADE OF YOUR NOCTURNAL EXPLOITS STUDY THAT GREEK AND LATIN. FORTUNE, AND VENUS, FAVOR THE BRAVE. BE PERSISTENT. PAY YOUR LOVERS IN POETRY. BELL WORK 5/12 Review your homework, the Ovid questions Why do you think Augustus would be upset with what Ovid was writing in the Art of Love? GOLDEN AGE OF LITERATURE Livy sees history as a series of sharp moral lessons ROMAN ARCHITECTURE While the Greeks aimed for simple elegance in architecture, the Romans emphasized grandeur. Immense palaces, temples, and stadiums stood as mighty monuments to Roman power and dignity. THE ROMAN PANTHEON- TEMPLE TO ALL THE ROMAN GODS THE COLOSSEUM Victory arches The glorious Arch of Triumph in Rome, Italy. INEERING Aqueductssystem of pipes or channels to bring water from its source to cities. AQUEDUCTS AQUEDUCTSA WAY TO CARRY WATER There wasn’t enough water in the city of Rome. The Romans brought water in from the surrounding countryside. The water was brought in by tubes called aqueducts. WHY ARCHES? Water is heavy stuff. The Romans needed a structure strong enough to hold all that water to move it from the mountains into the city. WHERE DID THE WATER GO? The water was transported in concrete tunnels. The tunnels were underground if possible. Sometimes the tunnel had to go above ground. HOW DID THE AQUEDUCT WORK? The water flowed in a tube on the top of the aqueduct called a water channel. The arches supported the water channel. WHAT DID THE WATER CHANNEL LOOK LIKE? The water flowed through a rectangular channel. The channel was lined with concrete. Romans invented concrete. BELL WORK 12/2 Where have you learned about Christianity? Name 3 things that you know about the beginning of Christianity. What do you know about roman religion? Who was their most important god? *Essential Question: Why did Christianity spread so quickly through the Roman Empire? THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY In 63 BC, Rome took over Judea, the home of the Jewish religion. Judaism was tolerated by the Romans at first. • First Monotheistic Religion: Only one supreme god However after a rebellion in Judea, many Jews hear of the teachings of Jesus & convert to Christianity, believing that he is the son of God and has come to free them from Roman persecution Why did the Romans begin to hate Christianity/Judaism? • • • • Monotheism vs. Polytheism Christians/Jews didn’t recognize the emperors as Gods. Blamed for any problems in Roman society. Emperors such as Nero crucified and tortured Christians and Jews as traitors. CHRISTIANITY SPREADS THROUGH THE MEDITERRANEAN Jesus of Nazareth was born under the rule of Octavian (Caesar Augustus between 27 BCE & 14AD) • Grew up preaching the idea of one true god • Spread a message of peace, love, forgiveness The people called him the Messiah which means King. • This worried the Roman and Jewish leaders, Pontius Pilate a Roman governor arrested Jesus. CHRISTIANITY SPREADS THROUGH THE MEDITERRANEAN After his crucifixion, Jesus’ followers (apostles) spread his gospels (good news) PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANS Romans began to persecute, kidnap and kill Christians Christians were often the victims of the gladiatorial games PERSECUTION OF THE CHRISTIANS (Left) Picture of St. Ignatius being thrown to the Lions in Rome. (He was a Christian martyr) CHRISTIAN APPEAL Even with the persecution of the Christians by the 3rd Century A.D. there were millions of Christians in Rome Widespread Appeal due to: • 1) embraced all people • 2) gave hope to the powerless • 3) appealed to those repelled by extravagances by Rome • 4) Personal relationship with loving God • 5) promised eternal life after death • 6) Pax Romana ROMAN ROADS Christianity exploded under Octavian What do you think may have caused Christianity's message to spread so far? Pax Romana—made spreading of Christianity possible because: Provided an era in which travel & exchange of ideas was relatively safe Roman Road System—enabled Christ’s message to spread throughout the Roman Empire Common Languages—Greek & Latin allowed Christ’s messages to be easily understood PAX ROMANA... AGAIN CONSTANTINE AND CHRISTIANITY 312 A.D. Emperor Constantine was going to battle when he prayed for help…. He had a vision of a cross; symbol of Christianity He had a cross painted on his soldiers shields When he won the battle he gave credit to Christianity CONSTANTINE & THE EDICT OF MILAN Persecution of Christians finally ends in 313 AD when emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan • Granted freedom of worship to all citizens in the Roman Empire • By 400 AD a new emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire Constantine Moves the Roman Capital Constantine divides the Roman Empire into two: Rome = capital of west Constantinople = capital of east WHY DID CHRISTIANITY SPREAD SO QUICKLY THROUGH THE ROMAN EMPIRE? Christianity spread for a number of reasons. 1. The message of Jesus appealed to plebeians because it offered eternal salvation and valued the poor. 2. The Pax Romana (Roman Peace) allowed for safe travel on the roads built by Julius Caesar during his conquests, which made it easier for the apostles to travel and spread the gospels 3. The Edict of Milan, put into effect by Emperor Constantine allowed for religious freedom.