ROMAN
EMPIRE
BELL WORK 11/25
Use the following words in a sentence
Pompous- unnaturally and irritatingly grand, solemn, or selfimportant
Crass- lacking sensitivity, refinement, or intelligence.
Caesar Salad
Also turn your homework into he bin!
THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE
REPUBLIC 133-31BCE
80% of the consuls come from 26
families, 50% came from just ten
what type of government is
this in reality?
Capitalistic agriculture leads to a rise of
a large urban proletariat
proletariat= working class
bourgeoisie= upper class,
own all of the land
Marius instigates a change where
Roman soldiers pledge an oath to
generals and not to the state
What problems could this
cause?
ATTEMPTS AT REFORM:
TIBERIUS & GAIUS GRACCHUS
Two plebian brothers who were looking out for the common
man
Both elected as the head of their Tribune
• Tried to distribute land to poor farmers
• Tried to use public funds to buy grain to feed the poor.
These reforms angered the senate
• The brothers and thousands of their followers were killed in
waves of street violence set off by senators and their hired
thugs.
Due to the social inequality present in Rome, a series of civil
wars break out
Generals become the real leaders, their legions are loyal to
them, not Rome
THE DEATH OF THE REPUBLIC: THE 1ST
TRIUMVIRATE
CRASSUS
After the taxi driver
called a homeless
person a dirt bag a few
people seemed shocked
by her crass comments.
POMPEY
the pompous waiter
served us in the
manner of a person
doing some poor
soul a great favor
CAESAR & THE DECLINE
OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
Briefly summarize the story of Caesar
In 58 B.C Caesar set out to conquer new lands after
10 years he had conquered most of Europe,
including France and Belgium
Fearful of Cesar's rising fame, Pompey gets the
senate to demand Caesar disband his army and
return to Rome.
Caesar didn’t listen, instead he returned to Rome
and crossed the Rubicon River with his army and
took the city by force.
Caesar forced the senate to name him dictator for
life
CAESAR’S LEADERSHIP AS AN
ABSOLUTE RULER
Reforms brought to the
empire
1. Granted citizenship to
people in provinces
2. Expanded the senate &
added supporters from
throughout Italy and other
region
3. Jobs for poor (public
buildings)
4. Started colonies for more
people to own land
5. Increased pay for soldiers
THE RESULTS OF
REFORM
1. Nobles feared their
own loss of power
2. Some considered him
a tyrant and wanted
him dead.
Death of Julius Caesar:
March 15, 44 BC 23
important senators
led by Marcus Brutus
and Gaius Cassius
plotted to kill him in
the senate chamberall stabbed him to
death
ROME AFTER THE
ASSASSINATION OF JULIUS
CAESAR
After Caesar’s death civil war
broke out in Rome
Second Triumvirate came to
rule consisting of
• Octavian (Caesar’s adopted son)
• Mark Antony (A general)
• Lepidus (Powerful politician)
Eventually Octavian came out
on top
Octavian took the title of
Augustus which means: exalted
one or emperor
ACHIEVEMENTS OF
AUGUSTUS’ RULE ROME
BECOMES AN EMPIRE
Page 149
What were his achievements?
In what sense could this document be considered
propaganda?
Propaganda = ideas or statements that are often false
or exaggerated and that are spread in order to help a
cause, a political leader, a government,
AUGUSTUS’ RULE USHERED IN THE PAX
ROMANA MEANING: ROMAN PEACE
207 years
• Time of
prosperity
• 3 million
square
miles
• Population
= 60-80
million
• 1 million
lived in the
city of
Rome
REFORMS OF AUGUSTUS
27B.C.E TO 14.C.E
Legislation was passed concerning the corruption of morals
reduced spending on extravagant parties
made adultery a crime
Tax laws to penalize single people and married
couples with less than 3 children
Created an imperial cult based on worshipping old Roman
gods, along with Augustus & Roma (the personification of
the Roman State)
BELL WORK 12/1
What was the Pax Romana?
Who was Caesar Augustus (Octavian)?
GOLDEN AGE OF
LITERATURE
Virgil writes a poem about the
founding of Rome
links the founding of Rome
to a man named Aeneas
who escapes Troy to found
Rome
Tips from Ovid:
GOLDEN AGE OF
LITERATURE
Ovid writes the Art of Love, one of
the first guide books on seduction,
i.e how to find a
girlfriend/boyfriend.
Page 153
DON’T EXPECT THE ONE AND
ONLY TO FALL OUT OF THE SKY
AND LAND AT YOUR FEET.
LEARN TO KNOW THE PLACES
WHERE THE FAIR ONES DO MOST
HAUNT.
THE THEATRE IS A GREAT PLACE
TO PICK UP GIRLS
NEVER JUDGE A MAN, OR A
WOMAN, BY CANDLELIGHT.
PERSONAL HYGIENE IS ALWAYS
IMPORTANT.
NOTHING IS SO POTENT AS A
HABIT
DO NOT MAKE A PARADE OF YOUR
NOCTURNAL EXPLOITS
STUDY THAT GREEK AND LATIN.
FORTUNE, AND VENUS, FAVOR THE
BRAVE.
BE PERSISTENT.
PAY YOUR LOVERS IN POETRY.
BELL WORK 5/12
Review your homework, the Ovid questions
Why do you think Augustus would be upset with what Ovid
was writing in the Art of Love?
GOLDEN AGE OF
LITERATURE
Livy sees history as a series of sharp
moral lessons
ROMAN
ARCHITECTURE
While the Greeks aimed for simple elegance in
architecture, the Romans emphasized grandeur.
Immense palaces, temples, and stadiums stood as
mighty monuments to Roman power and dignity.
 THE ROMAN PANTHEON- TEMPLE TO ALL THE
ROMAN GODS
 THE COLOSSEUM
 Victory arches
The glorious Arch of Triumph in Rome, Italy.
INEERING
Aqueductssystem of pipes or
channels to bring
water from its
source to cities.
AQUEDUCTS
AQUEDUCTSA WAY TO CARRY WATER
There wasn’t enough water in the city of Rome.
The Romans brought water in from the surrounding countryside.
The water was brought in by tubes called aqueducts.
WHY ARCHES?
Water is heavy stuff.
The Romans needed a
structure strong
enough to hold all that
water to move it from
the mountains into the
city.
WHERE DID THE WATER GO?
The water was
transported in
concrete tunnels.
The tunnels were
underground if
possible.
Sometimes the tunnel
had to go above
ground.
HOW DID THE AQUEDUCT WORK?
The water flowed in a
tube on the top of
the aqueduct called a
water channel.
The arches
supported the water
channel.
WHAT DID THE WATER CHANNEL
LOOK LIKE?
The water flowed
through a rectangular
channel.
The channel was lined
with concrete.
Romans
invented
concrete.
BELL WORK 12/2
Where have you learned about
Christianity?
Name 3 things that you know about the
beginning of Christianity.
What do you know about roman religion?
Who was their most important god?
*Essential Question: Why did Christianity
spread so quickly through the Roman
Empire?
THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY
In 63 BC, Rome took over Judea, the home of the Jewish religion.
Judaism was tolerated by the Romans at first.
• First Monotheistic Religion: Only one supreme god
However after a rebellion in Judea, many Jews hear of the teachings of
Jesus & convert to Christianity, believing that he is the son of God and has
come to free them from Roman persecution
Why did the Romans begin to hate Christianity/Judaism?
•
•
•
•
Monotheism vs. Polytheism
Christians/Jews didn’t recognize the emperors as Gods.
Blamed for any problems in Roman society.
Emperors such as Nero crucified and tortured Christians and
Jews as traitors.
CHRISTIANITY SPREADS THROUGH
THE MEDITERRANEAN
Jesus of Nazareth was born under the rule of
Octavian (Caesar Augustus between 27 BCE &
14AD)
• Grew up preaching the idea of one true god
• Spread a message of peace, love, forgiveness
The people called him the Messiah which means
King.
• This worried the Roman and Jewish leaders,
Pontius Pilate a Roman governor arrested
Jesus.
CHRISTIANITY SPREADS THROUGH
THE MEDITERRANEAN
After his crucifixion, Jesus’ followers (apostles)
spread his gospels (good news)
PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANS
 Romans
began to
persecute,
kidnap and
kill Christians
 Christians
were often
the victims
of the
gladiatorial
games
PERSECUTION OF THE
CHRISTIANS
(Left) Picture of St.
Ignatius being
thrown to the Lions
in Rome. (He was a
Christian martyr)
CHRISTIAN APPEAL
Even with the persecution of the Christians
by the 3rd Century A.D. there were millions of
Christians in Rome
Widespread Appeal due to:
• 1) embraced all people
• 2) gave hope to the powerless
• 3) appealed to those repelled by extravagances
by Rome
• 4) Personal relationship with loving God
• 5) promised eternal life after death
• 6) Pax Romana
ROMAN ROADS
Christianity exploded under Octavian
What do you think may have caused
Christianity's message to spread so far?
Pax Romana—made spreading of Christianity possible
because:
 Provided an era in which travel & exchange of ideas was
relatively safe
 Roman Road System—enabled Christ’s message to spread
throughout the Roman Empire
 Common Languages—Greek & Latin allowed Christ’s
messages to be easily understood
PAX
ROMANA...
AGAIN
CONSTANTINE AND
CHRISTIANITY
312 A.D. Emperor
Constantine was going to
battle when he prayed for
help….
 He had a vision of a cross;
symbol of Christianity
 He had a cross painted on his
soldiers shields
 When he won the battle he gave
credit to Christianity
CONSTANTINE & THE EDICT OF
MILAN
Persecution of Christians
finally ends in 313 AD when
emperor Constantine
issues the Edict of Milan
• Granted freedom of
worship to all citizens in
the Roman Empire
• By 400 AD a new emperor
Theodosius made
Christianity the official
religion of the Roman
Empire
Constantine Moves the
Roman Capital
 Constantine divides the Roman Empire into two:
 Rome = capital of west
 Constantinople = capital of east
WHY DID CHRISTIANITY SPREAD SO
QUICKLY THROUGH THE ROMAN
EMPIRE?
Christianity spread for a number of reasons.
1. The message of Jesus appealed to plebeians
because it offered eternal salvation and valued the
poor.
2. The Pax Romana (Roman Peace) allowed for safe
travel on the roads built by Julius Caesar during his
conquests, which made it easier for the apostles to
travel and spread the gospels
3. The Edict of Milan, put into effect by Emperor
Constantine allowed for religious freedom.
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