A NEW ENGLISH COURSE
(BOOK 3)
Teaching Outline
1. The emphasis of Book 3
2. General Reading Skills
3. An introduction to the composition of
Book 3.
2
Unit 1
TEXT I
My First Job
1. Pre-reading Questions
2. The Main Idea
3. The guidelines for skimming.
4. Language Points
5. Vocabulary
6. Questions Answers
3
Unit 1
2. The main idea of this text is( ):The
writer was interviewed by the headmaster
of a school and was offered a job that was
none too pleasant.
4
Unit 1
 4. Language Points
 ①.Being short of money and wanting to do something





useful,…
The—ing participle phrase is used as an adverbial to denote
cause or reason.Being short of money and wanting to do
something useful can be changed into an adverbial clause of
cause or reason:
As I was short of money and wanted to do something
useful,…
More examples:
Being in poor health and lacking in teaching experience,he
was dismissed.
Not having his telephone number,I couldn't ring him back.
5
Unit 1
 ②.Description of a person
 1)Forehead:A person's forehead can be
large,high,low,broad,narrow,domed or
re-treating/receding (going back).
 2)Moustache:A man may grow a moustache,
which can be close-cropped,drooping (bending
downward) or pointed.
 3)Eyes:A person may have bloodshot eyes,
bulging (curve outward) eyes,prominent eyes,
close-set eyes, dark eyes,deep-set eyes,or
sunken (to a lower level) eyes.
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Unit 1
 4)Hair:Hair may be short,long,thin,thick,
straight,curled,curly,wavy,sparse (thinly
scattered),unkempt (untidy) , disheveled
(uncombed),luxuriant (strong In growth),
permed (short for permanent waves).
 The color of hair can be:black,dark,red,
grey,silver,chestnut,white,brown, fair,
blond(e),golden,jet-black (dark-black),
dyed.
 Some men lose their hair and go bald.
7
Unit 1
5) Figure:A person's figure may be:
slender,stout(fat,plump),stooping
(bending),thin(lean)slim.
6)Height:A person may be:tall,short,
of medium(average)height.
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Unit 1
③.He was wearing a tweed suit—one
felt somehow he had always worn fabric
with a rough surface of two or more colors
or shades(粗花呢) Some other
materials which people use to make suits
include:
 flannel(法兰绒),serge(哗叽),
gabardine(华达呢,轧别丁)
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Unit 1
 1.Awkward
 2.Depressed
 3. Dreary
 4. Grunt
 5. Vital
 6. Appall
 7. Diffidently
 8. Ultimate
1. inconvenient and uncomfortable
2. sad;low in spirits
3. gloomy;cheerless
4. make a short,deep,rough sound(like a
pig),showing dissatisfaction
5. very necessary
6. shock deeply;fill with fear
7. timidly
8. greatest;extreme
10
Unit 1
Questions
1.What are big staring sash-windows?
①.They are very large windows,so
large that they look like people's wide
open eyes.
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Unit 1
2.What is the implied meaning of “they
struggled to survive the dust and fumes
from a busy main road”?
②.They (the four evergreen shrubs)did
their best to remain alive in spite of the
dust and smoke from a main road with
heavy traffic.
12
Unit 1
3.Describe the appearance of the
headmaster in your own words.
③.He was short and stout.He grew a
moustache which was pale reddish yellow
in color.His forehead was covered with
freckles.And he was almost bald.
13
Unit 1
4.What impression did the hall give the
writer?
④.It was a narrow,dim(unlighted)
hall which had an offensive odor of dried
up cabbage.The walls,once painted in
cream color,had darkened to the color of
margarine and in a few places were
marked with ink stains.Silence prevailed
in the hall.
14
Unit 1
5.Why do you think the headmaster had
“bloodshot eyes”?
⑤.Perhaps he liked to have a drop too
much.
15
Unit 1
6.What kind of class was the writer
asked to teach?
⑥.It was a class of twenty-four boys who
were from seven to thirteen years of age.
16
Unit 1
7.Why was the writer diffident when
asking about his salary?
⑦.Because he had little self-confidence
as he was young and it was the first time
he had an interview.Besides,perhaps
he was not used to asking about money
matters.
17
Unit 1
 8.What is meant by “This was the last straw”?
 ⑧.The phrase “the last straw” comes from the saying
“It is the last straw that breaks the camel's back".What
the saying means is that “straw is very light in weight,
but if you increase the burden on the camel's back straw
by straw,eventually you will put on his back one straw
too many,and that last straw will break his back.When
used figuratively, “the last straw” means “an addition to a
set of troubles which makes them unbearable”.Here in
the text,the writer regards his having to work under a
woman as an additional source of annoyance which
would make the job all the more intolerable.
18
Unit 1
 9.What was the young man’s impression of the
headmaster? How did he arrive at this?
 ⑨.His impression was unfavorable.To the writer,the
headmaster was a short,stout,freckle- fore-headed,
bald man,with a big unpleasant paunch (belly).As the
headmaster was not as neatly dressed as a gentleman
was supposed to be,he gave the impression of having
always worn the same suit.Probably he was badly
off.He received the young man with a look of surprised
disapproval and during the whole interview he assumed
an air of condescension (superiority),which was quite
annoying to the young man.Moreover,the headmaster
made great demands on the young man,while he
himself did not seem to know much about teaching.
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Unit 1
 10.Tell what you know about the young man.
 ⑩.The writer was a young school leaver waiting to
enter university.He was badly in need of money and he
seemed to be a man of vitality and energy.He wanted
to do something useful that could bring him some
money.He did not have much experience in life,nor in
teaching.He looked very bashful,having little selfconfidence.Fearing that he might not get the job,he
was careful about what he said.He had to do what he
did not like to do. To make matters worse,he had to
work under a woman,which was the most humiliating
thing to a man of his age,but whether he liked it or not,
he had to take the job.
20
Unit 1
 TEXT II
The Interview
 Questions
 1. For what purpose do you think Blakey went to
the interview?
 2. Why did Blakey feel uneasy when he was
asked what had prompted him to want to change
to medicine?
 3. Why did one of the interviewers say that
Blakey was capable of a change of heart? And
how did Blakey take the question?
21
Unit 1
4. What was the reason that Blakey gave
for leaving University without taking a
degree? What did the interviewers think of
his reason?
5. Do you think Blakey was well-prepared
to answer the question about his financial
status? Give your reasons.
22
Unit 1
6. Why did Blakey at first have a sense of
guilt,and why was he then stung by a
sense of inadequacy?
7. What do you think was the outcome of
the interview? Why do you think so?
23
Unit 1
Interaction Activities
Making Preparations for an Interview
1)clothes
2)manners and
behavior
desirable
undesirable
suit
jacket and skirt/
trousers
quiet colors
conventional cut
T-shirt
blue jeans
flared trousers
loud colors
extremely
fashionable cut
too talkative
too lively
calm
polite
24
attentive
too excited
Unit 1
 2.Details that the interviewer is interested in:
 certificate of education/diploma/degrees/
major field of study
 foreign languages
 work experience as an interpreter/a clerk/a
secretary/a tourist guide
 likes and dislikes
 personal status(single or married)/
children
25
Unit 1
 Paragraph Writing:
 The incidents in a narrative are usually told in the order
in which they occurred.Therefore,the sentence I
never met Aunt Helen until the day when Mother sent me
over with a thermos flask of chicken soup serves as the
topic sentence,and the following are the details:
 — the purpose of going there
 — the description of Aunt Helen
 — the pleasant atmosphere
 — the writer’s impression
 All these details adhere to (stick to) the topic sentence to
make the paragraph complete.
26
Unit 2
General Reading Skills –The Reading
Environment
⑴ Where to read
Lighting
Ventilation
Reading Position
Focal Distance
Distractions
27
Unit 2
 ⑵ How to Read an Academic Text
 How to skim
 read the title of the passage carefully
 Look carefully at the headings and other
organizational clues
 1. major headings and subheadings
 2. italicized words and phrases
 3.lists of points set off by numbers
 4. redundancy or repetition
28
Unit 2
TEXT I
Unwillingly on Holiday
1. Pre-reading Questions
2. The Main Idea
3. Language Points
4. Vocabulary
5. Questions Answers
29
Unit 2
The best choice is(2):Tom
Long was unhappy about being
sent to his uncle's because his
brother was down with the
measles.
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Unit 2
 Language Points:
 1. Some people find this an exciting new
experience;others face it with dread.-Experience in this context is a countable
noun.It refers to “some event that has
happened to a person or an activity a person
has taken part in.”
 Cf:…that without a degree and with no
experience of teaching my chances of landing
the job were slim.(Unit I,Text I)
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Unit 2
Here,experience is an uncountable noun
referring to knowledge or skill which
comes from practice rather than from
books.
More examples:
 Tell us about your unusual and exciting
experiences in Beijing.
 He is a well-liked teacher with a lot of
experience.
32
Unit 2
2.I'd rather have had measles with
Peter.
 Would rather is a set phrase to be
followed by an infinitive without to.The
structure is would rather…than.
 The sentence in its complete form is:
 I'd rather have had measles with Peter
than go somewhere else on holiday.
 More examples:
33
Unit 2
 He would rather stay at home reading than go to
the movie.
 I would rather walk all these stairs up than wait
for the lift to go up.
 Would rather can also be followed by a clause
introduced by that.Then the verb should be in
the past,e.g.,
 He would rather(that)he didn't have to teach
the children at three different levels.
 They would rather(that)I came tomorrow.
34
Unit 2
 3.If only he’d beat me.--How I wish he would
beat me!If only is often used to introduce an
exclamation expressing an unfulfilled condition
at present,in the past or in the future.The
verb is generally in the past or the past perfect.
 More examples:
 If only I had a chance to live my childhood once
again.
 If only I had applied for the job.
 If only she had had a lot in common with me.
35
Unit 2
1. bear
2.gaze
3.bitterly
4.spoil
5.strictly
6.hostile
7.cooped up
8.poky
36
Unit 2
Questions
1.What is a “rough patch”?
1. It is a very small piece of land with an
uneven,irregular surface on which it is
not easy to walk.
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Unit 2
 2.What is the implied meaning of the sentence
“Tom gazed,and then turned back into the
house” ?
 2. The literal meaning of the sentence is "Tom
kept his look fixed on everything in the small
garden…”or “Tom looked long and earnestly at
everything in the small garden,and after that
he went into the house.”The implied meaning
is that Tom could hardly tear himself away from
everything in the small garden,which had given
him so much fun and joy in previous holidays.
38
Unit 2
3.Why did Tom call up at the foot of the
stairs instead of going upstairs to say
good-bye to Pete?
3. He didn't go upstairs to say good-bye to
Peter,but shouted “Good-bye,Peter”
instead,because Peter was down with
the measles,which is a highly infectious
disease.So Tom had to stay away from
Peter.
39
Unit 2
4 .What is meant by “He put his hand out
for it” ?
4.It means “He held out his hand to take
his suitcase.”
40
Unit 2
5 .What did Tom's mother mean by “it's
not nice for you to be rushed away like this
to avoid the measles.”?
5.Tom's mother admitted that it was not
pleasant for Tom to be sent away in such
haste so as not to contract the measles.
41
Unit 2
6 .Why did Tom‘s mother whisper
something to Tom?
6.Because she wanted Tom to be
prepared for the new surroundings so that
he could behave properly and get on well
with everybody in his uncle's home.
Besides,she did not want to be
overheard by Uncle Alan,who was sitting
in his car not far away.
42
Unit 2
 7 .What did Mrs. Long mean by “There is、little
room in the house when there is illness”?
 7.Most probably Tom and Peter shared the
same room.But now Peter had to be separated
from Tom because of the measles.When there
was a patient with an infectious disease at home,
Mrs. Long found that there wasn’t enough space
in the house.
43
Unit 2
8 .Why did Mrs. Long raise her hands in
a gesture of despair?
8.Peter should have remained in bed but
he got up and went up to the window to
wave good-bye to Tom. Seeing this, Mrs.
Long felt that she had to persuade Peter to
stay in bed.She raised her hand to tell
him so,but she knew it was no use.So
she hurried indoors.
44
Unit 2
9 .What is meant by “Mother and Father
would say I did right”?
9. It means “Mother and Father would say
I did the right thing.”In other words,his
mother and father would think that it was
right for Tom to run away home.
45
Unit 2
 TEXT II
April Fools' Day
 Questions
 1.Have you ever heard of April Fools' Day
before?
 2.From the notes written by various English
children,what impression do you get of April
Fools’ Day?
 3.What do you think of playing jokes on people
on the first of April?Do you think it interesting or
meaningless or harmful or harmless? Give
reasons for your answer.
46
Unit 2
 Interaction Activities
 An Unforgettable Experience
 Suggestions:
 The unforgettable experiences might be:
 1.working as a carpenter and making a
bookcase
 2.swimming for 2 kilometers in a river without
stopping to take a rest
 3.working as a lifeguard in a swimming pool/
at the seaside
47
Unit 2
4.picnicking in the woods
5.having an outing with former middle
school friends
Sentence frames for supporting ideas:
It was the first time I had ever…
It taught me that…
It made me realize that…
48
Unit 2
Paragraph Writing
The opening sentence tells about Jim's
expectation on returning home.But things
did not turn out as he had expected.He
becomes angry and his anger is worked
up step by step with a succession of
unbearable events.
The following words/phrases might be
used to express anger:
49
Unit 2
 —of ail days…choose to…
 —rage swelled up
 —if…would have…but…too…to
 —…should have…at least…
 —…just too much
 —...tears of... welled up... fuming eyes
 —…the last straw…
 —to storm into…
 —to fling…with…and all
50
Unit 2
 Letter Writing
 In answering a letter from a friend,one may
begin with an introductory sentence as follows:
 A.For a prompt answer:
 1.I was very happy to receive your letter of
7th March.
 2.Thank you for your letter of 4th July written
from Beijing.
 3.I had been looking forward to hearing from
you and you can imagine my pleasure when I
got your letter.
51
Unit 2
5.I was so glad to get your letter of May
5th and to learn that all's well with you.
6.It was a great pleasure to get your long
letter telling me about your recent
experience.
9.After such a long wait,at last I got
your message.
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Unit 2
B.For a delayed answer:
4.I hope you can forgive me for putting
off writing you for so many days.
7.I'm sorry that I did not write you as
soon as 1 got your letter but I've very busy.
8.I regret that it took me a long time to
answer the questions in your last letter.
10.Please forgive me for having delayed
my answer to your letter.
53
Unit 2
Diamond-shaped poems with 5 lines
War
by Saud
War
Sad, destructive
Killing, injuring, destroying
A thing that kills life.
Terminator
54
Unit 2
River
by Miki
Answer the
question:
What is the
relationship
between
the first
and last
lines?
River
Clear, wonderful
Slapping, whirling, flowing
The river is cold.
Water
55
Unit 3
General Reading Skills
Reading critically
Making observations
Interpreting your observations
How to look for ways of thinking
Some Practical Tips
56
Unit 3
When you read closely,scan the text to
observe facts and details relevant to your
purpose.
57
Unit 3
You should approach critical reading
like this:
don’t read looking only or primarily for
information
do read looking for ways of thinking and
arguing about the subject matter
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Unit 3
 1.First determine the central claim (s)or purpose of
the text (its thesis).
 2.Begin to make some judgments about the context of
the text.
 3.Think about the writers assumptions--who and what
the author is, how the author is seeking to persuade,
who is paying them.
 4.Identify the kinds of reasoning the text employs.
 5.Examine the evidence(the supporting facts,
examples,etc.)the text employs.
 6.Critical reading often involves evaluation of the
strengths and weaknesses of argument.
59
Unit 3
1.Critical reading occurs after some
preliminary processes of reading.
2.When highlighting a text or taking notes
from it,teach yourself to highlight
arguments:those places in a text where
an author explains the analysis,the
concepts and how they are used,and
how the conclusions are arrived at.
60
Unit 3
TEXT I
Three Sundays in a Week
1. Pre-reading Questions
2. The Main Idea
3. Backgrounds
4. Language Points
5. Vocabulary
6. Questions Answers
61
Unit 3
Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849),
American poet, a master of
the horror tale, credited
with practically inventing
the detective story.
62
Unit 3
 Cape Horn was first rounded
by the Dutch expedition
on January 26, 1616,
They named it Kaap Hoorn
after the city of Hoorn.
 Located off the southern
tip of mainland South America.
The Cape lies within
Chilean territorial waters,
and the Chilean Navy
supports a lighthouse keeper and his family.
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Unit 3
 Cape of Good Hope:
also called Cape Province,
former province of South
Africa, occupying the southern
extremity of the African continent.
Cape Province comprised
all of southern and western South Africa.
It was the largest of the four traditional provinces
and contained more than half the country's total
area.
64
Unit 3
 Language Points
 1.He had been looking at the others as though they were mad.
And here Kate ended the quarrel by jumping up,as if she had a new
thought.
As though/as if--as it would be if(something were true).
 The phrases are used to introduce adverbial clauses of manner.
More examples:
He acts as if he knew nothing about it.
They talked as though they had traveled round the Cape of Good
Hope.
It looks as if it is going to rain at once.
65
Unit 3
2.…my uncle roared,purple with
anger.
More examples:
green with envy,ash-white with terror
66
Unit 3
1. steer
2. queer
3. extraordinary
4. concurrence
5. Voyage
6. Positive
7. feebly
8. particular
67
Unit 3
Questions
I.What is meant by “They had
circled it in a year and come back to
England?”
1.It means that they had traveled
around the world for a year and now
had just come back to England.
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Unit 3
2.What is the meaning of “…tried to gain
our point indirectly"?
2.The phrase means“…tried to get what
we aimed at”-- i.e.,to talk Uncle
Rumgudgeon into believing that three
Sundays could occur in a week,-- in a
roundabout way.
69
Unit 3
3.Why does the writer use “up“ in the
sentence“…we invited the pair up to meet
my uncle"?Can the word up be omitted?
3.Here the sentence means “we invited
Kate’s two sailor friends to the place
where we were,that is,to the old man‘s
home.”If up is omitted,the meaning of
the sentence will not be very clear.
70
Unit 3
4.How do you explain the sentence
“Here I am just a year after leaving
England"?
4.The explanation is “It is just a year
since I left England and I am back again.”
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Unit 3
5.When does a person become “purple
with anger”?
5.Purple is a dark color which is a blend
of red and blue.Usually when a person is
extremely angry,his face will turn
purple.Here it shows that the writer's
uncle was so angry and agitated that his
face turned deep crimson.
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Unit 3
6.What is meant by “a bit of mock
thought”?Why did Smitherton act as if he
had a moment of mock thought?
6.Captain Smitherton was pretending to
be thinking for a while.This way he would
appear to be more convincing than
otherwise,that is,he looked as if he had
thought out the truth after some serious
thinking.
73
Unit 3
 TEXT II The Bermuda Triangle
 One of the legends of the sea that has persisted
even to today is the story of the Bermuda
Triangle. Here ships and airplanes seem to
disappear more often than in other parts of the
ocean. Usually the craft are never seen again,
which is not too surprising in an area noted for
hurricanes and high waves. The Bermuda
Triangle covers an area from the southern
Virginia coast to Bermuda to the Bahaman
Islands.
74
Unit 3
The Bermuda Triangle
75
Unit 3
Role-play
A Discussion on the Bermuda Triangle
Interaction Activities
A Lucky Survivor
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Unit 3
 About the Bermuda Triangle :
The "Bermuda or
Devil's Triangle” is an
imaginary area located
off the southeastern
Atlantic coast of the United
States, which is noted for a high incidence of
unexplained losses of ships, small boats,
and aircraft.
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Unit 3
 Countless theories attempting to explain the many
disappearances have been offered throughout the
history of the area. The most practical seem to be
environmental and those citing human error. The
majority of disappearances can be attributed to the
area's unique environmental features. First, the "Devil's
Triangle" is one of the two places on earth that a
magnetic compass does point towards true north.
Normally it points toward magnetic north. The difference
between the two is known as compass variation. The
amount of variation changes by as much as 20 degrees
as one circumnavigates the earth. If this compass
variation or error is not compensated (make a suitable
payment) for, a navigator could find himself far off course
and in deep trouble.
78
Unit 3
Another environmental factor is the
character of the Gulf Stream. It is
extremely swift and turbulent and can
quickly erase any evidence of a disaster.
The unpredictable Caribbean-Atlantic
weather pattern also plays its role.
79
Unit 3
Gulf Stream Warm current of the North
Atlantic Ocean, flowing in a generally
northeastern direction from the Straits
of Florida to the Grand Banks, east and
south of Newfoundland.
80
Unit 3
Caribbean
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Unit 3
The absence of bodies might be explained
by the fact that the waters are infested (full
of) with sharks (鲨鱼) and barracuda (梭鱼).
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Unit 3
The Liferaft
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Unit 3
Diamond-shaped poems with 7 lines
Winter
Rainy, cold
Skiing, skating, sledding
Mountains, wind, breeze, ocean
Swimming, surfing, scuba (水中呼吸器) diving
Sunny, hot
Summer
84
Unit 3
Diamond-shaped poems with 7 lines
Man
Brilliant, perfect
Working, learning, earning
Beer, car, mirror, make-up
Speaking, speaking, speaking
Furious, exhausted
Woman
85
Unit 3
Diamond-shaped poems with 7 line
Studies
Unhappy, difficult
Boring, succeeding, sleeping
Library, pencil, card, outside
Interesting, exciting, failing
Happy, easy
Play
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Unit 3
 The structural form
 Line 1: Winter = 1 NOUN
Line 2: Rainy, cold = 2 ADJECTIVES
Line 3: Skiing, skating, sledding = 3 GERUNDS
(verb + -ing)
Line 4: Mountains, wind, breeze, ocean = 2
NOUNS+ 2 NOUNS
Line 5: Swimming, surfing, scuba diving = 3
GERUNDS (verb + -ing)
Line 6: Sunny, hot = 2 ADJECTIVES
Line 7: Summer = 1 NOUN
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Unit 3
Précis Writing
The suitable opening sentence is(3):
“It was Sunday and Kate and I convinced
my uncle that there could be three
Sundays in a week”.
88
Unit 3
Paragraph Writing
The first sentence,actually sums up
the theme:“The creation of the world
by Jehovah”.The following details
carry on the legend chronologically up
to the end of the Creation.
Letter Writing
The Purpose of a letter
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Unit 4
General Reading Skills
How to begin
1. Read
with a pencil in hand, and annotate
(note and comment) the text.
2. Be guided by signal
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Unit 4 Unit 4
Recall and review
Recall
Review
91
Unit 4
1. forces you to check your understanding.
2. shapes the material into a logical form.
3. highlights what you do not understand.
4. forces you to think.
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Unit 4
TEXT I
A Man from Stratford--William
Shakespeare
1. Pre-reading Questions
2. The Main Idea
3. Backgrounds
4. Language Points
5. Vocabulary
6. Questions Answers
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Unit 4
About Stratford
Stratford-upon-avon is situated in the heart
of the English midlands. A market town
dating back to medieval times, Stratford is
today most famous as the birthplace of the
Elizabethan playwright William
Shakespeare.
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Unit 4
About Stratford
Stratford-upon-avon is situated in the heart
of the English midlands. A market town
dating back to medieval times, Stratford is
today most famous as the birthplace of the
Elizabethan playwright William
Shakespeare.
95
Unit 4
Alms Houses
The River Avon
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Unit 4
 William Shakespeare
Born (1564)
and died (1616)
on the same
date - 23rd April
Shakespeare's
Birthplace
 England's greatest poet and playwright was born at
Stratford-upon-Avon, the son of a tradesman of Stratford,
John Shakespeare in 1564. William, the eldest son, and
third child (of eight) was educated at Stratford Grammar
School. He did not go to University.
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Unit 4
 The Royal Shakespeare
Theatre :
Perhaps the most famous
resident of Stratford today
is the Royal Shakespeare
Company (RSC).
The RSC, founded in 1960
by Peter Hall, boasts the
finest actors and directors
working on great plays in some of the best theatre
spaces in the world.
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Unit 4
 In 1616 Shakespeare
was buried in the Church
of the Holy Trinity the
same Church where
he was baptized
in 1564. Tradition has
it that he died after an
evening's drinking with
some of his theatre friends.
Holy Trinity Church
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Unit 4
Language Points
1. ...of his "second best bed and
furniture"... Before an adjective of the
superlative degree, we can often use
second or third or by far to modify it, e. g. ,
Hainan Island is the second largest island
in China.
The Amazon is by far the longest river in
the world.
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Unit 4
2. It was the will of a comfortably off man...
It is more common to say: well off, badly off
It is also possible to use the comparative
form of the adjective, e. g.,
be better off - be in better circumstances
be worse off - be in worse circumstances.
But well-to-do, which is equal to "rich and
wealthy", means the possession of more
than enough money or property.
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 3. ... the income from the estate probably amounted to
about...
 1) amount to - add up to, reach, e. g. ,
Our monthly expenditure on food usually amounts
to 150 yuan.
 2) amount to - be equal in meaning, be the same as,
e.g. ,
Failure to prepare a lesson well before class on the part of
the teacher amounts to negligence of duty; whereas failure
to attend the class on time on the part of the student
amounts to a breach (disobey) of discipline.
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 4. ... Almost every detail of his personal life is
supposition rather than fact rather than here has
the meaning of "instead of", e. g. ,
 Young people should be an asset to society
rather than a menace (danger) or a curse.
 It was such a low doorway that I had to bend my
head to go into the room rather than walk into
the room upright.
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Unit 4












I . legacy 1.money or property left to someone by a will
2. estate
2.privately owned piece of land with a large
3. genius
house on it
4. awe
3.talented man
5. thriving 4.a mixed feeling of respect,fear and wonder
5.prosperous,successful
6. (to) plot
6.work out an outline for
7. become involved
7. become engaged
8. clue
9. apparently 8. something that helps to find an answer to
10. conviction
a question
11. sufficiently
9. clearly, obviously
12. influential
10. very firm belief
104
11. enough
12. powerful and wealthy
Unit 4
Questions
 1. Why was Shakespeare's will the will of a
comfortably off man?
1. (A comfortably off man is a man who is well-off or
wealthy. ) When Shakespeare died, he left in his will quite
a large sum of money to his daughter and handsome
furniture to his wife, which showed that he was quite well
to-do. So we can say that his will was the will of a
comfortably off man.
 2. How would you define a literary genius?
2. He is one who has an exceptionally great
creative and inventive capacity in writing.
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 3. Why did the writer say "Historically speaking,
Shakespeare lived only yesterday"?
3. From the historical point of view, four
hundred years is only a short period of time.
Besides, historians set the date 1453 as the
beginning of modern history. Shakespeare
was born in 1564 and died in 1616. So to
the historians, Shakespeare lived only
yesterday.
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Unit 4
 4. What is meant by the sentence: "To plot
Shakespeare's life is to become involved in a kind of
detective story where there are plenty of clues but
very little else"?
4. Anyone who wants to make an outline of
Shakespeare's
life finds himself in a difficult situation. He is like a
detective trying to find out about a case. He has
only a lot of clues but hardly any facts or evidence.
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 5. What is meant by "... (he) realized in a flash that
this was the life for him and talked one of the
managers into giving him a job"?
5. It means "After Shakespeare had seen some of
the performances put on by some of the theatrical
companies, he came to see instantly that he ought
to take up theatre as his career, and he persuaded
one of the managers to give him a job.
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Unit 4
 6. What is the implied meaning of the sentence "We
know that as well as working on old plays he rapidly
made a name for himself as an author of entirely new
ones and also performed as an actor at court"?
6. The sentence means: "He soon became
famous by not only improving or revising the old
plays but also writing completely new plays and
acting in the plays for the queen. " The implied
meaning of this sentence is that Shakespeare
was gifted both in creative writing and in acting
in the theatre.
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Unit 4
TEXT II
William Shakespeare
Questions
1. What was known about Shakespeare's
early schooling?
2. What are the two legends about
Shakespeare's life between the time he
left school and his departure for London?
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Unit 4
 Role-play
Theatre and Cinema
The Twelfth Night
 It is an amusing triangle
love story with a merry end.
111
Unit 4
 Interaction activities
The Best Play/ Film I’ve Seen
 Plot:Intricate yet convincing,showing the struggle
between the good and the evil,indicating that good will
finally defeat evil
 Acting:Superb.No exaggeration on the part of the
actors and actresses
 Music:Fantastic,especially the music depicting the
changing scenery on the river in spring,characterized
by its gentle and free flowing quality
 Costumes:Brilliant,true to the social and historical
background
112
Unit 4
Game19.exe
113
Unit 4
GUIDED WRITING
Précis Writing
Paragraph Writing
Letter Writing
114
Unit 4
 If you had a million dollars
 If you had a million dollars, what would you do?
What would you do?
If you had a million dollars, what would you do?
What would you do?
 I'd buy the biggest boat
I'd drive the fastest car
I'd watch the biggest TV
I'd see the greatest movies
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 I'd eat nicest food
I'd listen to the coolest
songs
I'd party at the hippest
night clubs
I'd dance with the
hottest girls
 I'd buy, I'd drive, I'd
watch, I'd eat, I'd
listen and I'd party all
day.
I'd buy, I'd drive, I'd
watch, I'd eat, I'd
listen and I'd dance
all night.
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Unit 4
 I'd learn to play guitar
I'd drink the finest wine
I'd wear the brightest
diamonds.
I'd speak fluent English
I'd swim the longest river
I'd climb the tallest
mountain.
I'd travel around the world
I'd give it all away
I'd learn, I'd drink, I'd
speak, I'd swim, I'd climb,
I'd give it all away
I'd learn, I'd drink, I'd
speak, I'd swim, I'd climb,
I'd give it all away.
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Unit 4
 Dream Holiday
 Next week is my dream holiday.
My dream holiday.
Next week is my dream holiday.
My dream holiday.
No work for a week,
No worries for a week,
No problems for a week.
Just paradise (x 2)
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Unit 4
 I'm leaving next Monday.
I'll take the plane for
Hawaii.
Then on Tuesday,
I'll spend all day at the
beach.
On Wednesday,
I'll go shopping
I'll spend all day at the
duty free.
On Thursday
I'll go clubbing.
Just dance, dance, dance,
all night long
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Unit 4
 (Chorus)
I'll relax, until Friday
I'll hire a car and go for a
drive
On Saturday,
I'll spend all day in the
sea.
On Sunday
I don't know,
Maybe I'll relax a little
more.
And every day,
I'll have great food and
fun, fun, fun, fun, fun
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Unit 5
TEXT I
The Light at the End of the
Chunnel
1. Backgrounds
2. Pre-reading Questions
3. The Main Idea
4. Language Points
5. Vocabulary
6. Questions Answers
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 The English Channel, also for some time
known as the British Sea (French: La Manche,
"the sleeve") is the part of the Atlantic Ocean
that separates the island of Great Britain from
northern France, and joins the North Sea to the
Atlantic Ocean. It is about 563 km (350 mi) long
and at its widest is 240 km (150 mi). The Strait
of Dover ("Pas de Calais" to the French) is the
narrowest part of the channel, being only 34 km
(21 mi) from Dover to Cap Gris-Nez, and is
located at the eastern end of the English
Channel, where it meets the North Sea.
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Opening of the Channel Tunnel
by Queen Elizabeth II and
French President François
Mitterrand
Interior of Eurotunnel
shuttle (vehicle train)
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Unit 5
 The Channel Tunnel, (French: le tunnel sous
la Manche; popularly nicknamed the Chunnel in
English) is a 50-km-long rail tunnel beneath the
English Channel at the Straits of Dover,
connecting Cheriton in Kent, United Kingdom,
and Coquelles near Calais in northern France. A
long-standing and hugely expensive project that
saw several false starts, it was finally completed
in 1994. It is the second-longest rail tunnel in the
world, surpassed only by the Seikan Tunnel in
Japan.
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Unit 5
The Channel Tunnel, also called the Euro
Tunnel or Chunnel, actually consists of
three tunnels. Two of the tubes are full
sized and accommodate rail traffic. In
between the two train tunnels is a smaller
service tunnel that serves as an
emergency escape route. There are also
several "cross-over" passages that allow
trains to switch from one track to another.
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Unit 5
It took just three years for tunnel boring
machines from France and England to
chew through the chalky earth and meet
hundreds of feet below the surface of the
English Channel. Today, trains roar
through the tunnel at speeds up to 100
miles per hour and it's possible to get from
one end to the other in only 20 minutes!
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Unit 5
 Fast Facts:
 At the time it was being built, the Chunnel was
the most expensive construction project ever
conceived. It took $21 billion to complete the
tunnel. That's 700 times more expensive than
the cost to build the Golden Gate Bridge!
 Many of the tunnel boring machines used on the
Chunnel were as long as two football fields and
capable of boring 250 feet a day.
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When construction began in 1988, British
and French tunnel workers raced to reach
the middle of the tunnel first. The British
won.
In the first five years of operation, trains
carried 28 million passengers and 12
million tons of freight through the tunnel.
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Unit 5
 Locate data and determine the main idea or
essential message
 Explain how the English Channel affects cultural,
economic, and political activities of the United
Kingdom and other European nations.
 Explain how people of the world are linked by
transportation and technology.
 See the Chunnel as an example of human
activity which affects the environment.
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Unit 5
Language Points
1. compound adjectives :
soon-to-be-opened
the gull-wing eyebrows
cross-Channel-link schemes
the 31-mile-long Channel
tungsten-tipped teeth
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2. stiff upper lip
stiff upper lip noun [C usually singular]
Someone who has a stiff upper lip does
not show their feelings when they are
upset:
He was taught at school to keep a stiff
upper lip, whatever happens.
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 3. Foreboding
 foreboding
noun [C or U] LITERARY
a feeling that something very bad is going to
happen soon:
There's a sense of foreboding in the capital, as
if fighting might at any minute break out.
Her forebodings about the future were to prove
justified.
[+ (that)] He had a strange foreboding (that)
something would go wrong.
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4. Shudder
to shake suddenly with very small
movements because of a very unpleasant
thought or feeling:
The sight of so much blood made him
shudder.
She shuddered at the thought of kissing
him.
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5. Shoot up
shoot up (INCREASE) phrasal verb
INFORMAL
to grow in size, or increase in number or
level, very quickly:
David has really shot up since I saw him
last.
Prices shot up by 25%.
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Unit 5
6. Tunnel boring machines (TBM) are
used to excavate tunnels with a circular
cross section through a variety of
geologies. They can be used to bore
through hard rock or sand or almost
anything in between.
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Tunnel boring machine
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 7. color
 verb
[often passive] If something colors your opinion
of something, it influences your opinion in a
negative way:
I'm sure my views on marriage are colored by
my parents' divorce.
I'm trying not to let my judgment be colored by
that one incident.
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












1. uncontrollable shaking
Vocabulary
1. shudder
2. / 'ketʃэp / sauce made from tomato juice
2. ketchup
3. an impressive and difficult achievement
3. feat
4. hitched
4. fastened to a hook
5. scheme
5. / ski:m / plan or design for work
6. parallel
7. psyche
6. going at the same distance from one another
8. moat
7. /'saiki / human mind; mentality
9. installation
8. deep, wide water ditch round a castle as a defen
10. communication lines
11. quirk
9. fixing (apparatus) in position for use
12. chic
10. telephone or telegraph lines connecting places
11. peculiar behavior
12. / ʃi:k, ʃik / stylish, fashionable in style
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Unit 5
Answer the questions orally.
 1. What did an English couple say about the French
people, and what did a Frenchman say about the English
people? Why do you think they showed a mutual feeling
of dislike?
1. An English retired civil servant said that he'd rather have England
become the 51st state of the U. S. A. than have his country linked to France.
He added that the French didn't care for anybody. His wife said that France
was an awful place and that the French people drank wine all the time. She
disliked French food and preferred to have English sauce with her food. In
the meantime, a French farmer complained about English ketchup and
about their not having any good wine. The British and the French people
disliked each other because there had been long years of conflict between
the two countries.
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 2. With the help of the information given in the Notes, explain the
following:
 1) 200 years of failed cross-Channel-link schemes, and
 2) 1,000 years of historical rift.
 2. 1) The Channel Tunnel Project had been discussed between
Britain and France on governmental levels for almost two hundred
years. It was in 1802 that the first proposal for a Channel Tunnel
was put forward by a French engineer. Since then the question was
taken up again and again throughout the nineteenth century and for
the most part of the twentieth century. It did not come to fruition until
the last decade of the twentieth century.
 2) Beginning with the Norman Conquest in 1066 until the early
nineteenth century, there had been incessant conflicts between
Great Britain and France. All in all there was a rift between the two
countries for about one thousand years. (See the details in the
notes.)
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Unit 5
 3. How Swill the Chunnel facilitate the transport between Great
Britain and France, or rather, between Great Britain and other
European countries?
3. It will greatly facilitate the transport between Great Britain
and France. For example, for a motorist to cross the English
Channel, he can use the Chunnel Shuttle Service and cross
the Channel in only 35 minutes, as against 90 minutes by
ferry before. The through service provided by Eurostar
passenger trains takes only 3 hours to travel from London to
Paris, and 3 hours 10 minutes from London to Brussels,
Belgium.
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Unit 5
 4. How do you understand the sentence "The Chunnel rewrites
geography, at least in the English psyche"?
 4. The English Channel had served as a barrier to
invasion of Britain for centuries, and invasion by tunnel
was at one time "the ultimate British nightmare" As a
matter of fact, whenever the idea of a link between the
two countries emerged, there also appeared visions of
invasion, and proposals for a link simply foundered. But
the completion of the Chunnel has now joined Britain to
the European continent. In other words, Britain is no
longer an island. Thus the geographical condition is
completely changed, especially to the British people.
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Unit 5
 5. How did the author of the article get the opportunity of
witnessing the breakthrough ceremony for the south
running tunnel?
5. The author, Cathy Newman, is a senior staff
member of the National Geographic magazine.
Being a journalist, she was presumably invited to
attend and to cover the breakthrough ceremony, as
there were also several dozen other journalists
going with her.
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Unit 5
 6. Why did one of the visitors say "Makes you appreciate
British Rail"?
6. It is because the construction workers' train which
took them down the tunnel screeched in a dreadful
way, whereas the British Rail passenger trains
would not make such a noise.
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Unit 5
 7. What did the author refer to when she spoke of "those vine la
difference quirks"?
 7. She referred to two distinctive differences
between the British and the French ways of
doing things. One is that the French gave
women's names to the tunnel boring machines
(TBM), for example, "Catherine", whereas the
British only gave the machines numbers, e. g. ,
TBM No 6. The other difference is that the
French workers wore colorful work clothes while
their British counterparts wore something grungy.
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Unit 5
 8. How deep is the Chunnel under the ocean at
the breakthrough site?
8. It is about 180 feet or 54.9 meters deep.
147
Unit 5
 9. Describe the breakthrough scene in your own words.
 9. There were many people present, the
Eurotunnel officials, construction workers, and
journalists. There was loud music as well as
dazzling lights, when the cutterhead of the
tunnel boring machine bit into the last piece of
rock separating England from France. A number
of Frenchmen were seen coming from the other
side, and thunderous applause was heard. The
French and British people drank champagne
and hugged each other. It was truly a moving
sight.
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Unit 5
 10. Did the mutual feeling of dislike still exist when the
tunnel was completed?
10. No. Both the French and British celebrated
the breakthrough, and an Englishman said, "I
might have opposed it 30 years ago, but now it's
my tunnel."
149
Unit 5
 TEXT II
 Traveling
 Questions
 1. What kept Aunt Augusta from traveling as
constantly as before?
 2. What were the advantages of going to
Istanbul by plane?
 3. Why did Aunt Augusta not take the plane?
 4. What do you think their surname was?
 5. Compare Aunt Augusta and Henry.
150
Unit 5
nightfall
noun [U]
the time in the evening when it becomes
dark
151
Unit 5
Victoria Station
152
Unit 5
Weymouth is a town in
Dorset, England, situated
on a sheltered bay –
Weymouth Bay –
at the mouth of the
River Wey on the English Channel coast.
153
Unit 5
 Weymouth is acknowledged
as being amongst
the first ever tourist
destinations, after
King George III made
Weymouth his summer
holiday residence on fourteen
The Promenade
occasions between1789 and 1805,
sparking a trend of sea bathing
and health tourism.
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Unit 5
 George III
(George William Frederick)
(4 June 1738 –
29 January 1820)
was King of Great Britain,
and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760
until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until
his death.
155
Unit 5
The junction of St. Mary Street and St.
Thomas Street with the statue in the centre
156
Unit 5
Gloucester Lodge, Weymouth Seafront
157
Unit 5
Istanbul stands between Europe and Asia
and is a once in a life-time ‘must visit’.
Istanbul, was formerly known as
Constantinople(君士坦丁堡), and before that
Byzantium(拜占庭). The design of Mosques
(清真寺) actually comes from this building
which was originally a church built in
535AD. You should not miss this city.
158
Unit 5
Blue Mosque
159
Unit 5
Contraption
noun [C]
a device or machine that looks awkward or
old-fashioned, especially one that you do
not know how to use:
Whatever's that strange contraption
you've got in the garage?
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Unit 5
 Badger
 verb [T]
to persuade someone by telling them repeatedly
to do something, or to question someone
repeatedly:
Stop badgering me - I'll do it when I'm ready.
[+ into + ing form of verb] She's been badgering
me into doing some exercise.
[+ to infinitive] Every time we go into a shop, the
kids badger me to buy them sweets.
161
Unit 5
 Interaction Activities
 The New Construction Project in Our City / Town
 Suggestions:
 Pros(正方)
 1. A new construction project, such as the Metro
subway, will improve urban infrastructure and
consequently better the life of the city residents.
 2. New construction projects will bring the city /
town a new skyline and beautify the contour of
the city / town.
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Unit 5
3. People will enjoy the comfort of easy
and fast transportation, and spacious and
modern conditions of new apartment
buildings.
4. With the improved urban infrastructure
(下部机构), more international cultural
events are likely to take place.
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Unit 5
 Cons
 1. There will be less land for plantation and wild
life.
 2. Skyscrapers, especially those with glass walls,
create visual pollution and send back the much
hated heat into the sky during the summer
season.
 3. People have to leave their familiar
neighborhood and move to other places in order
to make room for the development projects.
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Unit 5
4. The city / town is growing both in height
and size at the cost of the traditional good
neighborly relations enjoyed by the local
residents. It is disheartening to see that
people in a fast growing city tend to treat
one another as strangers and behave in a
way that is more business like.
165
Unit 5
GUIDED WRITING
Précis Writing
Paragraph Writing
Letter Writing
166
Unit 6
TEXT I
Atomic Cars
1. Backgrounds
2. Pre-reading Questions
3. The Main Idea
4. Find the key words in each paragraph
4. Language Points
5. Vocabulary
6. Questions Answers
167
Unit 6
Atomic Cars
168
Unit 6
Simplest model of an atom
169
Unit 6
 Nuclear Reactors
 Most commercial nuclear reactors use ordinary water to
remove the heat created by the fission process. These
are called light water reactors. The water also serves to
slow down, or "moderate" the neutrons. In this type of
reactor, the chain reaction will not occur without the
water to serve as a moderator. In the United States, two
different light-water reactor designs are currently in use,
the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and the Boiling
Water Reactor (BWR).
170
Unit 6
Diagram of a PWR
171
Unit 6
Diagram of a BWR
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Unit 6
 1. T (The technical term for the splitting of the
atom is called "atomic fission".)
 2. T (The rays are radioactive and may also be
called "radiation".)
 3. T
 4. F (Atomic energy has been used in power
stations, in ships and rockets, but not in cars.)
 5. F (It would be both convenient to use and
cheap to keep, because a small piece of
uranium can keep the car running for many,
many years.)
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Unit 6
 Language Points
 outlay
noun [C]
an amount of money spent for a particular purpose,
especially as a first investment in something:
For an initial outlay of £2000 to buy the equipment, you
should be earning up to £500 a month if the product sells
well.
outlay
verb [T] outlaid, outlaid MAINLY US
At the start we outlaid thousands of dollars on
computers.
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 optimism
noun [U] the tendency to be hopeful and to emphasize the
good part of a situation rather than the bad part; the
belief that good things will happen in the future:
There was a note of optimism in his voice as he spoke
about the company's future.
Judging from your examination results, I think you have
cause/grounds/reason for cautious optimism about getting
a university place.
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optimist
noun [C]
someone who always believes that good
things will happen:
She's a born optimist (= someone who
has always been optimistic).
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optimistic
adjective
She is optimistic about her chances of
winning a gold medal.
NOTE: The opposite is pessimistic.
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bonnet (METAL COVER) UK
noun [C] (US hood)
the metal cover over the part of a car
where the engine is:
I looked under the bonnet and clouds of
smoke poured out.
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submarine
noun [C] (INFORMAL sub)
a ship which can travel under water:
a nuclear submarine
a submarine base/commander
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H.M. Submarine 'E.2' started her first
patrol on 13 August 1915.
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







1.refuel
2.optimistic
3.harness
4.penetrate
5.fatal
6.impractical
7.ease
8.basic
 1. fill up again with fuel
 2. taking the hopeful view of things
and expecting the best outcome
 3. use a natural force to produce
useful power
 4. force a way into
 5. causing death, disastrous
 6. that cannot be put into practice
 7. being free from pain, worry or
trouble; comfort
 8. elementary, fundamental
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Unit 6
Questions
Answer the questions orally
1. Explain the following in your own words.
1) ... because there is no outlay on petrol.
1. 1) ... because there is no need to spend
money on petrol.
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Unit 6
2) ... depending upon how much you
spend on petrol.
2) ... the amount of money you would save
by using atomic power is determined by
how much you spend on petrol.
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Unit 6
3) ... with fatal results for anybody in its
path.
3) If anyone happens to be in an area
where there is radiation, it will cost him his
life.
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 4) ... a metal that will be strong enough to hold in
the rays, but at the same time light enough for a
vehicle to carry with ease and economy.
 4) ... the metal will be strong enough to prevent
the rays from escaping but at the same time it
will be so light in weight that any vehicle can
carry it without too much difficulty and without
costing too much money.
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5) But it seems safe to say that eventually,
as techniques and mass production come
in atom engine, the price will go down.
5) We have every reason to say that when
new techniques and methods are
introduced and when atomic engines can
be produced on a large scale, the price, as
a result, will be lowered.
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6) ... in every circumstance.
6) under all conditions
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 2. What kind of structure is the sentence
"Harness atomic power in a car, and you'll have
no more worries about petrol" ? Can you give
an example using this structure?
 2. The sentence may be reworded as "If you can
harness atomic power in a car, you'll have no
more worries about petrol".
 The structure Imperative sentence + and you'll is
equivalent to a conditional sentence structure
formed by If..., you'll...
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Unit 6
 3. What is the function of the word say in the
sentence "But say the experts, there are many
problems still to be conquered before such an
engine can in fact be fixed into a car“.
 3. Say is the predicate verb of the subject
experts. The clause say the experts is in
inverted order.
 The statement following the clause is a kind of
direct speech. This loose journalistic style makes
the article colloquial and informal.
189
Unit 6
 TEXT II
 Energy or Extinction ?
 Questions
 1. Why is Sir Fred Hoyle's book Energy and
Extinction riveting? In what respects is it different
from other books on the same subject?
 2. What did Sir Fred Hoyle say was the only
hope for the future? Do you agree with him?
 3. For what purpose did Sir Fred Hoyle write the
book Energy or Extinction?
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Unit 6
4. What do you think is the reason for so
much opposition to the development of
nuclear reactors?
5. After you have read the whole passage,
do you have a better understanding of the
title Energy or Extinction? Explain it in your
own words.
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Unit 6
Sir Fred Hoyle
(June 24, 1915 in Yorkshire
– August 20in Bournemouth,
England, 2001) was a British astronomer,
notable for a number of his theories that
run counter to current astronomical
opinion, and a writer of science fiction,
including a number of books co-authored
by his son Geoffrey Hoyle.
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Unit 6
 Language points:
 1. riveting
rivet
noun [C]
a metal pin used to fasten flat pieces of metal or
other thick materials such as leather
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Unit 6
 rivet
verb [T]
1 to fasten together with a rivet:
Many parts of an aircraft are riveted together.
2 be riveted to not be able to stop looking at something
because it is so interesting or frightening:
It was an amazing film - I was absolutely riveted.
His eyes were riveted on the television.
He pulled out a gun and I was riveted to the spot (= so
frightened that I could not move).
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Unit 6
riveting
adjective
extremely interesting:
It was a riveting story.
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2. mean
verb [T] meant, meant
to have an important emotional effect on
someone:
It wasn't a valuable picture but it meant a
lot to me.
Possessions mean nothing to him.
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Unit 6
 mean (INTEND)
verb [I or T] meant, meant
to intend:
I'm sorry if I offended you - I didn't mean any harm.
The books with large print are meant for our partially
sighted readers.
[+ to infinitive] I've been meaning to phone you all week.
Do you think she meant to say 9 a.m. instead of 9 p.m.?
[+ object + to infinitive] This exercise isn't meant to be
difficult.
They didn't mean for her to read the letter.
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2. sloppy
sloppy (TOO WET)
adjective INFORMAL DISAPPROVING
(of a substance) more liquid than it should
be, often in a way that is unpleasant:
The batter was a bit sloppy so I added
some more flour.
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Unit 6
adjective
1 DISAPPROVING lacking care or effort:
Spelling mistakes always look sloppy in a formal letter.
Another sloppy pass like that might lose them the whole
match.
2 describes clothes which are large, loose and often
untidy:
At home I tend to wear big sloppy jumpers and jeans.
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Unit 6
Cumbria was formed from the old counties
of Cumberland, Westmorland, and part of
North Lancashire, and is now England's
second largest county in size. Inside is the
Lake District National Park, an area
some 30 miles across, containing
England's highest mountains (four over
3000 ft), and some of England's biggest
lakes.
200
Unit 6
Cumbria
201
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Nuclear power complex at Windscale
In 1957, the graphite moderator (石墨减速剂)
of one of the air-cooled plutonium (镮)
production reactors at Windscale (now
Sellafield), had a fire which resulted in the
first significant release of radioactive
material from a reactor.
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Windscale /Sellafield
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Unit 6
Windscale is situated on the Sellafield site,
Cumbria, although it has its own site
licence. The site includes Windscale Piles
I and II, and the Windscale Advanced GasCooled Reactor. The Windscale site
occupies 35 acres.
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Unit 6
Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor
205
Unit 6
 The Windscale AGR was
 shut down in 1981 .
 Future use of the land at
Windscale is still to be decided. However,
Sellafield/Windscale is an industrial
complex, so it is possible that new
commercial Development will take place at the
site.
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Unit 6
 3. scrap (THROW AWAY)
verb [T] -pp1 to not continue with a system or plan:
They're considering scrapping the tax and raising the
money in other ways.
We scrapped our plans for a trip to France.
2 to get rid of something which is no longer useful or
wanted, often using its parts in new ways:
Hundreds of nuclear weapons have been scrapped.
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Unit 6
scrap (ARGUMENT)
noun [C]
a fight or argument, especially a quick
noisy one about something unimportant:
A couple of kids were having a scrap in
the street.
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 4. arsenal
noun [C]
1 a building where weapons and military
equipment are stored:
The army planned to attack enemy arsenals.
2 a collection of weapons:
The country has agreed to reduce its nuclear
arsenal.
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Unit 6
 5. evacuate
 verb [I or T]
to move people from a dangerous place to
somewhere safe:
The police evacuated the village shortly before
the explosion.
A thousand people were evacuated from their
homes following the floods.
When toxic fumes began to drift toward our
homes, we were told to evacuate.
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Unit 6
evacuation
noun [C or U]
The evacuation of civilians remains out of
the question while the fighting continues.
The first evacuations came ten days after
the disaster.
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Unit 6
Cornwall is a county of England's southwest peninsula, lying west of the River
Tamar.
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Unit 6
Keswick is the North Lakes' most popular
holiday and day trip destination. Nestling
between the Skiddaw Mountains and
Derwentwater Lake, Keswick is in an
idyllic (wonderful) location in the Lake
District National Park.
213
Unit 6
Derwentwater in early Autumn
Keswick’s moot hall
214
Unit 6
Oral Work
Role-play
A Discussion on the Nuclear Power
Station
Interaction Activities
A Discussion on the Nuclear Energy
215
Unit 6
GUIDED WRITING
Précis Writing
Paragraph Writing
Letter Writing
216
Unit 6
Gettysburg Address.doc
林肯演说
217
Unit 7
TEXT I
On Not Answering the
Telephone
1. Backgrounds
2. Pre-reading Questions
3. The Main Idea
4. Language Points
5. Vocabulary
6. Questions Answers
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Unit 7
 William Plomer (1903-1973), Writer
South African born writer gained international
acclaim with his first novel Turbolt Wolfe (1926),
which dealt with inter-racial love and marriage.
He settled in England in 1929. Through his
friendship with his publishers, Leonard and
Virginia Woolf he rapidly moved to the heart of the English
literary establishment. After the publication of The Invaders
(1934) He produced little fiction but continued to publish
short stories, essays, collections of poetry.
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Unit 7
Language Points
1. take sth for granted
to believe something to be the truth
without even thinking about it:
I didn't realize that Melanie hadn't been to
college - I suppose I just took it for granted.
220
Unit 7
pose (CAUSE)
verb [T]
to cause something, especially a problem
or difficulty:
Nuclear weapons pose a threat to
everyone.
221
Unit 7
 pose (ASK)
verb [T]
to ask a question, especially in a formal situation such as
a meeting:
Can we go back to the question that Helena posed
earlier?
poser
noun [C] INFORMAL
a problem or question that is difficult to solve or answer:
Who was the last woman to win three Olympic gold
medals? That's quite a poser.
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 pose (POSITION)
verb [I]
to move into and stay in a particular position, in order to
be photographed, painted, etc:
We all posed for our photographs next to the Statue of
Liberty.
pose
noun [C]
a particular position in which a person stands, sits, etc. in
order to be photographed, painted, etc:
He adopted/assumed/struck (= moved into) an elegant
pose.
223
Unit 7
 pose (PRETEND)
verb [I]
to pretend to be something that you are not or to have qualities that
you do not possess, in order to be admired or attract interest:
He doesn't really know a thing about the theatre - he's just posing!
pose
noun [C usually singular]
when someone pretends to have qualities that they do not possess:
She likes to appear as if she knows all about the latest films and art
exhibitions, but it's all a pose (= she's pretending and it's not true).
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pose as sb phrasal verb
If you pose as a particular person, you
pretend to be that person in order to
deceive people:
He's posing as her date, but he's really her
bodyguard.
225
Unit 7
pest noun [C]
1 an insect or small animal which is
harmful or which damages crops:
common pests such as rats, mice or
cockroaches (蟑螂)
2 INFORMAL an annoying person,
especially a child:
Put that back, you little pest!
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 asphyxiate
 [sfiksieit ]vi.窒息 vt.使窒息
verb [T often passive] FORMAL
to cause someone to be unable to breathe,
usually resulting in death:
The murder inquiry found that the children had
been asphyxiated.
asphyxiation
noun [U]
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 fidget
verb [I]
to make continuous small movements which annoy other
people:
Children can't sit still for long without fidgeting.
Stop fidgeting about!
fidget
noun [C]
a person who often fidgets:
Tim's a terrible fidget.
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the fidgets plural noun UK INFORMAL
when you keep fidgeting:
I got the fidgets halfway through the
lecture.
fidgety
adjective
a fidgety child/audience
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 indiscreet [indis kri:t ]adj.不慎重的, 轻率的
adjective
saying or doing things which let people know
things that should be secret or which embarrass
people:
In an indiscreet moment, the president let his
genuine opinions be known.
They have been rather indiscreet about their
affair.
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 indiscretion
noun
1 [U] when a person or their behavior is indiscreet:
Jones was censured [ sen] (责难) for indiscretion in
leaking a secret report to the press.
2 [C] something, especially a sexual relationship, that is
considered embarrassing or morally wrong:
We should forgive him a few youthful indiscretions.
231
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elope
verb [I]
to leave home secretly in order to get
married without the permission of parents:
She eloped with an Army officer.
elopement
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 obstinate adj.倔强的, 顽固的
adjective
1 unreasonably determined, especially to act in a particular way and
not to change at all, despite argument or persuasion:
He can be very obstinate at times.
her obstinate refusal to compromise n.妥
协, 折衷

2 [before noun] describes a problem, situation or thing that is difficult
to deal with, remove or defeat:
obstinate weeds
Invading troops met with obstinate resistance by guerilla forces.
obstinacy
noun [U]
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 wilful, US USUALLY willful adj.任性的, 故意的
adjective DISAPPROVING
(of something bad) done intentionally or (of a
person) determined to do exactly as you want,
even if you know it is wrong:
The present crisis is the result of years of wilful
neglect by the council.
They eat huge quantities of sweet and fried
foods, in wilful disregard of their health.
She developed into a wilful, difficult child.
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Unit 7
wilfully, US USUALLY willfully
adverb
Some basic safety rules were wilfully
ignored.
wilfulness, US USUALLY willfulness
noun [U]
235
Unit 7
tycoon [ tai  ku:n ] n. 企业界大亨, 将军
noun [C]
a person who has succeeded in business
or industry and has become very wealthy
and powerful:
a business/property/shipping tycoon
236
Unit 7
aptitude n.恰当, 智能, 聪明, 自然倾向
noun [C or U]
a natural ability or skill:
My son has no/little aptitude for sport.
We will take your personal aptitudes and
abilities into account.
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Unit 7
aptitude test noun [C]
a test to find out whether someone has a
natural ability for a particular type of work:
I had to take an aptitude test before I
began training as a nurse.
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Unit 7
Vocabulary
 1.asphyxiate 
 2.unventilated

 3.flavored
 4.indisreet

 5.a large

circulation

 6.eloped
 7.wilfulness 

 8.tycoon

1. feeling ill because there is too little
air; choked
2. (air) rot (腐烂) moving in and out
freely
3. having the smell of
4. not careful
5. a large number of copies read
6. ran away secretly with a lover
7. stubbornness
8. rich and powerful businessman
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Unit 7
Questions Answers
1. what does the writer mean by saying
that “he is taking too much for granted?”
1. "To take something for granted" means
"to regard something as true or as certain
to happen" or "never to question
something". Here the author means "He is
too sure of himself".
240
Unit 7
2. What does "the impossible" here refer
to?
2. "The impossible" here refers to "giving
the writer a ring.”
241
Unit 7
3. Can you guess the meaning of "I'm not
on the telephone" from the context?
3. "I am not on the telephone" means "I
cannot be reached by telephone".
242
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 4. What does the writer mean by "unnecessary
suspense and anxiety"?
 4. "Suspense" means "uncertainty about
something, e. g., news, events and decision".
"Anxiety" means "worry and uneasiness". The
writer means "When you are waiting for an
expected call, but for some reason it does not
come, then you are bound to be nervous and
restless, which is really not necessary".
243
Unit 7
5. What is meant by "irritating delay"?
5. When you keep ringing a number that is
always engaged, you feel enraged by the
delay.
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6. What does it in "Ah, it will all be the
same ..." refer to?
6. Here it refers to "things in general" or
"the general situation". From the context,
we can see the meaning of the sentence
in quotation marks as "Well, everything will
remain the same whether I answer the
phone or not.”
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Unit 7
7. What can be categorized as "dreadful
necessity"?
7. A traffic accident, a sudden fire or
violent death from a severe heart attack
can be regarded as creating a dreadful
necessity to make a phone call.
246
Unit 7
8. What does the writer really mean by
"escapism"?
8. Here the writer really means "avoiding
answering the telephone".
247
Unit 7
9. What does the end of the text suggest
to you?
9. The end of the text is really something
unexpected. Here the writer seems to wish
to achieve a humorous effect.
248
Unit 7
10. what kind of person do you think the
writer is?
10. The writer seems to be a bit eccentric
(古怪). In the modern world, people usually
prefer to have a telephone, but he loathes
(厌恶)/ dislikes it. He doesn‘t seem to like
to associate himself with others, but he
likes to live in peace and quiet away from
the hectic (兴奋) life.
249
Unit 7
 TEXT Ⅱ How to Cope with Your Telephone
 Questions
 1. When will one feel that one's telephone is not a nice
number?
 2. Why do some people make early calls?
 3. Who are most disturbed by persistent callers?
 4. What information can a phone directory provide?
 5. How does the Post Office monitor a person's call?
What must the telephone subscriber do to get this
service?
 6. Is it convenient for a telephone subscriber to go exdirectory? Would you like to go ex-directory if you had a
phone at home?
250
Unit 7
 New Words:
 1. stumble (FALL)
verb [I]
to step awkwardly while walking or running and
fall or begin to fall:
Running along the beach, she stumbled on a log
and fell on the sand.
In the final straight Meyers stumbled, and
although he didn't fall it was enough to lose him
first place.
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Unit 7
stumble (NOT CONTROLLED)
verb [I usually + adverb or preposition]
to walk in a way which does not seem
controlled:
We could hear her stumbling
about/around the bedroom in the dark.
He pulled on his clothes and stumbled
into the kitchen.
252
Unit 7
stumble (PAUSE)
verb [I]
to make a mistake, such as repeating
something or pausing for too long, while
speaking or playing a piece of music:
When the poet stumbled over a line in the
middle of a poem, someone in the
audience corrected him.
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Unit 7
stumble across/on/upon sth/sb phrasal
verb
to discover something by chance, or to
meet someone by chance:
Workmen stumbled upon the mosaic (镶嵌图案)
while digging foundations for a new
building.
254
Unit 7
 2.obscene
 adjective
1 offensive, rude or shocking, usually because
too obviously related to sex or showing sex:
In the raid, police found several boxes of
obscene videotapes.
He was jailed for making obscene phone calls
(= ones in which unwanted sexual suggestions
were made to the listener).
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Unit 7
 2 morally wrong, often describing something that
is morally wrong because it is too large:
to make obscene profits
The salaries some company directors earn are
obscene.
obscenely
adverb
He's obscenely rich/fat/cruel.
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Unit 7
 obscenity
noun
[C or U] when someone or something is obscene:
The people who made that film could be
prosecuted for obscenity.
Such deliberate destruction of the environment
is an obscenity (= an offensive and shocking
situation or event).
257
Unit 7
3. scot-free
adverb
without receiving the deserved or
expected punishment or without being
harmed:
The court let her off scot-free.
258
Unit 7
 4. plague (CAUSE PAIN/TROUBLE)
verb [T]
1 to cause worry, pain or difficulty to someone or
something over a period of time:
Financial problems have been plaguing their new
business partners.
My shoulder's been plaguing me all week.
2 to annoy someone, especially by asking continual
questions:
The children plagued him with questions all through
lunch.
He's been plaguing me for a loan of the book.
259
Unit 7
plague (Epidemic DISEASE)
noun [C or U]
a plague of sth a large number of things
which are unpleasant or likely to cause
damage:
a plague of insects
260
Unit 7
avoid sth like the plague
to be determined to avoid something
completely:
I'm not a fan of parties - in fact I avoid
them like the plague.
261
Unit 7
 5. initial (FIRST LETTER)
noun [C usually plural]
the first letter of a name, especially when used to
represent a name:
He wrote his initials, P.M.R., at the bottom of the page.
Paul M. Reynolds refused to say what the initial "M"
stood for.
They carved their initials into a tree.
initial
verb [T] -ll- or US USUALLY -lto write your initials on something:
I initialled the documents and returned them to personnel.
262
Unit 7
Oral Work
Role-play
A Wrong-numbered Call
Interaction Activities
Advantages and Disadvantages of Having
a Phone at Home
263
Unit 7
 Suggestions:
 Advantages
 1. It's convenient.
 2. It's comparatively easy and
quick to get in touch with
someone.
 3. It saves time.
 4. You can keep informed
about anything or get an
important message at any time.
 5. It is necessary to have a
telephone at least for out-going
calls in case of emergency.
 6. You can talk to your friend,
have a meeting and order
anything you like make
business calls to anywhere or
even settle an account.
 Disadvantages
 1. You're often disturbed in the
middle of doing something.
 2. You may get calls from
people you've never met.
 3. It wastes a lot of your time.
 4. You will be plagued by some
idle chatter- box or some
reporter and you will get
obscene or early morning calls.
 5. You tend to spend more
money when: (a) your
telephone goes wrong. (b) You
get the Post Office to monitor
your calls.
 6. You will be threatened by
some idle joker or be fooled on
1st April.
264
Unit 7
I Have A Dream
马丁
265
Unit 7
GDIUED WRITING
Précis Writing
Paragraph Writing
Letter Writing
266
Unit 8
TEXT I
On Buying Books
1. Pre-reading Questions
2. The Main Idea
3. Language Points
4. Vocabulary
5. Questions Answers (on p.94)
267
Unit 8
1. find/take shelter
to protect yourself from bad weather,
danger or attack:
We took shelter for the night in an
abandoned house.
268
Unit 8
2. A dust jacket is a sheet of stiff paper,
often in color, wrapped around the cover of
a book to protect and advertise it.
269
Unit 8
3. engross vt
absorb the attention of
to be ~ed in sth
270
Unit 8
4. to your heart's content
if you do something enjoyable to your
heart's content, you do it as much as you
want to
The pool is open all day so you can swim
to your heart's content.
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 5. inevitable adjective
certain to happen and unable to be avoided or
prevented:
The accident was the inevitable
consequence/result/outcome of carelessness.
inevitably adverb
in a way that cannot be avoided:
Their arguments inevitably end in tears.
inevitability noun [U]
the inevitability of change
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 6.discreet
 adjective
careful not to cause embarrassment or attract
too much attention, especially by keeping
something secret
Can I trust you to be discreet?
 Opposite indiscreet
discreetly adverb
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7. brass-rubbing rubbing n.摹拓, 摹拓品
noun [C or U]
the activity of putting a sheet of paper on
top of a brass in a church, and rubbing it
with a special pencil to make a picture, or
a picture that is made in this way
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Unit 8
8.long-suffering
adjective
A long-suffering person is patient despite
being annoyed or insulted regularly over a
period of time:
Bill and his long-suffering wife
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Unit 8
 9. indulge
verb
1 [I or T] to allow yourself or another person to have
something enjoyable, especially more than is good for
you:
The soccer fans indulged their patriotism, waving flags
and singing songs.
[R] I love champagne but I don't often indulge myself.
We took a deliberate decision to indulge in a little
nostalgia.
 Nostalgia n.思家病, 乡愁, 向往过去, 怀旧之情
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 2 [T] to give someone anything they want and not to
mind if they behave badly:
My aunt indulges the children dreadfully.
indulgence
noun
1 [C or U] when you indulge someone or yourself:
Chocolate is my only indulgence.
All the pleasures and indulgences of the weekend are
over, and I must get down to some serious hard work.
His health suffered from over-indulgence in (= too much)
rich food and drink.
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 10.tell sb off phrasal verb
to speak angrily at someone because they have
done something wrong:
The teacher told me off for swearing.
 telling-off
noun [C usually singular] plural tellings-off
He gave me a good telling-off for forgetting the
meeting.
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 11.dismay
 n.沮丧, 惊慌
 noun [U]
a feeling of unhappiness and disappointment:
Aid workers were said to have been filled with dismay by the
appalling conditions that the refugees were living in.
dismay
verb [T]
v.使沮丧, 使惊慌
dismayed
adjective
I was dismayed to discover that he'd lied.
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 12.beckon
 verb
1 [I or T] to move your hand or head in a way that tells
someone to come nearer:
The customs official beckoned the woman to his counter.
2 [I] If an event or achievement beckons, it is likely to
happen:
She's an excellent student, for whom a wonderful future
beckons.
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Unit 8
13. tuck sth away phrasal verb
to put something in a private, safe place:
Grandma always kept a bit of money
tucked away in case there was an
emergency.
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Unit 8









Vocabulary
1. irresistible
2. approach
3. inevitable
4. retire
5. illustrated
6. indulgent
7. beckon to
8. tuck away
 1. too strong or too good to keep
oneself back from
 2. come near or nearer to
 3. which cannot be prevented from
happening
 4. go away to a quiet place
 5. provided with pictures to explain
 6. very kind to other people
 7. call somebody's attention by a
movement of the hand
 8. to put in a safe place
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Unit 8
TEXT II
Hallo, Good Buy
Questions
1. Why do people usually buy secondhand goods?
2. What is meant by "Buying second-hand
demands a new attitude to shopping"?
3. What does an absence of price tags in a
second-hand shop show?
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Unit 8
4. What two categories of books,
magazines, comics and annuals are there
in a second-hand bookshop? What books
belong to each category?
5. What sort of sci-fi magazines and old
comics are worth ?
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Language points:
1. mean (NOT GENEROUS)
adjective MAINLY UK
not willing to give or share things,
especially money:
He's too mean to buy her a ring.
My landlord's very mean with the heating it's only on for two hours each day.
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 jumble
noun
1 [S] an untidy and confused mixture of things, feelings
or ideas:
He rummaged through the jumble of papers on his desk.
a jumble of thoughts/ideas
2 [U] UK things you no longer want that are sold at a
jumble sale
jumble
verb [T]
to mix things together untidily:
Her clothes were all jumbled up/together in the suitcase.
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Unit 8
jumble sale UK noun [C] (US rummage
sale)
a sale of a mixed collection of things that
people no longer want, especially in order
to make money for an organization
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Unit 8
 wardrobe noun
[C or U] a tall cupboard in which you hang your
clothes, or all of the clothes that a person owns:
She was showing me her new built-in/UK fitted
wardrobes.
I sometimes feel that my summer wardrobe is
rather lacking (= I don't have many clothes for
summer).
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Unit 8
outlet (SHOP) noun [C]
a shop that is one of many owned by a
particular company and that sells the
goods which the company has produced:
a fast-food outlet
a retail outlet
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Unit 8
outlet (WAY OUT) noun [C]
a way, especially a pipe or hole, for liquid
or gas to go out:
a waste water outlet
an outlet pipe
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 posh adjective
1 INFORMAL (of places and things) expensive
and of high quality:
He takes her to some really posh restaurants.
2 UK INFORMAL (of people and their voices)
from a high social class:
A woman with a very posh accent telephoned for
him earlier.
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Unit 8
 Clearance noun
1 [S or U] when waste or things you do not want
are removed from a place:
house/slum clearance
2 [U] when goods are offered for sale cheaply so
that people will be encouraged to buy them and
there will be space for new goods:
We bought our new carpet at a clearance sale.
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Unit 8
negotiate (EXCHANGE)
verb [T] SPECIALIZED
to obtain or give a sum of money in
exchange for a financial document of the
same value
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Unit 8
 retail
noun [U]
the activity of selling goods to the public, usually
in small quantities:
The clothing company has six retail outlets (=
shops) in south-eastern Australia.
 Compare wholesale (SELLING).
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Unit 8
comic (MAGAZINE)
noun [C] (US ALSO comic book)
a magazine, especially for children, which
contains a set of stories told in pictures
with a small amount of writing
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Unit 8
sleeve (PROTECTIVE COVER)
noun [C]
1 (US jacket) UK a protective cover:
Can you put the record back in its sleeve,
please?
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Unit 8
MARTIN AMIS (1949-)
The son of Kingsley Amis, a writer who
began his literary life - with John Osborne
and John Wain - as one of the Angry
Young Men, Martin Amis outstripped his
father's reputation for offending the literary
niceties of his day with his first novel, The
Rachel Papers (1973). Amis was twenty
four when the book appeared to admiring
reviews.
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Unit 8
 (Henry) Graham Greene (1904-1991) English
novelist, short-story writer, playwright and
journalist, whose novels treat moral issues in the
context of political settings. Greene is one of the
most widely read novelist of the 20th-century, a
superb storyteller. Adventure and suspense are
constant elements in his novels and many of his
books have been made into successful films.
Although Greene was a candidate for the Nobel
Prize for Literature several times, he never
received the award.
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 Ian Fleming (1909-1964) created the character
of James Bond, who debuted [debju:]
n.v.初次登场, 开张in the 1952 novel
Casino Royale
Born in 1908 as the son of
Valentine Fleming, and the
grandson of the wealthy
Scottish banker Robert Fleming,
Ian Lancaster Fleming grew up the member of a rare
class of Englishmen for whom all options are open.
The privilege of class and respect came not merely
from his grandfather's money, as wealth alone in
England does not guarantee open doors.
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Unit 8
 Together with Ruth Rendell,
P.D. James is one of the most
famous British mystery writers.
Born in 1920, she worked in the North West
Regional Hospital Board in London from 1949 to
1968 and then as home office principal in the
police department until 1972 when she moved to
the criminal policy department. She retired in 1979.
Her first novel, Cover her face published in 1962,
featured Scotland Yard man Adam Dalgliesh.
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Unit 8
Angela (Olive) Carter (1940-1992)
English short story writer, novelist,
journalist, dramatist and critic.
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Unit 8
paperback noun [C]
a book with a cover made of thin card:
a best-selling paperback
I'll buy some paperbacks at the airport.
Compare hardback
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Unit 8
hardback noun [C or U] (US ALSO
hardcover)
a book which has a stiff cover:
His latest novel will be published in
hardback later this month.
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Unit 8
 flick through sth phrasal verb
to look quickly at the pages of a magazine, book, etc.
flick
verb [I + adverb or preposition; T]
to move or hit something with a short sudden movement:
He carefully flicked the loose hairs from the shoulders of
his jacket.
flick
noun [C]
a sudden, quick movement:
With a flick of its tail, the cat was gone.
A flick of a switch turns the machine on.
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Unit 8
ORAL WORK
Role-play
Are Second-hand Bookshops Worth
Visiting?
Interaction Activities
On Bookshop Service
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Unit 8
Suggestions:
The questions might include:
1. How often do you go to a bookshop?
2. What kind of books attracts you most?
3. What do you think of the assistants'
attitude towards the customers?
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Unit 8
 4. Have you had any unpleasant experience in a
bookshop?
 5. How would you like the shop assistants to
help the customer?
 6. Should the bookshelves be open or closed to
customers? Why?
 7. When are the best times for a bookshop to
open and close?
 8. How much do you agree with the author of
"On Buying Books" concerning the service a
bookshop may offer?
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Unit 8
Translation
1. 只学习不实践是没用的。
2. 所有人都意识到吸烟的危害。
3. 由于食物不好,我生病了。
4. 他们有把握获胜。
5. 本文的目的是讨论电脑设计的新趋势。
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Unit 8
GUIDED WRITING
Précis Writing
A. The most suitable topic sentence is (1):
"Time can be spent most enjoyably in a
bookshop.”
Paragraph Writing
Letter Writing
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Unit 8
A flower show
Anemone 海葵 Daffodil水仙
Cockscomb
BirdOfParadise Hyacinth风信子
Standard
Sunflower
Cherry Blossom
Mum
carnation
Tulip郁金香
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Unit 8
 An Episode: Tim strikes it rich (episode14.rm)
 Tim: Can I help you madam?
 Customer: I’m looking for a man’s watch.
 Tim: Well we have a sumptuous (华丽的)selection here: sports,
evening, everyday watches. Do you see anything you like?
 Customer: Oh, I rather like that one.
 Tim: Impeccable(没有缺点的) taste, madam. Now, just take it over to
the cash till there and they’ll wrap it up for you.
 Customer: Thank you, goodbye.
 Tim: Goodbye…..Oh, you’ve dropped something madam. Madam!
Oh she's gone. Let’s see 50, 100, 150 pounds! Well you know what
they say Tim, a fool and her money……
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Unit 8
to strike it rich (informal): to get a lot of
money suddenly or unexpectedly
sumptuous (adj): very expensive and
impressive
to have impeccable taste: to be able to
choose the best things
the till (n): the place where you pay for
things you buy in a shop
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Unit 9
TEXT I
Who Killed Benny Paret?
1. About the Author
2. Pre-reading Questions
3. The Main Idea
4. Language Points
5. Vocabulary
6. Questions Answers
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 NORMAN COUSINS: EDITOR
AND WRITER(1915-1990)
The lifelong concerns of Norman Cousins—writer, editor,
citizen diplomat, promoter of holistic healing, and
unflagging optimist—were large indeed: world peace,
world governance, justice, human freedom, the human
impact on the environment, and health and wholeness.
His primary platform for promoting his views was as
editor of Saturday Review for the better part of forty
years. He was also the author of a dozen books and
hundreds of essays and editorials.
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Unit 9
1. promoter
noun [C]
1 someone who tries to encourage
something to happen or develop:
a promoter of peace/sexual equality
2 a person who organizes and arranges
finance for sports and musical events:
a boxing/rock concert promoter
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2. fledgling (NEW), fledgeling
adjective [before noun]
new and lacking experience:
The current economic climate is
particularly difficult for fledgling businesses.
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3. beat (AREA)
noun [C usually singular]
an area for which someone, such as a
police officer, has responsibility as part of
their job:
Bob has worked as an officer on this
particular beat for 20 years.
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4. bland
adjective USUALLY DISAPPROVING
lacking a strong taste or character or
lacking in interest or energy:
I find chicken a little bland.
Pop music these days is so bland.
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 5. colossus noun [C] plural colossuses or
colossi
1 a person or thing of great size, influence or
ability:
She has been described as the creative
colossus of the literary world.
2 a very large statue or building:
the Colossus of Rhodes
Location
 At the entrance of the harbor of the
Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece.罗德斯
巨型雕塑像(世界七大奇迹之一, 高150英尺以上)
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 Seven Wonders of the World
 (1). The Great Pyramid of Giza
Location
 At the city of Giza,
a necropolis (大墓地) of
ancient Memphis, and
today part of
Greater Cairo, Egypt.
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Unit 9
(2). The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Location
On the east bank
of the River Euphrates,
about 50 km south of
Baghdad, Iraq.
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 (3). The Statue of Zeus at Olympia
 An enormous statue of
 the Greek father of gods.
Location
 At the ancient town
of Olympia, on the west
coast of modern Greece,
about 150 km west of Athens.
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 (4). The Temple of Artemis (阿耳特弥斯(月神与狩猎女
神) at Ephesus
 Location
 The ancient city of
Ephesus
以弗所(古希腊小亚细亚
西岸的一重要贸易城市)
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 (5). The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
 A fascinating tomb constructed for King
Maussollos.
Location
 In the city of Bodrum
on the Aegean Sea, in
south-west Turkey.
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 (6). The Colossus of Rhodes A colossus (巨人)
of Helios the sun-god, erected by the Greeks
near the harbor of a Mediterranean Island
Location
 At the entrance of the
harbor of the Mediterranean
island of Rhodes in Greece.
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 (7). The Lighthouse
of Alexandria
A lighthouse built on the
island of Pharos off the
coast of their capital city
Location
 On the ancient island of Pharos, now a
promontory (海角) within the city of Alexandria in
Egypt.
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 6. arena noun [C]
1 a large flat enclosed area used for sports or
entertainment:
an Olympic/a sports arena
2 an activity that involves argument and
discussion:
After 30 years in the political arena, our local
member of parliament is retiring next year.
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7. adroit adjective
very skilful and quick in the way you think
or move:
an adroit reaction/answer/movement of the
hand
She became adroit at dealing with difficult
questions.
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 8. coma
noun [C]
a state of unconsciousness from which a person
cannot be woken, which is caused by damage to
the brain after an accident or illness:
He's been in a coma for the past six weeks
She went into a deep coma after taking an
overdose of sleeping pills.
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9. A. flurry (SNOW)
a sudden light fall of snow, blown in different
directions by the wind:
There may be the odd flurry of snow over
the hills tonight.
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9. B. flurry (ACTIVITY)
noun [C usually singular]
a sudden, short period of activity,
excitement or interest:
The prince's words on marriage have
prompted a flurry of speculation in the
press this week.
a flurry of activity
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10. assess verb [T]
to judge or decide the amount, value,
quality or importance of something:
It's too early to assess the long-term
consequences of the collapse of the
Soviet Union.
[+ question word] We need to assess
whether the project is worth doing.
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11. probe noun [C]
1 an attempt to discover information by
asking a lot of questions:
a Justice Department probe into the
Democrats' fund raising
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12. recuperate
verb [I] SLIGHTLY FORMAL
to become well again after an illness; to
get back your strength, health, etc:
She spent a month in the country
recuperating from/after the operation.
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 13. haemorrhage UK, US hemorrhage noun
[C]
1 a large flow of blood from a damaged blood
vessel (= tube carrying blood around the body):
a brain haemorrhage
2 a sudden or serious loss:
The higher salaries paid overseas have caused
a haemorrhage of talent from this country.
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 14. exquisite (BEAUTIFUL)
adjective
very beautiful; delicate:
an exquisite piece of china
Look at this exquisite painting
She has exquisite taste.
exquisitely adverb
Their house is exquisitely (= beautifully)
furnished.
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 15. intricate adjective
having a lot of small parts or details that are
arranged in a complicated way and are therefore
sometimes difficult to understand, solve or
produce:
The watch mechanism is extremely intricate and
very difficult to repair.
Police officers uncovered an intricate web of
deceit.
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 16. concussion
noun [U]
temporary damage to the brain caused by a fall
or hit on the head or by violent shaking:
He's been a bit dizzy and confused since the
accident. Do you think it's mild concussion?
concuss verb [T often passive]
to give someone concussion
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17. futile
adjective
(of actions) having no effect or achieving
nothing; unsuccessful:
It's quite futile trying to reason with him he just won't listen.
All my attempts to cheer her up proved
futile.
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18. boo (DISAPPROVAL)
verb [I or T] booing, booed, booed
to make an expression of strong
disapproval or disagreement:
People at the back started booing loudly.
Her singing was so bad that she was
booed off the stage.
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 19. canvas noun
1 [U] strong, rough cloth used for making tents,
sails, bags, strong clothes, etc.
2 [C] a piece of canvas used by artists for
painting on, usually with oil paints, or the
painting itself:
These two canvases by Hockney would sell for
£500 000.
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 20. A. jab verb -bb1 [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition] to push or hit
something forcefully and quickly, often with a thin or
sharp object:
The doctor jabbed the needle into the dog's leg.
Watch out! You nearly jabbed me in the eye with your
umbrella!
He was jabbing a finger at (= towards) them and
shouting angrily.
2 [I] to make quick forceful hits with your fist when
boxing
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20. B. jab
noun [C]
a quick hard push or hit:
She gave me a sharp jab in the ribs with
her elbow to stop me from saying any
more.
The boxer was floored by a punishing left
jab.
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 21. squirt
verb
1 [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition] (to force a
liquid) to flow out through a narrow opening in a fast
stream:
He squirted some tomato sauce on his burger (碎肉夹饼).
There was a leak in one of the pipes and water was
squirting out all over the kitchen floor.
2 [T] to hit someone or something with a liquid or gas:
She was squirting the neighbors with a water pistol.
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 22. Poleax verb [T]
1 to hit someone so hard that they fall down:
Blake was poleaxed by a missile (发射物) thrown
from the crowd.
2 INFORMAL to give someone such a great
shock that they do not know what to do:
He was completely poleaxed when his wife left
him.
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23. mores
plural noun FORMAL
the traditional customs and ways of
behaving that are typical of a particular
(part of) society:
middle-class mores
the mores and culture of the Japanese
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 1. Colossus  1. a person or thing of very great
size, importance or ability
 2. adequate  2. just enough (for the purpose)
 3. lacework
 4. exquisitely
 3. a netlike ornamental cloth made
of delicate threads
 5. intricate
 4. almost perfectly
 6. encase
 5. complicated
 6. put into a case
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7.withstand
8. futile
9.intervene
10. boo
11. squirt
12. wobble
 7. remain unharmed
 8. useless
 9. take action (in order to)
prevent something from
happening
 10. express disapproval or
strong disagreement by saying
boo
 11. gush out in a thin fast
stream
 12. move unsteadily from side
to side
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 Answers to the translation:
 1. 只学习不实践是没用的。
It is no use learning without practice.
 2. 所有人都意识到吸烟的危害。
Everyone should be aware of the dangers of cigarette smoking.
3. 由于食物不好,我生病了。
My illness was due to bad food.
 4. 他们有把握获胜。
They are confident of victory.
 5. 本文的目的是讨论电脑设计的新趋势。
The article aims at discussing recent trends in computer design.
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Unit 9
 Word Level Test 1
 1. He has a successful car___as a lawyer.
 2. The thieves threw ac____ in his face and made him
blind.
 3. To improve the country's economy, the government
decided on economic ref___.
 4. She wore a beautiful green go___ to the ball.
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5. The government tried to protect the country's
industry by reducing the imp____of cheap goods.
6. The children's games were amusing at first, but
finally got on the parents' ner___.
7. The lawyer gave some wise coun___ to his
client.
8. Many people in England mow the la___ of their
houses on Sunday morning.
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 9. The farmer sells the eggs that his he ___lays.
 10. Sudden noises at night sca___ me a lot.
 11. France was proc___ a republic in the 18th
century.
 12. Many people are inj___ in road accidents
every year.
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13. Suddenly he was thru___ into the dark
room.
14. He perc___ a light at the end of the
tunnel.
15. Children are not independent. They
are att___ to their parents.
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 16. She showed off her sle___ figure in a long
narrow dress.
 17. She has been changing partners often
because she cannot have a sta___ relationship
with one person.
 18. You must wear a bathing suit on a public
beach. You're not allowed to bath na___.
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Unit 9
About TCM英语专业四级考试大纲.doc
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Unit 9








TEXT II A Piece of Steak
Questions
1. Where did the story take place?
2. What feature or features of Tom King tell people that
he was a prizefighter?
3. Describe Tom King's personality.
4. Why did tradesmen no longer agree to let Tom King
buy anything on credit?
5. What did Tom King do to support his family between
fights?
6. What do you think were the causes of Tom King's
defeat?"
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Unit 9
About the phrases and collocations
1. sort out the phrases and collocations
from the text.
2. classified them.
3. share them.
4. put them back to the text.
5. make a comparison.
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Unit 9
Vocabulary
1. morsel: noun [C]
1 a very small piece of food:
a morsel of cheese
The prisoners ate every last morsel.
2 a very small piece or amount:
a morsel of good news
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2. gravy: noun [U]
a sauce made from meat juices, liquid and
flour, and served with meat and
vegetables
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3. resulting: adjective [before noun]
(FORMAL resultant)
caused by the event or situation which you
have just mentioned:
The tape was left near a magnetic source,
and the resulting damage was
considerable.
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4. oppress (MAKE UNCOMFORTABLE)
verb [T]
to make a person feel uncomfortable or
anxious, and sometimes ill:
Strange dreams and nightmares
oppressed him.
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5. wear (WEAKEN) verb [I] wore, worn
to become weaker, damaged or thinner
because of continuous use:
I'm very fond of this shirt but it's starting to
wear at the collar.
The wheel bearings have worn over the
years, which is what's causing the noise.
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 6. rickety adjective
in bad condition and therefore weak and likely to
break:
Careful! That chair's a bit rickety.
She slowly climbed the rickety wooden steps.
FIGURATIVE The recession put a lot of strain on
an already rickety economic system.
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 7. protest
noun
1 [C or U] a strong complaint expressing
disagreement, disapproval or opposition:
Protests have been made/registered by many
people who would be affected by the proposed
changes.
A formal protest was made by the German team
about their disqualification from the relay final.
Conservation groups have united in protest
against the planned new road.
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8. dip (PUT INTO)
verb [T] -pp1 to put something briefly into a liquid:
Dip the fish in the batter, then drop it into
the hot oil.
She dipped her toe into the pool to see
how cold it was.
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9. sole noun
1 FOOT [C] the bottom part of your foot
that you walk on
2 SHOE [C] the part of a shoe that is
under your foot
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 10. fray verb
1 CLOTH [I,T] If material or clothing frays, or if it
is frayed, the threads at the edge break and
become loose.
2 ANNOYED [I] If your temper (= mood) frays or
your nerves fray, you gradually become annoyed
or upset.
After hours of waiting, tempers were beginning
to fray.
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11. ineradicable
adjective FORMAL
not able to be removed:
Some experiences in early life have
ineradicable effects.
ineradicable adj form (impression)
indéracinable; (disease) incurable
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12. stain (MARK)
verb
1 [I or T] to leave a mark on something
which is difficult to remove:
Tomato sauce stains terribly - it's really
difficult to get it out of clothes.
While she was changing the wheel on her
car, her coat had become stained with oil.
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shaggy adjective
having or covered with long, rough and
untidy hair, or (of hair) long, rough and
untidy:
a shaggy dog/pony
the shaggy coat of a sheep
a shaggy rug
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sheer (COMPLETE)
adjective [before noun]
used to emphasize how very great,
important or powerful a quality or feeling is;
nothing except:
The suggestion is sheer nonsense.
His success was due to sheer
willpower/determination.
It was sheer coincidence that we met.
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slant verb
1 [I or T] to (cause to) lean in a diagonal
position; to (cause to) slope:
Italic writing slants to the right.
The evening sun slanted (= shone with the
light moving in a slope) through the
narrow window.
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cauliflower noun [C or U] (UK
INFORMAL cauli)
a large round white vegetable which is
eaten cooked or raw
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distort verb [T]
to change something from its usual,
original, natural or intended meaning,
condition or shape:
My original statement has been completely
distorted by the media.
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adorn verb [T] LITERARY
to add something decorative to a person
or thing:
The bride's hair was adorned with pearls
and white flowers.
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alley noun [C] (ALSO alleyway)
a narrow road or path between buildings,
or a path in a park or garden, especially
bordered by trees or bushes
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brawl noun [C]
a noisy, rough, uncontrolled fight:
a drunken brawl
brawl verb [I]
The young men had nothing better to do
than brawl (= fight) in the streets.
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grudge noun [C]
a strong feeling of anger and dislike for a
person who you feel has treated you badly,
which often lasts for a long time:
I don't bear any grudge against you.
Philippa still has/holds a grudge against
me for refusing to lend her that money.
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maim
verb [I or T]
to injure a person so severely that a part of
their body will no longer work as it should:
Many children have been maimed for life
by these bombs.
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blimey
exclamation UK OLD-FASHIONED
INFORMAL
an expression of surprise:
Blimey, what a lot of food!
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 clench
verb [T]
to close or hold something very tightly, often in a
determined or angry way:
The old man clenched his fist and waved it
angrily at us.
With a knife clenched in/between his teeth, he
climbed up the tree to cut some coconuts.
"Get out of here, " she said through clenched
teeth.
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 falter
verb [I]
1 to lose strength or purpose and stop, or almost
stop:
The dinner party conversation faltered for a
moment.
Her friends never faltered in their belief in her.
Nigel's voice faltered and he stopped speaking.
2 to move awkwardly as if you might fall:
The nurse saw him falter and made him lean on
her.
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bull terrier noun [C]
a strong-looking type of dog with short hair
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navvy
noun [C] UK OLD-FASHIONED
INFORMAL
a man who is employed to do unskilled
physical work, usually building or making
roads
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 spar (FIGHT)
verb [I] -rr1 to practise boxing, without hitting hard
2 to argue:
Frank and Jill always spar with each other at meetings,
but they're good friends really.
spar (FIGHT) verb [I] -rr1 to practise boxing, without hitting hard
2 to argue:
Frank and Jill always spar with each other at meetings,
but they're good friends really.
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Cub noun [C]
a young lion, bear, wolf, etc.
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 grind (MAKE SMALLER)
verb [T] ground, ground
to make something into small pieces or a
powder by pressing between hard surfaces:
to grind coffee
Shall I grind a little black pepper over your pizza?
They grind the grain into flour (= make flour by
crushing grain) between two large stones.
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quid
noun [C] plural quid UK INFORMAL
a pound; £1:
Could you lend me twenty quid (= £20),
mate?
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tram UK
noun [C] (US USUALLY streetcar, US
ALSO trolley)
an electric vehicle that transports people,
usually in cities, and goes along metal
tracks in the road
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taxi (VEHICLE)
noun [C] (ALSO taxicab or cab)
a car with a driver whom you pay to take
you somewhere:
I took a taxi from the station to the hotel.
a taxi driver
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flatter
verb [T]
1 to praise someone in order to make
them feel attractive or important,
sometimes in a way that is not sincere:
I knew he was only flattering me because
he wanted to borrow some money.
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toff
noun [C] UK OLD-FASHIONED
a rich person from a high social class:
Gone are the days when champagnedrinking was just for toffs.
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vein (TUBE)
noun [C]
1 a tube that carries blood to the heart
from the other parts of the body
2 the frame of a leaf or an insect's wing
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knuckle noun [C]
one of the joints in the hand where your
fingers bend, especially where your fingers
join on to the main part of your hand
See picture .
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 weary
adjective
1 very tired, especially after working hard for a long time:
I think he's a little weary after his long journey.
Here, sit down and rest your weary legs.
2 weary of bored with something because you have
experienced too much of it:
I've been going out with the same people to the same
clubs for years and I've just grown weary of it.
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bloke
noun [C] UK INFORMAL
a man, often one who is considered to be
ordinary:
Paul's a really good bloke (= I like him a
lot).
He's a funny (sort of) bloke (= slightly
strange).
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ruminate (THINK)
verb [I] FORMAL
to think carefully and for a long period
about something:
She ruminated for weeks about whether to
tell him or not.
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stolid
adjective SLIGHTLY DISAPPROVING
(of a person) calm and not showing
emotion or excitement, or (of a thing) not
interesting or attractive:
He's a very stolid, serious man.
The college is a stolid-looking building with
no lawn.
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exultant adjective FORMAL
very happy, especially at someone else's
defeat or failure:
an exultant cheer
an exultant crowd
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invincible adjective
impossible to defeat or prevent from doing
what is intended:
Last year the company seemed/looked
invincible but in recent weeks has begun
to have problems.
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supple (BENDING)
bending or able to be bent easily; not stiff:
I'm not supple enough (= My body doesn't
bend easily enough) to be able to touch
the floor with my hands while I'm standing
up.
The gloves were made of very supple
leather.
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 palpitate verb [I]
(of the heart) to beat very fast and irregularly:
My heart was palpitating with fear.
palpitations
plural noun
1 when your heart beats too quickly or irregularly:
He ended up in hospital with heart palpitations.
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 wrench (PULL) verb
1 [T + adverb or preposition] to pull and twist
something suddenly or violently away from a
fixed position:
The photographer tripped over a lead,
wrenching a microphone from its stand.
The phone had been wrenched from/off the wall.
The ball was wrenched out of his grasp by
another player.
His hands were tied but he managed to wrench
himself free.
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Word Level Test 2Word Level Test 2.doc
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ORAL WORK
Role-play
What Do People Come Out to See in a
Boxing Match?
Interaction Activities
On Sports
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 Suggestions:
 1. For - Yes. Nearly all sports practiced today are
competitive. You play to win, and a game has little
meaning unless you do your utmost to win. Often you
represent your class, your school, the locality where you
are from, or even your country, in athletic contests; and
you do the best you can in order to win.
 Against - Not always. Often people are engaged in
sports activities for amusement or exercise. Take golf,
tennis, or basketball, for example. Lots of people play
these not to win a game but to keep fit.
 2. give your own opinions on this question.
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 3. a. Similarity: Both boxing and wushu enable one to
defend oneself and attack others.
 b. Differences:
 i. Boxing only consists of free combat while wushu
combines free combat with routine performances.
 ii. Boxing involves two people, but wushu does not.
 iii. Boxing is almost always competitive, but wushu is not.
 iv. People learn to do wushu in order to keep fit, but this
is not so with boxing.
 4. a. physical exercise
 b. amusement
 c. competition
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GUIDED WRITING
Précis Writing
Paragraph Writing
Letter Writing
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1. word level test 3
5000 Level Word Test 1.doc
2. Sort out phrases in the text.
3. Language Points
4. Vocabulary
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under sb's thumb
to be under someone's control:
He's got the committee firmly under his
thumb - they agree to whatever he asks.
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cudgel
noun [C]
a short heavy stick used for hitting people
cudgel
verb [T] -ll- or US USUALLY -lto hit someone with a cudgel
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 duck (MOVE)
verb
1 [I or T] to move your head or the top part of your body
quickly down, especially to avoid being hit:
I saw the ball hurtling towards me and ducked (down).
Duck your head or you'll bang it on the doorframe.
2 [T] to push someone underwater for a short time:
The boys were splashing about and ducking each other
in the pool.
3 [I + adverb or preposition] to move quickly to a place,
especially in order not to be seen:
When he saw them coming, he ducked into a doorway.
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 wince
verb [I]
to tighten the muscles of the face briefly and
suddenly in a show of pain, worry, or
embarrassment
She cut her finger, but didn't even wince.
wince
noun [C usually sing]
"These pictures are disgusting," Jones said with
a wince.
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flee
verb [I or T; never passive] fleeing, fled,
fled
to escape by running away, especially
because of danger or fear:
She fled (from) the room in tears.
In order to escape capture, he fled to the
mountains.
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not get/go anywhere INFORMAL
If you are not getting/going anywhere, you
are not improving or advancing a particular
situation:
I've been sorting out my study all day, but
it's such a mess I don't feel I'm getting
anywhere.
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tell sb off phrasal verb [M]
to speak angrily at someone because they
have done something wrong:
The teacher told me off for swearing.
telling-off noun [C usually singular]
plural tellings-off
He gave me a good telling-off for
forgetting the meeting.
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 placate
verb [T]
to stop someone from feeling angry:
Outraged minority groups will not be placated by
promises of future improvements.
placatory
adjective FORMAL
trying to avoid making someone angry:
The tone of the letter was placatory.
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white flag noun [C]
a flag that is waved to show the
acceptance of defeat or a lack of intention
to attack:
The soldiers lay down their guns and
walked towards the enemy camp, carrying
a white flag.
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studious
adjective
describes someone who enjoys studying
or spends a lot of time studying:
She was a studious child, happiest when
reading.
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enormous
adjective
extremely large:
an enormous car/house
He earns an enormous salary.
I was absolutely enormous when I was
pregnant.
You've been an enormous help.
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indefensible
adjective
1 too bad to be protected from criticism:
The war is morally indefensible.
His opinions/attitudes are completely
indefensible.
2 not able to be protected against attack:
indefensible borders
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 improper (DISHONEST)
adjective FORMAL
dishonest and against a law or a rule:
The governor has denied making improper use
of state money.
improperly
adverb FORMAL
impropriety
noun [C or U] FORMAL
financial/legal impropriety
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 nail sb down phrasal verb INFORMAL
to make someone give you exact details or a
firm decision about something:
They nailed him down to a specific time and
place.
nail sth down (UNDERSTAND) phrasal verb [M]
US INFORMAL
to understand something completely, or to
describe something correctly:
We haven't been able to nail down the cause of
the fire yet.
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 make sth/sb out (UNDERSTAND) phrasal verb
[M]
to see, hear or understand something or
someone with difficulty:
The numbers are too small - I can't make them
out at all.
I can't make out your writing.
She's a strange person - I can't make her out at
all.
[+ question word] Nobody can make out why
you should have been attacked.
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mix sb/sth up (CONFUSE) phrasal verb
[M]
to fail to identify two people or things
correctly by thinking that one person or
thing is the other person or thing:
People often mix us up because we look
so similar.
I think you're mixing me up with my sister.
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mix sth up (UNTIDY) phrasal verb [M]
to make a group of things untidy or badly
organized, or to move them into the wrong
order:
Don't mix up the bottles - you'll have to
repeat the experiment if you do.
Your jigsaw puzzles and games are all
mixed up together in that box. Shall we
sort them out?
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 sway (MOVE)
verb
1 [I] to move slowly from side to side:
The trees were swaying in the wind.
The movement of the ship caused the mast to sway
from side to side/backwards and forwards.
A drunk was standing in the middle of the street, swaying
uncertainly and trying hard to stay upright.
2 [T] to cause something to move or change:
Recent developments have swayed the balance of
power in the region.
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 malice noun [U]
the wish to harm or upset other people:
There certainly wasn't any malice in her comments.
FORMAL I bear him no malice (= do not want to harm or
upset him).
malicious
adjective
intended to harm or upset other people:
malicious gossip
a malicious look in his eyes
He complained that he'd been receiving malicious
telephone calls.
LEGAL He was charged with malicious wounding.
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 crash (FAIL) verb [I]
1 If something such as a business crashes, it
suddenly fails or becomes unsuccessful:
Investors were seriously worried when the stock
market began to crash.
2 If a computer or system crashes, it suddenly
stops operating:
My laptop's crashed again.
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 indignant
adjective
angry because of something which is wrong or not fair:
She wrote an indignant letter to the paper complaining
about the council's action.
He became very indignant when it was suggested he
had made a mistake.
indignantly
adverb
"I said no such thing!" she cried indignantly.
indignation
noun [U]
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puny adjective
small; weak; not effective:
a puny little man
My car only has a puny little engine.
The party's share of the vote rose from a
puny 11% in the last election to 21% this
time.
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trail away/off phrasal verb
When a person's voice or a similar sound
trails away/off, it becomes quieter and less
confident and then stops completely:
His voice trailed off as he saw the look on
her face.
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toy with sth (CONSIDER) phrasal verb
to consider something or doing something,
but not in a very serious way, and without
making a decision:
We're toying with the idea of going to Peru
next year.
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 thunderbolt
noun
1 [C] a flash of lightning and the sound of
thunder together
2 [S] an announcement, event or idea that is
completely unexpected or shocking:
He dropped a thunderbolt on us this morning,
when he told us that we were closing down.
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 execute (KILL)
verb [T]
to kill someone as a legal punishment:
He was executed for murder.
execution noun [C or U]
when someone is killed as a legal punishment:
Execution is still the penalty in some states for
murder.
The executions will be carried out by a firing
squad.
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indolent
adjective LITERARY
lazy; showing no real interest or effort:
an indolent wave of the hand
an indolent reply
indolently
adverb LITERARY
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to the core
1 in every part:
He's a Conservative to the core.
2 to an extreme degree:
I was shocked to the core.
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wry
adjective [before noun]
showing that you find a bad or difficult
situation slightly amusing:
a wry smile/comment
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shrug sth off (NOT WORRY) phrasal
verb [M]
to treat something as if it is not important
or not a problem:
The stock market shrugged off the
economic gloom and rose by 1.5%.
You're a father and you can't simply shrug
off your responsibility for your children.
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 impostor, imposter
noun [C]
a person who pretends to be someone else in
order to deceive others:
He felt like an impostor among all those
intelligent people, as if he had no right to be
there.
imposture
noun [C or U] FORMAL
the act of pretending to be someone else in
order to deceive others
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blush
verb [I]
to become pink in the face, usually from
embarrassment:
I always blush when I speak in public.
I blush to think of what a fool I made of
myself.
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bawl
verb [I or T]
to shout in a very loud rough voice, or to
cry loudly:
She bawled at me to sit down.
The two girls were now bawling (= crying
loudly) in unison.
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 pandemonium
noun [U]
a situation in which there is a lot of noise and
confusion because people are excited, angry or
frightened:
Pandemonium reigned in the hall as the
unbelievable election results were read out.
the pandemonium of the school playground
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gramophone noun [C]
OLD-FASHIONED FOR record player
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 strike (CAUSE TO THINK)
verb [T] struck, struck
If a thought or idea strikes you, you suddenly
think of it:
[+ that] It's just struck me that I still owe you for
the concert tickets.
Sitting at her desk, she was struck by the
thought that there must be something more to
life.
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briefcase
noun [C]
a rectangular case, used especially for
carrying business documents
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Geoffrey Chaucer(1340-1400) led a busy
official life, as an esquire(骑士)
of the royal court, as the
comptroller (审计员)of the
customs for the port of
London, as a participant in
Important diplomatic missions,
and in a variety of other official duties.
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The Canterbury Tales
Above is a pilgrimage
scene from a stained glass window in
Canterbury Cathedral.
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alas
adverb OLD-FASHIONED OR FORMAL
used to express sadness or regret:
I love football but, alas, I have no talent as
a player.
"Will you be able to come tomorrow?"
"Alas, no."
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 cor (EXPRESSING INTEREST) exclamation
UK SLANG
an expression of interest and admiration or
surprise:
Cor! Did you see him in the blue swimming
trunks?
(swimming trunks plural noun MAINLY UK
a piece of men's clothing that is worn when
swimming )
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 falsetto
noun [C] plural falsettos
a form of singing or speaking by men using an
extremely high voice:
For his role as a young boy, he had to speak in a
high falsetto.
falsetto
adjective, adverb
The lead singer has a falsetto voice.
to sing falsetto
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 fairy tale noun [C] (ALSO fairy story)
a traditional story written for children which
usually involves imaginary creatures and magic
fairy-tale, fairytale
adjective [before noun] APPROVING
having a special and charming or beautiful
quality, like something in a fairy tale:
They had a fairy-tale wedding.
Sadly, there was no fairytale happy ending to the
story.
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









 1. move back suddenly, often
1. wince
showing a painful expression
2. illegally
 2. against the rules and regulations of
the school
3. creep
4. indefensible  3. move slowly and quietly
5. maliciously  4. which cannot be excused,
inexcusable
6. puny
 5. wishing to do harm
7. mass execution
 6. small and weak
8. indolently
 7. putting a lot of people to death
9. impostor
10. appropriate  8. lazily
 9. person who pretends to be
somebody he is not
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 10. in keeping with (the condition in
Unit 10
1. Vocabulary Test abroad.doc
2. Text Ⅱ An Exeter School Boy
A. Pick Out the Phrases
B. background
C. Language points
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Exeter is one of busy ports and cathedral
cities on the River Exe in Devon. Exeter is
filled with ancient houses, winding streets,
Roman artefacts (人工品) and buildings
dating from the 14th and 15th centuries.
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Exeter
Exeter Cathedral
An old cobbled street
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aggravate
to make worse, more serious, or more
severe : <problems have been aggravated
by neglect>
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 warden
1 : one having care or charge of
something : GUARDIAN, KEEPER
3 a : an official charged with special
supervisory duties or with the enforcement
of specified laws or regulations <game
warden> <air raid warden>
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sewage: n.下水道, 污水
v.用污水灌溉, 装下水道于
refuse liquids or waste matter carried off
by sewers (n.下水道, 缝具, 缝纫者)
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Pavilion n.大帐蓬, 亭, 阁
vt.搭帐蓬, 笼罩
1 : a large often sumptuous tent
2 : a part of a building projecting from the
rest
3 : a light sometimes ornamental structure
in a garden, park, or place of recreation
that is used for entertainment or shelter
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Bonus n.奖金, 红利 something in
addition to what is expected or strictly due:
as a : money or an equivalent given in
addition to an employee‘s usual
compensation
461
Unit 10
grin: to draw back the lips so as to show
the teeth especially in amusement or
laughter; broadly : SMILE
462
Unit 10
Hiss v.嘶嘶作声, 用嘘声表示
1 : to express disapproval of by hissing
<hissed the performers off the stage>
2 : to utter or whisper angrily or
threateningly and with a hiss
463
Unit 11
1. word level test 4
5000 level test 2.doc
2. Sort out phrases in the text.
3. backgrounds
4. Language Points
5. Vocabulary
464
Unit 11
 Shaka Zulu
(1787-1828)
Zulu King
 Shaka, king of the Zulus,
devised innovative tactics and
weapons to establish nineteenth-century
Zulu dominance of Africa and increase
his control over a population that began
at 1,500 and grew to more than 250,000.
Shaka still managed to develop a military system that
reined supreme for more than fifty years after his death.
465
Unit 11
 Zulu
 Location: Natal Province in South Africa
 Population: 3 million
 Language: Kwazulu (Nguni)
 Neighboring Peoples: Sotho, Tswana, San
 Types of Art: The Zulu are best known for their
beadwork and basketry. There have also been
some figural sculpture questionably attributed to
them. Zulu architecture is quite complex, and the
dress or fashion of the Zulu has been carefully
studied.
466
Unit 11
 Map of South Africa
467
Unit 11
 Napoleon I
Emperor of the French
 1769 – 1821
 Through his military exploits and
his ruthless efficiency, Napoleon
rose from obscurity (身份低微)to become Napoleon I,
Empereur des Francais (Emperor of the French). He is
both a historical figure and a legend—and it is
sometimes difficult to separate the two. The events of
his life fired the imaginations of great writers, film
makers, and playwrights whose works have done much
to create the Napoleonic legend.
468
Unit 11
Battle of Waterloo, final and decisive
action of the Napoleonic Wars, that
effectively ended French domination of the
European continent and brought about
drastic changes in the political boundaries
and the power balance of Europe. Fought
on June 18, 1815, near Waterloo, in what
is now Belgium, the battle ranks as a great
turning point in modern history.
469
Unit 11
On June 18, 1815, French emperor
Napoleon I and his armies met a force of
primarily Austrian, Prussian, and British
troops near the town of Waterloo, in
modern Belgium. The Battle of Waterloo
was one of the bloodiest in modern history,
and it ended in Napoleon’s crushing defeat.
470
Unit 11
 Shown here, Prussian troops storm the village of
Plancenoit, southeast of Waterloo, during the
battle.
471
Unit 11
Language points:
chieftain noun [C]
the leader of a tribe
472
Unit 11
 escort (GO WITH) [ isk:t ]
 v.护卫, 护送, 陪同verb [T]
1 to go with someone or a vehicle especially to
make certain that they arrive safely or that they
leave a place: The police escorted her to the
airport, and made sure that she left the country.
2 to go with someone and show them a place:
People on the tour will be escorted by an expert
on archaeology. (n.考古学)
473
Unit 11
 escort noun
1 [C] a person who goes somewhere with
another person as a helper or a guard:
The members of the jury left the court with a
police escort.
2 [U] the state of having someone with you who
gives you protection or guards you:
The prisoners were transported under military
escort.
474
Unit 11
 slay
verb [T] slew or slayed, slain
1 UK OLD USE OR LITERARY to kill in a violent way:
St George slew the dragon.
2 (used especially in newspapers) to murder someone:
He was found slain in an alley two blocks from his
apartment.
slaying
noun [C] MAINLY US
a murder
475
Unit 11
 jungle (PLACE)
noun
1 [C or U] a tropical forest in which trees and
plants grow very closely together:
Either side of the river is dense, impenetrable
jungle.
2 [S] an uncontrolled or confusing mass of things:
Our garden is a real jungle.
a jungle of regulations/laws
476
Unit 11
thorn
noun [C]
a small sharp pointed growth on the stem
of a plant
thorny adjective
having thorns
477
Unit 11
 formidable adj.强大的, 令人敬畏的, 可怕的, 艰
难的
causing you to have fear or respect for
something or someone because they are
impressive, powerful or difficult:
a formidable obstacle/task
a formidable adversary/enemy/opponent
a formidable intellect
478
Unit 11
 snap (BREAK)
verb -pp1 [I or T] to cause something which is thin to
break suddenly and quickly with a cracking
sound:
You'll snap that ruler if you bend it too far.
2 [I] to suddenly become unable to control a
strong feeling, especially anger:
When she asked me to postpone my trip to help
her move house, I just snapped (= got angry).
479
Unit 11
regiment noun [group]
a large group of soldiers
regimental
adjective
relating to a regiment
480
Unit 11
 scour [ skau] verb [T]
vt.冲洗, 擦亮, (搜索或追捕时)急速走遍
1 SEARCH to search for something very carefully,
often over a large area
The police scoured the surrounding countryside
for possible clues.
2 CLEAN to clean something by rubbing it with
something rough
481
Unit 11
mourn
verb [I,T]
to feel very sad because someone has
died
He mourned for his dead son every day.
482
Unit 11
Staple n.钉书钉, 钉, 主要产品(或商品)
adj.主要的, 常用的, 大宗生产的
adjective [always before noun]
A staple food, product, etc is basic and
very important.
a staple diet of rice and fish
483
Unit 11
 sentence1
noun
1 WORDS [C] a group of words, usually
containing a verb, that expresses a complete
idea
2 PUNISHMENT [C,U] a punishment that a
judge gives to someone who has committed a
crime
a 30-year sentence
484
Unit 11
sentence2
verb [T]
to give a punishment to someone who has
committed a crime
[often passive] She was sentenced to six
months in prison.
485
Unit 11
 brood1
noun [C]
a family of young birds or animals, all born at the
same time
brood2
verb [I]
to think for a long time about things that make
you sad or angry
I wish he'd stop brooding about the past.
486
Unit 11
 desperate
adjective
1 WITHOUT HOPE feeling that you have no hope and
are ready to do anything to change the situation you are
in
He was absolutely desperate and would have tried
anything to get her back.
2 NEEDING SOMETHING needing or wanting
something very much
By two o'clock I was desperate for something to eat.
3 BAD A desperate situation is very bad or serious.
The economy is in a really desperate situation.
487
Unit 11
 tyranny [ tir ]noun [U]
1 government by a ruler or small group of people who
have unlimited power over the people in their country or
state and use it unfairly and cruelly:
This, the president promised us, was a war against
tyranny.
2 when a situation or person controls how you are able
to live, in an unfair way:
Women, the play seems to suggest, must resist the
tyranny of domesticity. (Domesticity [dmestisiti ]n.
家庭生活, 专心于家务, 对家庭的挚爱, 家庭生活)
488
Unit 11
 instant noun [S]
an extremely short period of time; a moment:
In an instant her mood had changed.
"Stop that noise this instant (= now)!"
I'll call you the instant (= as soon as) I get home.
instant adjective
1 happening immediately, without any delay:
This type of account offers you instant access to
your money.
489
Unit 11
2 Instant food or drink is dried, usually in
the form of a powder, and can be prepared
very quickly by adding hot water:
instant coffee/soup
490
Unit 11
 enclose (SURROUND) verb [T]
to surround:
The park that encloses the monument has recently been
enlarged.
enclosed adjective
surrounded by walls, objects or structures:
He doesn't like enclosed spaces.
enclosure
noun [C] an enclosed area:
the members enclosure
491
Unit 11
pull yourself together (CALM) phrasal
verb [R]
to become calm and behave normally
again after being angry or upset:
Just pull yourself together. There's no
point crying about it.
492
Unit 11
 Gasp verb [I]
1 to take a short quick breath through the mouth,
especially because of surprise, pain or shock:
When she saw the money hidden in the box she
gasped in surprise.
2 UK INFORMAL be gasping to be very thirsty
gasp noun [C]
when you gasp:
He gave a gasp of amazement.
493
Unit 11
 grip (HOLD) verb [I or T] -ppto hold very tightly:
The baby gripped my finger with her tiny hand.
Old tyres won't grip (= stay on the surface of the
road) in the rain very well.
grip noun [C usually singular]
She tightened her grip (= tight hold) on my arm.
She would not loosen her grip on my arm.
494
Unit 11
club (WEAPON)
noun [C]
a heavy stick used as a weapon
club verb [T] -bbto beat a person or an animal, usually
repeatedly, with a heavy stick or object:
He was clubbed over the head.
The alligators are then clubbed to death.
495
Unit 11










Vocabulary
1.ruthless
2. slayer
3. formidable
4.scour
5.staple diet
6. brooding
7. intensive
8. tyranny
9.royal
enclosure
 10.councillor










1. very cruel
2. killer, murder
3. difficult to defeat
4.go through(an area thoroughly in
search of sth.
5.the most important food
6.sad
7.deep and thorough
8.cruel or unjust use of power to rule
a country
9.the closed area that belongs to the
king
10. member of a group of people
chosen to make laws, rules or
496
decisions for a country
Unit 11
1. collocation exercise.doc
2. Pick out phrases in textⅡ.
3. Language Points
497
Unit 11
stamp (LETTER) noun [C]
1 (FORMAL postage stamp) a small
piece of paper with a picture or pattern on
it which is stuck onto a letter or parcel
before it is posted to show that postage
has been paid for:
I stuck a 50p stamp on the envelope.
498
Unit 11
 stamp (FOOT) verb [I or T] (US ALSO stomp)
to put a foot down on the ground hard and
quickly, making a loud noise, often to show
anger:
The little boy was stamping his foot and refusing
to take his medicine.
She stood by the road, stamping her feet to stay
warm.
I wish those people upstairs would stop
stamping (about/around).
Why did you stamp on that insect?
499
Unit 11
virtue (ADVANTAGE)
noun [C or U]
(an) advantage or benefit:
It always looks odd to see an actress on
TV extolling (= praising) the virtues of
washing-up liquid.
Would there be any virtue in taking an
earlier train?
500
Unit 11
 stab
verb -bb1 [T] to injure someone with a sharp pointed
object such as a knife:
She was stabbed several times in the chest.
He was jailed for fifteen years for stabbing his
wife to death.
2 [I or T] to make a short forceful pushing
movement with a finger or a long thin object:
As she spoke she stabbed the air with her finger.
He stabbed at the meat with his fork.
501
Unit 11
 spear
noun [C]
a weapon consisting of a pole with a sharp, usually metal,
point at one end, which is either thrown or held in the
hand
spear verb [T]
1 to push or throw a spear into an animal:
They catch the fish by spearing them.
2 to catch something on the end of a pointed tool or
object:
He speared a meatball with his fork.
502
Unit 11
sandal noun [C]
a light shoe, especially worn in warm
weather, consisting of a bottom part held
onto the foot by straps:
a pair of sandals
open-toed sandals
503
Unit 11
 Grumble verb [I]
1 to complain about someone or something in
an annoyed way:
She spent the evening grumbling to me about
her job.
2 If your stomach grumbles, it makes a low
continuous noise, usually because you are
hungry.
504
Unit 11
spike (POINT)
noun [C]
a narrow thin shape with a sharp point at
one end, or something, especially a piece
of metal, with this shape:
There were large spikes on top of the
railings to stop people climbing over them.
505
Unit 11
parade ground noun [C usually singular]
a large flat area where soldiers march and
practice military movements
506
Unit 11
 parade verb
1 [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition] (of a group) to
walk or march somewhere, usually as part of a public
celebration:.
In ancient Rome, captured generals were paraded
through the streets in chairs.
2 [I or T] to show something in an obvious way in order
to be admired:
It's sickening the way he parades his wealth, his car and
his expensive clothes.
The children paraded about/around in their new clothes.
507
Unit 11
address (SPEAK TO)
verb [T] FORMAL
to speak or write to someone:
He addressed a few introductory remarks
to the audience.
He likes to be addressed as 'Sir' or 'Mr
Partridge'.
508
Unit 11
grit noun [U]
very small pieces of stone or sand:
The road had been covered with grit.
grit verb [T] -ttto put small stones on a surface so that it
is less smooth and therefore safer:
Council lorries had been out gritting the icy
roads the night before.
509
Unit 11
 horn (ANIMAL) noun [C or U]
a hard, pointed, often curved part that grows
from the top of the head of some animals, or the
hard substance of which a horn is made
horny
adjective
1 made of a hard substance, like horn:
Birds have horny beaks.
2 (especially of skin) hard and rough
510
Unit 11
 impervious (SUBSTANCE) adjective
not allowing liquid to go through:
How does glue bond with impervious
substances like glass and metal?
impervious (PERSON)
adjective
describes a person who is not influenced or
affected by something:
He is impervious to criticism and rational
argument.
511
Unit 11
 eagle eye noun [C usually singular]
If someone has an eagle eye, they notice
everything, even very small details:
We sat down and started the exam under the
eagle eye of the teacher.
eagle-eyed
adjective
My eagle-eyed mother noticed that some cakes
had gone missing.
512
Unit 11
pick sb/sth out (RECOGNIZE) phrasal
verb [M]
to recognize, find or make a choice among
different people or items in a group:
Can you pick out the three deliberate
mistakes in this paragraph?
The critics picked him out as the
outstanding male dancer of the decade.
513
Unit 11
 out of sight
1 INFORMAL extremely expensive and more than you
are able to spend:
The price of the house we like is out of sight.
2 SLANG excellent:
The group's new record is out of sight!
 Out of sight, out of mind. SAYING
said to emphasize that when something or someone
cannot be seen, it is easy to forget them
514
Unit 11
 grit one’s teeth
1 to press one’s top and bottom teeth together,
often in anger:
He gritted his teeth in silent fury.
2 to accept a difficult situation and deal with it in
a determined way:
We had to grit our teeth and agree with their
conditions because we wanted the contract.
515
Unit 11
 D:\Downloads\episode18.rm
 Episode 18.doc
516
Unit 11
wo051128.rm
wo051128w.rm
Learning English.doc
Highly skilled on
the football pitch
517
Unit 12
1. University Word Level Test 1.doc
2. Pick out phrases and collocations in the
text.
3. Language Points
4. Vocabulary
518
Unit 12
 thrill noun [C]
a feeling of extreme excitement, usually caused
by something pleasant:
the thrill of winning a competition
It gave me a real thrill to see her again after so
many years.
thrilled adjective
extremely pleased:
[+ that] I was thrilled that so many people turned
up to the party.
519
Unit 12
 relent
verb [I] SLIGHTLY FORMAL
to act in a less severe way towards someone and allow
something that you had refused to allow before:
Her parents eventually relented and let her go to the
party.
relentless adjective
continuing in a severe or extreme way:
relentless criticism/pressure
relentlessly adverb
She has campaigned relentlessly for her husband's
release from prison.
520
Unit 12
flake (SMALL PIECE) a small thin piece
of something, especially if it has come
from a layered surface:
flakes of snow
soap flakes
521
Unit 12
 ramble (SPREAD) verb [I]
(especially of a plant) to go in many different directions:
An old clematis (铁线莲 ) rambles over the garden wall.
rambling
adjective
large and spreading out in many different directions:
a rambling rose
a rambling old house
522
Unit 12
smooth sth over phrasal verb
to make problems, difficulties or
disagreements less serious or easier to
solve, usually by talking to the people
involved:
Would you like me to try to smooth things
over between you and your parents?
523
Unit 12
canopy noun [C]
1 a cover fixed over a seat or bed, etc. for
shelter or decoration
524
Unit 12
 scrap (SMALL PIECE)
noun [C]
a small irregular piece of something or a small amount of
information:
Have you got a scrap of paper I could write on?
I've read every scrap of information I can find on the
subject.
There's not a scrap of (= no) evidence to suggest that
he committed the crime.
scraps plural noun
small bits of food which have not been eaten and which
are usually thrown away:
We give all our scraps to our cat.
525
Unit 12
 delicate (EASILY DAMAGED)
adjective
needing careful treatment, especially because
easily damaged:
Peaches have delicate skins which are easily
bruised.
Delicate plants need to be kept in a greenhouse
during the winter.
delicate china
Molly's health has always been delicate (= She
becomes ill easily).
526
Unit 12
delicate (SOFT)
adjective
pleasantly soft or light; not strong:
a rose with a delicate scent
We chose a delicate floral pattern for our
bedroom curtains.
527
Unit 12
 churn (MOVE/MIX)
verb
1 [T] (ALSO churn up) to mix something,
especially a liquid, with great force:
The sea was churned up by heavy winds.
2 [T] to mix milk until it becomes butter
3 [I] If your stomach is churning, you feel ill,
usually because you are nervous:
I had my driving test that morning and my
stomach was churning.
528
Unit 12
grime
noun [U]
a layer of dirt on skin or on a building:
The walls were covered in grime.
grimy adjective
The child's face was grimy (= dirty) and
streaked ([ stri:kt ]有条斑纹的) with tears.
529
Unit 12
be in the grip of sth
to be experiencing something unpleasant
that you have no control over:
The country is currently in the grip of the
worst recession for twenty years.
530
Unit 12
tame (NOT FIERCE)
adjective
(especially of animals) not wild or fierce,
either naturally or because of training or
long involvement with humans:
After a few months' contact the monkeys
become very tame.
531
Unit 12
 chop (CUT)
verb [T] -ppto cut something into pieces with an axe, knife or
other sharp instrument:
He was chopping wood in the yard.
Add some fresh parsley, finely chopped.
Chop (up) the onions and carrots roughly.
INFORMAL Laura had her hair chopped (= cut)
yesterday.
532
Unit 12
 bowl (DISH) noun [C]
a round container that is open at the top and is
deep enough to hold fruit, sugar, etc., or the
rounded inside part of something:
a soup/cereal/salad/sugar bowl
a bowl of soup/rice/porridge
She eats a bowl (= the contents of a bowl) of
cereal every morning.
UK Just put the dirty dishes in the washing-up
bowl, and I'll do them later.
533
Unit 12
 overhaul
verb [T]
to repair or improve something so that every part
of it works properly:
I got the engine overhauled.
overhaul
noun [C]
I took my motorbike in for an overhaul.
534
Unit 12
 whistle verb
[I or T] to make a high sound by forcing air
through a small hole or passage, especially
through the lips, or through a special device
held to the lips:
On the days when she wore a skirt the men on the
building site would whistle at her.
The referee whistled and the game was over.
whistle noun [C]
a device which you hold to your lips and blow through in
order to make a loud, high sound:
The referee blew his whistle for half-time.
535
Unit 12
 pipe (TUBE)
noun [C]
a tube inside which liquid or gas flows from one
place to another:
a water/gas/sewer pipe.
pipe verb [T usually passive + adverb or
preposition]
Hot water is piped to all apartments from the
central boiler room.
536
Unit 12
bucket noun [C]
a container with an open top and a handle,
often used for carrying liquids:
Armed with a bucket and a mop, I started
washing the floor.
I took my two-year old nephew down to
the beach with his bucket and spade.
537
Unit 12
stove
noun [C]
1 a piece of equipment which burns fuel or
uses electricity in order to heat a place
2 MAINLY US a cooker
538
Unit 12
 tramp (WALK)
verb [I usually + adverb or preposition; T]
to walk, especially long distances or with heavy
steps:
to tramp through the forest/undergrowth
We spent a week tramping the streets of Rome,
looking for movie locations.
[C] a long walk:
The girls went for a tramp through the
countryside.
539
Unit 12
lug (CARRY)
verb [T usually + adverb or preposition] gg- INFORMAL
to carry or pull something with effort or
difficulty because it is heavy:
I'm exhausted after lugging these
suitcases all the way across London.
I don't want to lug these shopping bags
around with me all day.
540
Unit 12
 prompt (QUICK)
adjective
(of an action) done quickly and without delay, or (of a
person) acting quickly or arriving at the arranged time:
They've written back already - that was a very prompt
reply.
Try to be prompt because we'll be very short of time.
promptly
adverb
We'll have to leave fairly promptly (= on time) if we want
to catch that train.
We try to answer readers' letters as promptly (= quickly)
as we can.
She promised she'd keep it secret and promptly (=
immediately after) went and told Ben!
541
Unit 12
 thaw (BECOME NOT FROZEN) verb [I or T]
to (cause to) change from a solid, frozen state to a liquid
or soft one, because of an increase in temperature:
Allow the meat to thaw properly before cooking it.
The sun came out and thawed the ice.
It's beginning to thaw (= The weather is warm enough for
snow and ice to melt).
the thaw noun [S]
a period of warmer weather when snow and ice begin to
melt:
The thaw has set in early this year.
542
Unit 12
 squirt
verb
1 [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition]
(to force a liquid) to flow out through a narrow
opening in a fast stream:
He squirted some tomato sauce on his burger.
There was a leak in one of the pipes and water was
squirting out all over the kitchen floor.
2 [T] to hit someone or something with a liquid or gas:
She was squirting the neighbors with a water pistol.
543
Unit 12
 cart (VEHICLE)
1 a vehicle with either two or
four wheels which is pulled by
a horse, and which is used for carrying goods:
a horse and cart.
2 US FOR trolley (FOR CARRYING)
544
Unit 12
cart (TAKE) verb [T + adverb or
preposition]
to take something or someone somewhere,
especially using a lot of effort:
We carted all the rubbish to the bottom of
the garden and burned it.
545
Unit 12
 plumb (WATER)
verb [T]
to supply a building or a device with water pipes, or to
connect a building or a device to a water pipe:
We've discovered that our house isn't plumbed properly.
I think we can plumb the new bath into the existing pipes.
Have you plumbed the dishwasher in yet?
plumber
noun [C]
a person whose job is to supply and connect, or repair
water pipes, baths, toilets, etc:
When is the plumber coming to mend the burst pipe?
546
Unit 12
drown (DIE) verb [I or T]
to (cause to) die by being unable to
breathe under water:
He drowned in a boating accident.
Many animals were drowned by the tidal
wave.
547
Unit 12
 devote sth to sth/sb phrasal verb
1 to give all of something, especially your time, effort or
love, or yourself, to something you believe in or to a
person:
He left government to devote more time to his family.
[R] At the age of 25, he decided to devote himself to
God.
 devoted adjective
extremely loving and loyal:
a devoted fan/husband
Lucy is devoted to her cats.
548
Unit 12
 Vocabulary
 1.approximately
 2.relentlessly
 3.rambling garden
 4.canopy
 5.impression
 6.grimy
 1. nearly
 2. mercilessly, hard
 3. a garden with plants
that spread out in all
directions
 4. a cover (usually of cloth)
fixed above a bed or seat;
here, a covering
 5. a mark left by pressure
 6. covered with dark dirt
549
Unit 12






7.leftovers
 7. food remaining uneaten after a
meal
8.overhauling
 8. a thorough examination and
9.lug
repair if necessary
10.messy remains
 9. pull or carry with great effort
11.thaw
and difficulty
12. cart
 10. here, dirty egg whites and
yolks
 11. (of the weather) to become
warm enough for snow and ice to
melt
 12. carry by hand
550
Unit 12
1. joke.doc
2. Pick out phrases and collocations in
textⅡ.
3. Language Points
4. compare with 秋声赋
551
Unit 12
lullaby [bai] noun [C]
a quiet song which is sung to children to
help them go to sleep
552
Unit 12
oak
noun [C or U]
a large tree that is common especially in
northern countries, or the hard wood of
this tree:
a mighty oak
The timbers (wood) of those old sailing
ships were mainly oak.
an oak table/cupboard
553
Unit 12
pine (tree) noun [C or U]
an evergreen tree that grows in cooler
areas of the world:
a plantation of pines
a pine forest
554
Unit 12
 granite
noun [U]
a very hard, grey, pink and black rock, which is used for
building
 ledge
noun [C]
a narrow shelf which sticks out from a vertical surface
555
Unit 12
lichen [laikn]青苔, 地衣, 苔藓
a grey, green or yellow
plant-like organism that
grows especially on rocks,
walls and trees
556
Unit 12
hieroglyphics
plural noun
a system of writing which uses pictures
instead of words, especially as used in
ancient Egypt
557
Unit 12
hearth
noun [C]
1 the area around a fireplace or the area
of floor in front of it:
A bright fire was burning in the hearth.
558
Unit 12
flame (FIRE) noun [C or U]
burning gas (from something on fire) which
produces usually yellow light:
The flames grew larger as the fire spread.
When the fire engine arrived the house
was already in flames (= burning).
559
Unit 12
 violet (COLOUR)
noun [U], adjective
(having) a bluish purple color
violet (PLANT) noun [C]
a small plant with
pleasant-smelling purple,
blue or white flowers
560
Unit 12
 rattle (SOUND)
noun
1 [S] a sound similar to a series of quickly
repeated knocks:
From across the town came the rattle of
machine-gun fire.
2 [C] a toy which makes a noise like a series of
knocks:
The baby was waving around a plastic rattle.
561
Unit 12
sash (WINDOW)
noun [C]
a frame with a piece of glass in it which is
used to make windows and doors
562
Unit 12
 mutter
verb [I or T]
to speak quietly and in a low voice that is not
easy to hear, often when you are anxious or
complaining about something:
Stop muttering and speak up!
He was muttering (away) to himself.
Laurence muttered something about his wife
and left.
He muttered something under his breath to the
person next to him.
563
Unit 12
 quiver (SHAKE) verb [I]
to shake slightly, often because of strong
emotion:
Lennie's bottom lip quivered and tears started in
his eyes.
 quiver (CONTAINER) noun [C]
a long thin container for
carrying arrows
564
Unit 12
 intimate (PERSONAL) adjective
having, or being likely to cause, a very close friendship
or personal or sexual relationship:
intimate relationships
The restaurant has a very intimate atmosphere.
He's become very intimate with an actress.
intimacy
noun
1 [U] when you have a close friendship with someone:
Intimacy between teachers and students is not
recommended.
565
Unit 12
 puff (BREATHE) verb [I]
to breathe fast and with difficulty, usually because you
have been doing exercise:
He came puffing up the stairs.
puff noun INFORMAL
be out of puff to be breathing with difficulty because you
have been doing physical exercise
puffed (out) UK adjective [after verb] (US pooped)
INFORMAL
breathing with difficulty because you have been doing
physical exercise:
I can't walk any further - I'm puffed!
566
Unit 12
pucker verb [I or T] (ALSO pucker up)
to tighten skin or cloth until small folds
appear or (of skin or cloth) to form small
folds:
He puckered his lips and kissed her.
Her mouth puckered and I thought she
was going to cry.
567
Unit 12
cedar
noun
1 [C] a tall wide evergreen tree
2 [U] (ALSO cedarwood)
the wood of this tree
568
Unit 12
 shadow-box verb [I]
1 to fight an imaginary enemy by hitting the air
with your hands
2 to pretend to argue about or deal with a
problem, often to avoid dealing with the most
important problem:
The main political parties are merely shadowboxing, instead of tackling the real economic
problems facing this country.
569
Unit 12
weather vane noun [C]
a pointer with a flat blade at one end which
is put on top of a high building and turns
round in the wind to show which way it is
blowing from
570
Unit 12
 tweak verb [T]
1 to pull and twist with a small sudden
movement:
Standing in front of the mirror she tweaked a
strand (一股)of hair into place.
2 to change slightly, especially in order to make
more correct, effective, or suitable:
The software is pretty much there - it just needs
a little tweaking.
You just need to tweak the last paragraph and
then it's done.
571
Unit 12
crocus 番红花属, 番红花
noun [C]
a small yellow,
white or purple spring flower
572
Unit 12
daffodil noun [C]
a yellow bell-shaped flower
with a long stem which is
commonly seen in the spring
573
Unit 12
nip (PRESS QUICKLY)
verb [I or T] -ppto press something quickly and quite hard
between two objects, especially sharp
objects such as your teeth or nails:
When he dropped the crate (板条箱, 柳条箱)
he nipped his hand.
574
Unit 12
 欧阳修(1007-1072),字永叔,号醉翁,晚年
号六一居士。庐陵(今江西吉安)人。北宋文学
家、史学家,且在政治上负有盛名,唐宋八大家
之一。
 秋声赋
见《欧阳文忠公文集》,为辞赋,约作于宋仁宗嘉
祐四年(1059),作者时年五十三岁。本文通过
描写秋声对自然万物的摧败,抒写了因人事忧劳,
形神日渐衰老之悲感。
575
Unit 12
【原文】
欧阳子方夜读书,闻有声自西南来者,悚
然而听之,曰:“异哉!”初淅沥以萧飒,
忽奔腾而砰湃,如波涛夜惊,风雨骤至。
其触于物也,鏦鏦铮铮,金铁皆鸣;又如
赴敌之兵,衔枚疾走,不闻号令,但闻人
马之行声。
576
Unit 12
予谓童子:“此何声也?汝出视之!”童子
曰:“星月皎洁,明河在天,四无人声,
声在树间。”予曰:“噫嘻,悲哉!此秋
声也,胡为乎来哉?盖夫秋之为状也:其
色惨淡,烟霏云敛;其容清明,天高日晶;
其气栗冽,砭人肌骨;其意萧条,山川寂
寥。故其为声也,凄凄切切,呼号奋发。
丰草绿缛而争茂,佳木葱茏而可悦;
577
Unit 12
草拂之而色变,木遭之而叶脱;其所以摧败
零落者,乃一气之余烈。未秋,刑官也,
于时为阴;又兵象也,于行为金;是谓天
地之义气,常以萧杀而为心。天之于物,
春生秋实;故其在乐也,商声主西方之意,
夷则为七月之律。商,伤也,物既老而悲
伤;夷,戮也,物过盛而当杀。
578
Unit 12
嗟乎!草木无情,有时飘零。人为动物,
惟物之灵。百忧感其心,万事劳其形,有
动乎中,必摇其精;而况思其力之所不及,
忧其智之所不能,宜其渥然舟者为槁木,
黟yi然墨者为星星。奈何以非金石之质,欲
与草木而争荣?念谁为之戕贼,亦何恨乎
秋声!”
童子莫对,垂头而睡。但闻四壁虫声唧唧,
如助予之叹息。
579
Unit 12
bbc_advent_online_reading.mp3
Advent.doc
580
Unit 12
Advent (耶稣)降临节
Preparations for
Christmas 圣诞筹备
Christmas shopping
is exciting for children
“Christmas is coming,
the goose is getting fat.”
Christmas shopping
is exciting for
children
581
Unit 12
Christmas is the biggest festival in
Britain and is celebrated on 25th
December. The four weeks before
Christmas are called Advent, and are
traditionally celebrated in churches by
lighting a candle each Sunday during
Advent.
582
Unit 12
Nowadays, many people in Britain are not
very religious, but they still celebrate
Christmas. But watch out - the
preparations begin long before Advent. In
fact as early as September or October,
you start to see signs that Christmas is on
the way.
583
Unit 12
The first places to tell us that we should be
thinking about Christmas are the shops.
People in Britain spend on average over
£600 (around $1000) per person on
Christmas every year, and the shops
encourage people to spend more and
more.
584
Unit 12
Shops put up Christmas decorations and
play cheesy Christmas songs or carols;
and some shop workers wear Christmas
hats. Some big shops on Regent Street
and Oxford Street in London create
wonderful displays in their windows with
moving characters, falling snow, colourful
lights and music.
585
Unit 12
So what do people buy in preparation for
Christmas? Well, Christmas decorations;
Christmas cards to send to your friends
and relatives; presents for your loved
ones and wrapping paper to wrap them
up with.
586
Unit 12
 And of course food! Apart from the special
Christmas dinner of roast turkey or goose,
people buy lots of chocolates, nuts and snacks
for everyone to enjoy.
 But the children are the most excited that
Christmas is coming. They start making lists of
presents they would like, and give them to their
parents, or send them to Santa Claus. In
December, they can also open their Advent
calendars.
587
Unit 12
 Advent calendars are a way of counting down to
Christmas. They have a window to open for
every day from 1st – 24th December (Christmas
Eve).
 A basic Advent calendar has a Christmassy
picture behind each window, but the children’s
favourite is usually a chocolate Advent calendar,
with a chocolate for every day of the month. It’s
a great build up to the overeating that goes on
at Christmas!
588
Unit 12
 traditionally
传统上的
on the way
即将来临
on average
平均
per person
每一个人
encourage
鼓励
 cheesy
俗套的
carols
圣诞颂歌
Christmas
decorations
圣诞装饰
loved ones
亲人
589
Unit 12
 wrapping paper
(礼品)包装纸
apart from
除…之外
snacks
小吃
Santa Claus
圣诞老人
 calendars
日历
Christmassy
圣诞的
favourite
最喜欢的
build up
累积
590
Unit 13
1. Pick out phrases and collocations in the
text.
2.about the author
3. Language Points
4. Vocabulary
591
Unit 13
 Floyd Dell was born on 28th June,
1887 in Pike County, Missouri. His father,
Anthony Dell, found it difficult to find
regular work and the family experienced
a great deal of poverty.
At school Dell developed a love of reading. At
sixteen, he joined the Socialist Party and gave
speeches on street-corners about his political
beliefs. He also produced material for a small
Socialist monthly, Tri-City Workers' Magazine.
592
Unit 13
 sole (BOTTOM PART) noun [C] plural soles
the bottom part of a foot which touches the ground when you
stand or walk, or the bottom part of a shoe which touches the
ground, usually not including the heel:
a cut on the sole of her foot
shoes with rubber soles
 insole
noun [C] (ALSO inner sole)
a piece of material inside a shoe on which your foot rests,
or a piece of material that you put in a shoe to make it
warmer or more comfortable
593
Unit 13
 superintend
verb [T] FORMAL
to be in charge of something:
Her job is to superintend the production process.
superintendent noun [C]
1 a person who is in charge of work done in a particular
department, office, etc., or who is responsible for
keeping a building or place in good condition:
In the US, a school superintendent is in charge of the
schools in a particular area.
We asked the superintendent (ALSO US INFORMAL
super) to fix the broken window in our apartment.
594
Quincy
595
Unit 13
dime noun [C]
an American or Canadian coin which has
the value of ten cents
596
Unit 13
 penny (plural pence or p or pennies) noun [C]
1 (ABBREVIATION p) the smallest unit of money
in Britain of which there are 100 in a pound, or a
small coin worth this much.
Could you lend me 50 pence/50p please?
2 in the US and Canada, a cent or a coin of this
value
597
Unit 13
 gutter (CHANNEL)
noun [C]
1 the edge of a road where
rain flows away
2 an open pipe at the lower edge of a roof which
collects and carries away rain
the gutter noun [S]
the lowest level, especially of society:
Born to a poverty-stricken family, she dragged
herself out of the gutter to become one of the
wealthiest people in Britain today.
598
Unit 13
 coop
noun [C]
a cage where small animals are
kept, especially chickens
cooped up adjective
If you are cooped up somewhere, you are in a small
enclosed space from which you cannot escape, or you
feel as if you are:
Cooped up in a small dark cell, the prisoner hadn't seen
daylight for five years.
It's such a tiny office - don't you ever feel cooped up here?
599
Unit 13
coop sb/sth up phrasal verb [M]
to keep someone or something in an
enclosed space:
I feel like I've been cooped up in this flat
for days.
600
Unit 13
 wreath
noun [C] plural wreaths
an arrangement of flowers and leaves in a
circular shape, which is used as a decoration or
as a sign of respect and remembrance for a
person who has died:
a holly/laurel wreath
The bride wore a veil with a wreath of silk
flowers.
There were two large wreaths on the coffin.
The President ended his visit by laying a wreath
at the war memorial.
601
Unit 13
 arrogant
adjective
unpleasantly proud and behaving as if you are more
important than, or know more than, other people:
I found him arrogant and rude.
arrogantly
adverb
The authorities had behaved arrogantly, she said.
arrogance noun [U]
He has a self-confidence that is sometimes seen as
arrogance.
602
Unit 13
 numb
adjective
1 If a part of your body is numb, you are unable to feel it,
usually for a short time:
I had been lying awkwardly and my leg had gone numb.
My fingers were numb with cold.
2 not able to feel any emotions properly or to think
clearly, because you are so shocked or frightened, etc:
When she first heard the news, she was numb with
disbelief.
Ever since his girlfriend left him he has felt numb.
603
Unit 13
ebb (WATER)
verb [I]
When the sea or tide ebbs, it moves away
from the coast and falls to a lower level.
ebb noun
the ebb the tide when it is moving away
from the coast:
We'll sail on the ebb.
604
Unit 13
 fit (SUIT) verb [T] -ttto be suitable for something:
With her qualifications, she should fit the job perfectly.
Let the punishment fit the crime.
I'm sure we'll have something to fit your requirements,
Madam.
fit
adjective fitter, fittest
suitable for a particular purpose or activity:
She's not fit for the level of responsibility she's been
given.
NOTE: The opposite is unfit.
605
Unit 13
 mean (INTEND) verb [I or T] meant, meant
to intend:
I'm sorry if I offended you - I didn't mean any harm.
The books with large print are meant for our partially
sighted readers.
[+ to infinitive] I've been meaning to phone you all week.
Do you think she meant to say 9 a.m. instead of 9 p.m.?
[+ object + to infinitive] This exercise isn't meant to be
difficult.
They didn't mean for her to read the letter.
606
Unit 13
know better (than to do sth)
to be wise or moral enough not to do
something:
Sure, she's only six, but she's old enough
to know better than to run off without us.
I'm surprised at you behaving so badly you ought to/should know better.
607
Unit 13
 renounce v.断绝关系 放弃, 弃权verb [T] FORMAL
to say formally or publicly that you no longer own,
support, believe in or have a connection with
something:
Her ex-husband renounced his claim to the
family house.
Gandhi renounced the use of violence.
renunciation noun [S or U]
the renunciation of violence
608
Unit 13
tendril
noun [C]
a thin, stem-like part of a climbing plant
which holds on to walls or other plants for
support
609
Unit 13
 clasp
verb [T]
to hold someone or something firmly in your
hands or arms:
He was clasping the vase tightly, terrified of
dropping it.
Lie on your back, clasp your knees and pull
them down towards your chest.
She clasped her son in her arms.
610
Unit 13
 shrivel verb -ll- or US USUALLY -l1 [I or T] to become dry, smaller and covered
with lines as if by crushing or folding, or to make
something do this:
The lack of rain has shriveled the crops.
You ought to pick those lettuces before they
shrivel (up) and die.
2 [I] to become much smaller than is desired:
Profits are shriveling as the recession gets
worse.
611
Unit 13
stretch (yourself) out phrasal verb
to lie with your legs and arms spread out
in a relaxed way:
I just want to get home and stretch out on
the sofa.
612
Unit 13
 hang (FIX AT TOP)
verb hung, hung
1 [I or T; + adverb or preposition] to fasten or
support something at the top leaving the other
parts free to move, or to be held in this way:
A heavy gold necklace hung around her neck.
The curtains hung in thick folds.
Hang your coat and hat (up) on the rack over
there.
2 [T] If you hang wallpaper, you fix it to the wall.
613
Unit 13
popcorn noun [U]
seeds of maize that are heated until they
burst open and become soft and light,
usually flavored with salt, butter or sugar:
a tub of popcorn
614
Unit 13











Vocabulary

1.confess

2.wreath
3.embarrassed
4.bewilderment

5.stony

6.numb

7.stunned
8.renunciation 

9.tendril
10.withdraw
1. Admit (something wrong)
2. an arrangement of flowers or leaves
in a circle / ring
3. upsetting
4. puzzlement, confusion
5. showing no feeling, cold
6. unable to feel anything
7. shocked, confused
8. the act of giving up everything
9. a thin leafless curling stem by which
a climbing plant fastens itself to a
support
615
 10. move away or back
Unit 13
地道英语 Real English
Penny Pinching 小气,不愿花钱
Do you like spending money or saving it?
Are you a penny pincher? ‘
Gobsmacked 瞠目结舌
I was gobsmacked when he told me. '
Was this person hit in the face or very
surprised? ’
616
Unit 13
Jet Lag 飞机时差
 Himbo 肤浅的帅哥
 Video diary 录像日记
 Motor 汽车
 Bloke 男人
 Rip off 宰客
 Shades 墨镜
617
Unit 13
Bottom line 最低价格
 Grub 食物
 Pashmina 披肩
 Cab 出租车
 Face the music 等着挨训
 Uptight 紧绷弦
 Globalisation 全球化
618
Unit 13
bbc_harry_potter_mania_reading.mp3
Harry Potter has been a
global publishing phenomenon.
All around the world millions
of people are eagerly waiting
for the 16th of July. That’s
because it is the day when the sixth Harry
Potter novel will be published worldwide.
619
Unit 13
If you are one of the few people who have
never read any of the Harry Potter novels,
they can be summarized as the magical
adventures of a boy wizard who attends a
wonderful school for wizards.
620
Unit 13
The first Harry Potter novel was published
in 1997. Since then the Harry Potter series
has become a publishing phenomenon,
selling over 250 million copies worldwide.
The Harry Potter books are sold in more
than 200 countries and have been
translated into 60 different languages from
Hindi to Ancient Greek.
621
Unit 13
The novels have also been successfully
adapted for the big screen. The first three
films have all been smash hits at the box
office. The most recent film ‘Harry Potter
and the Prisoner of Azkaban’ broke
records in the UK, taking £11.5 million in
its first three days on release. It went on
to take more than $750 million worldwide!
622
Unit 13
It has been an incredible journey for the
author of the books, JK Rowling. Just
seven years ago she was a single mother
writing her books in a café. Now she is a
multi-millionaire, Britain’s richest woman
and ranked as the world’s best-paid author.
623
Unit 13
It is difficult to pinpoint the secret to the
Harry Potter series’ success. For whatever
reason, the books have captured the
imagination of millions of readers from
around the world. Fans are passionate
about the books and films, and there are
many websites devoted to Harry and his
friends and enemies.
624
Unit 13
Indeed, there has been a great deal of
gossip and speculation surrounding the
new book. However, for the moment the
story remains a well-guarded secret. If
you want to know what happens in the
sixth Harry Potter book, you’ll just have to
read it!
625
Unit 13
 GLOSSARY 词汇表
 novel
小说
wizard
(男)魔法师;男巫
the big screen
荧屏
box office
票房
single mother
单身母亲
captured the imagination
捕获…的想像力;使…极度着迷
speculation
猜测
626
Unit 13
 published worldwide
全球出版发行
publishing phenomenon
出版业的奇迹
smash hits
巨大成功
on release
出版;发行
to pinpoint
精确查明
gossip
闲话;流言蜚语
627
Unit 13
1. Pick out phrases and collocations in the
text.
2.about the author
3. Language Points
628
Unit 13
 Charles Dickens (1812-1870) English novelist,
generally considered the greatest of the
Victorian period. Dickens's works are
characterized by attacks on social evils, injustice,
and hypocrisy. He had also experienced in his
youth oppression, when he was forced to end
school in early teens and work in a factory.
Dickens's good, bad, and comic characters,
such as the cruel miser Scrooge, the aspiring
novelist David Copperfield, or the trusting and
innocent Mr. Pickwick, have fascinated
generations of readers.
629
Unit 13
Dickens's birthplace at No.1
Mile End Terrace, Landport,
a district on the outskirts of Portsmouth.
630
Unit 13
 ribbon
noun
1 [C or U] a long narrow strip of material used to tie
things together or as a decoration:
Sandra often wears a ribbon in her hair.
He tied up the present with ribbon.
2 LITERARY a ribbon of sth a long narrow piece of
something:
A ribbon of road stretched ahead of us across the desert.
631
Unit 13
 monstrous
adjective
very bad or cruel:
a monstrous crime
monstrous cruelty
But that's monstrous - he can't be allowed to get
away with it!
monstrously
adverb
monstrously unfair
632
Unit 13
confer (GIVE)
verb [T] -rrto give an official title, honour, or
advantage to someone:
An honorary doctorate was conferred on
him by Edinburgh University.
633
Unit 13
 gallant (BRAVE) adjective FORMAL
APPROVING
showing no fear of dangerous or difficult things:
Despite fierce competition she made a gallant
effort to win the first medal of the championships.
gallant (POLITE) adjective FORMAL
(of a man) polite and kind towards women,
especially when in public:
That wasn't very gallant of you, Paul, pushing a
young lady out of the way like that!
634
Unit 13
 attire
noun [U] FORMAL
clothes, especially of a particular or formal type:
I hardly think jeans are appropriate attire for a
wedding.
attired
adjective [after verb] FORMAL
She was attired from head to foot in black.
635
Unit 13
yearn verb [I]
to desire very strongly, especially
something that you cannot have or
something that is very difficult to have:
Despite his great commercial success he
still yearns for critical approval.
[+ to infinitive] Sometimes I just yearn to
be alone.
636
Unit 13
 linen
noun [U]
1 strong cloth that is woven from the fibres of the
flax plant:
a linen jacket
the crumpled charm of linen
2 sheets, tablecloths, etc. which are made from
linen or a similar material:
bed linen
table linen
637
Unit 13
bask
verb [I usually + adverb or preposition]
to lie or sit enjoying the warmth especially
of the sun:
We could see seals on the rocks, basking
in the sun.
638
Unit 13
bask in sth phrasal verb
to take pleasure from something that
makes you feel good:
He basked in his moment of glory, holding
the trophy up to the crowd.
639
Unit 13
sage (PLANT)
noun [U]
a plant whose greyish green leaves are
used as a herb to give flavour to some
foods:
sage-and-onion stuffing
640
Unit 13
exalt
verb [T]
1 FORMAL to raise someone to a higher
rank or more powerful position
2 OLD USE to praise someone a lot
641
Unit 13
 choke (STOP BREATHING) verb
1 [I or T] If you choke, or if something chokes
you, you stop breathing because something is
blocking your throat:
She choked to death on a fish bone.
Children can choke on peanuts.
Peanuts can choke a small child.
2 [T] to make someone stop breathing by
pressing their throat with the hands
642
Unit 13
 bubble
noun
1 [C] a ball of air in a liquid, or a delicate hollow sphere
floating on top of a liquid or in the air:
As water begins to boil, bubbles rise ever faster to the
surface.
I love champagne - I think it's the bubbles that make it so
nice.
2 [C usually singular] a temporary period of very
successful economic performance by a country, which is
often followed by sudden economic failure:
Japan's economic bubble
643
Unit 13
shawl
noun [C]
a large piece of cloth worn especially by
women or girls over their shoulders and/or
head
644
Unit 13
bonnet (HAT) noun [C]
a type of hat that covers the ears and is
tied under the chin, worn by babies or,
especially in the past, by women
645
Unit 13
officious adjective DISAPPROVING
too eager to tell people what to do and
having too high an opinion of your own
importance:
He's an officious little man and widely
disliked in the company.
646
Unit 13
 zeal noun [S or U]
great enthusiasm or eagerness:
reforming/missionary/religious zeal
a zeal for money-making
zealot
noun [C]
a person who has very strong opinions about
something, and tries to make other people have
them too:
a religious zealot
647
Unit 13
comforter US
noun [C] (UK duvet)
a large soft flat bag filled with feathers or
artificial material used on a bed
648
Unit 13
 fringe (EDGE)
noun [C]
the outer or less important part of an area, group
or activity:
the southern fringe of the city
fringe
verb
be fringed with sth If a place is fringed with
something, that thing forms a border along the
edge:
The river is fringed with wild flowers.
649
Unit 13
threadbare (THIN)
adjective
describes material or clothes that have
become thin or damaged because they
have been used a lot:
a threadbare coat
650
Unit 13
darn (REPAIR)
verb [T]
to repair a hole or a piece of clothing with
long stitches across the hole and other
stitches woven across them:
She still darns the holes in her socks.
651
Unit 13
 crutch
noun
1 [C usually plural] a stick with a piece that fits under the
arm, which you lean on for support if you have difficulty
in walking because of a foot or leg injury:
Martin broke his leg playing football and has been on
crutches for the past six weeks.
2 [S] OFTEN DISAPPROVING something that provides
help and support and which you depend on, often too
much:
As an atheist, he believes that religion is just an
emotional crutch for the insecure.
652
Unit 13
limb
noun [C]
an arm or leg of a person or animal, or a
large branch of a tree:
The accident victims mostly had injuries to
their lower limbs (= legs).
an artificial limb
653
Unit 13
rampant (INCREASING)
adjective
(of something bad) getting worse quickly
and in an uncontrolled way:
rampant corruption
Rampant inflation means that our wage
increases soon become worth nothing.
654
Unit 13
premature adjective
happening or done too soon, especially
before the natural or desired time:
premature birth/death
a premature baby
Their criticisms seem premature
considering that the results aren't yet
known.
655
Unit 13
closet (CUPBOARD)
noun [C] MAINLY US
a cupboard or a small room with a door,
used for storing things, especially clothes:
a bedroom/linen/storage closet
656
Unit 13
hustle (PUSH)
verb [T usually + adverb or preposition]
to make someone move quickly by
pushing or pulling them along:
After giving his speech, Johnson was
hustled out of the hall by bodyguards.
657
Unit 13
 credulous
adjective SLIGHTLY FORMAL
too willing to believe what you are told; easily deceived
credulously
adverb SLIGHTLY FORMAL
credulity
noun [U] (ALSO credulousness) SLIGHTLY FORMAL
willingness to believe that something is real or true
658
Unit 13
cripple
noun [C]
1 OFFENSIVE OLD-FASHIONED a
person who cannot use their arms or legs
in a normal way
2 INFORMAL emotional cripple someone
who finds it difficult to have or express
feelings
659
Unit 13
lame (UNABLE TO WALK) adjective
(especially of animals) not able to walk
correctly because of physical injury to or
weakness in the legs or feet
660
Unit 13
 tremor
noun [C]
1 a slight shaking movement in a person's body,
especially because of nervousness or excitement:.
There was a slight tremor in her voice.
tremulous
adjective LITERARY
If a person's voice or a part of their body is tremulous, it
is shaking slightly:
He watched her tremulous hand reach for the teacup.
In a tremulous voice she whispered: " Who are you
people?"
661
Unit 13
 escort (GO WITH)
verb [T]
1 to go with someone or a vehicle especially to make
certain that they arrive safely or that they leave a place:
Security guards escorted the intruders from the building.
The police escorted her to the airport, and made sure
that she left the country.
2 to go with someone and show them a place:
People on the tour will be escorted by an expert on
archaeology.
662
Unit 13
stool (SEAT)
noun [C]
a seat without any support for the back or
arms:
a bar/kitchen/piano stool
a three-legged stool
663
Unit 13
cuff (MATERIAL)
noun [C]
1 the thicker material at the end of a
sleeve nearest the hand
2 US (UK turn-up) the part of a trouser leg
that is turned up
664
Unit 13
 jug (CONTAINER)
noun [C]
1 UK (US pitcher) a container for holding liquids which
has a handle and a shaped opening at the top for
pouring:
a glass/plastic jug
a milk/water jug
2 US a large round container for liquids which has a flat
base, a handle and a very narrow raised opening at the
top for pouring:
a whiskey jug
665
Unit 13
gin杜松子酒
noun [C or U]
a colourless strong alcoholic drink
flavoured with juniper berries (= small
fruits):
a bottle of gin
gin and tonic
666
Unit 13
lemon
noun
1 [C or U] an oval fruit which has a thick
yellow skin and sour juice:
For this recipe you need the juice of two
lemons.
Would you like a slice of lemon in your
tea?
lemon juice
667
Unit 13
hob
noun [C]
UK (US stove or stovetop) the top part or
surface of a cooker on which pans can be
heated:
Most domestic hobs have four gas or
electric rings.
668
Unit 13
 simmer
verb
1 [I or T] to cook something liquid, or something
with liquid in it, at a temperature slightly below
boiling:
Leave the vegetables to simmer for a few
minutes.
simmer
noun [S]
Bring the potatoes to a simmer.
669
Unit 13
 ubiquitous
adjective FORMAL OR HUMOROUS
seeming to be in all places:
The Swedes are not alone in finding their
language under pressure from the ubiquitous
spread of English.
The radio, that most ubiquitous of consumerelectronic appliances, is about to enter a new
age.
670
Unit 13
 bustle (BE BUSY)
verb [I + adverb or preposition]
to do things in a hurried and busy way:
Thora bustled about the flat, getting everything
ready.
bustle
noun [U]
I sat in a café, watching the (hustle and) bustle
(= busy activity) of the street outside.
671
Unit 13
feather noun [C]
one of the many soft light things which
cover a bird's body, consisting of a long
thin central part with hair-like material
along each side:
feather pillows (= those containing
feathers)
672
Unit 13
 hiss verb
1 [I] to make a noise which is like the first sound
in the word 'sing' but which lasts a lot longer:
Why do snakes hiss?
People in the audience were hissing their
disapproval.
2 [T] to say something in a quiet angry way:
"Shut up, Tom!" she hissed.
673
Unit 13
 cram (PUSH) verb [T usually + adverb or
preposition] -mm- INFORMAL
to force a lot of things into a small space, or to
do many things in a short period of time:
Eight children were crammed into the back of
the car.
The room was packed and we were crammed
against the door.
674
Unit 13
 shriek noun [C]
a short, loud, high cry, especially one produced
suddenly as an expression of a powerful
emotion:
shrieks of delight
He suddenly let out a piercing shriek.
shriek verb [I or T]
We shrieked with laughter when we realized
how stupid we'd been.
675
Unit 13
gush (FLOW)
verb [I usually + adverb or preposition; T]
to flow or send out quickly and in large
amounts:
Oil gushed (out) from the hole in the
tanker.
Blood was gushing from his nose.
676
Unit 13
issue (PRODUCE) verb [T]
to produce or provide something official:
The office will be issuing permits on
Tuesday and Thursday mornings.
677
Unit 13
eke sth out phrasal verb [M]
to use something slowly or carefully
because you only have a small amount of
it:
There wasn't much food left, but we just
managed to eke it out.
He managed to eke out a living (= earn
just enough to live on) one summer by
selling drinks on a beach.
678
Unit 13
 pastry noun
1 [U] a food made from a mixture of flour, fat and
water, which is rolled flat and wrapped round or
put over or under other foods and baked:
Ann makes delicious pastry - you should try her
apple pie.
2 [C] a type of sweet cake made of special
pastry and usually containing something such as
fruit or nuts:
We were offered a selection of cakes and
pastries with our tea.
679
Unit 13
 speckle noun [C usually plural]
a very small mark of a different colour from the
surface on which it is found, and which is usually
found with a large number of other marks of the
same type:
A blackbird's egg is blue with brown speckles on
it.
speckled adjective
covered with speckles:
a bird with a speckled breast
680
Unit 13
 cannon (GUN) noun [C] plural cannon or
cannons
1 a large, powerful gun fixed to two or four
wheels, which fires heavy stone or metal balls,
and which was used in the past
cannon ball noun [C]
a heavy metal or stone ball fired from a cannon
681
Unit 13
blaze (BURN)
verb [I]
1 to burn brightly and strongly:
The sun was blazing down that afternoon.
2 LITERARY to be brightly lit or full of
colour:
Isaac's eyes suddenly blazed with anger.
682
Unit 13
 ignite verb
1 [I or T] FORMAL to (cause to) start burning or
explode:
The fuel spontaneously ignites because of the
high temperature and pressure.
2 [T] to cause a dangerous, excited or angry
situation to begin:
The proposed restrictions have ignited a storm
of protest from human rights groups.
683
Unit 13
brandy
noun [C or U]
a strong alcoholic drink made from wine
and sometimes flavoured with fruits
684
Unit 13
custard noun [U]
a (usually warm) sweet sauce made from
eggs, milk and sugar and poured over
sweet dishes:
apple pie and custard
685
Unit 13
goblet noun [C] MAINLY OLD USE
a container from which drink, especially
wine, is drunk, usually made of glass or
metal, and with a stem and a base but no
handles
686
Unit 13
sputter (SOUND)
verb [I or T]
to make several quick explosive sounds:
The car sputtered once or twice and then
stopped.
687
Unit 14
1. University word level 2.doc
2. Pick out phrases and collocations in the
text.
3.about the author
4. Language Points
5. Vocabulary
688
Unit 14
 O. Henry (1862-1910) was a
prolific American short-story
writer, a master of surprise
endings, who wrote about the
life of ordinary people in New
York City. A twist of plot, which
turns on an ironic or coincidental circumstance, is
typical of O. Henry's stories.
689
Unit 14
beat (AREA) noun [C usually singular]
an area for which someone, such as a
police officer, has responsibility as part of
their job:
Bob has worked as an officer on this
particular beat for 20 years.
690
Unit 14
gust
noun [C]
a sudden strong wind:
A sudden gust of wind blew his umbrella
inside out.
FIGURATIVE She could hear gusts of
laughter (= sudden, loud laughter) from
within the room.
691
Unit 14
 twirl verb [I or T; usually + adverb or
preposition]
to (cause to) give a sudden quick turn or set of
turns in a circle:
She danced and twirled across the room.
He twirled the ribbon round the stick.
He twirled his umbrella as he walked.
She twirled her baton high in the air as she led
the parade.
692
Unit 14
intricate
adjective
having a lot of small parts or details that
are arranged in a complicated way and are
therefore sometimes difficult to understand,
solve or produce:
The watch mechanism is extremely
intricate and very difficult to repair.
693
Unit 14
thoroughfare
noun [C] FORMAL
a main road for public use or a passage
through somewhere
694
Unit 14
stalwart (STRONG)
adjective FORMAL
(especially of a person) physically strong
695
Unit 14
 swagger
verb [I]
to walk, especially with a swinging movement, in
a way that shows that you are very confident
and think that you are important, or to act in that
way:
They swaggered into the room.
A group of young men swaggered about outside
the bar.
His swaggering self-confidence irritates many
people.
696
Unit 14
vicinity
noun [S]
the immediately surrounding area:
There are several hotels in the immediate
vicinity of the station.
697
Unit 14
 scarf (CLOTH)
noun [C]
a piece of cloth that covers the shoulders, neck, or head
for warmth or appearance
A heavy woolen scarf hid most of his face.
 pin (FASTENER)
noun [C]
a thin piece of stiff wire with a pointed end that you can
stick through two things to fasten them together
Mary put a pin in her hair to hold her hat on.
A pin can also be decorative and used as jewelry: She
wore a beautiful gold pin on her coat.
698
Unit 14
Stanch (staunch (LOYAL))
verb [T]
adjective
strongly loyal to a person, organization, or
set of beliefs or opinions
a staunch defender of free speech
699
Unit 14
 bet
verb betting, bet, bet
1 [I or T] to risk money on the result of an event
or a competition, such as a horse race, in the
hope of winning more money:
She bet £500 000 on the horse which came in
second.
2 noun INFORMAL a guess or opinion:
[+ (that)] My bet is (that) their baby will be a girl.
700
Unit 14
 plod (WORK)
verb [I + adverb or preposition] -ddto work slowly and continuously, but without
imagination, enthusiasm or interest:
For years, he's plodded away at the same dull
routine job.
plodder noun [C]
Dennis is a bit of a plodder, but he gets the job
done in the end.
701
Unit 14
groove noun [C]
a long narrow hollow space cut into a
surface:
The window slides along a deep metal
groove to open and close.
be in the groove INFORMAL
to be operating or performing successfully
702
Unit 14
 razor
noun [C]
a small device with a sharp blade for removing
hair, especially from the face or legs:
Do you use an electric razor or the kind that you
have to put a razor blade in?
razor-sharp (SHARP)
adjective
extremely sharp:
These animals have razor-sharp teeth.
703
Unit 14
drizzle (RAIN)
noun [U]
rain in very small light drops:
Tomorrow will be cloudy with outbreaks of
rain and drizzle.
drizzle
verb [I]
It's been drizzling all day.
704
Unit 14
 puff (BREATHE)
verb [I]
to breathe fast and with difficulty, usually
because you have been doing exercise:
He came puffing up the stairs.
puff
noun INFORMAL
be out of puff to be breathing with difficulty
because you have been doing physical exercise
705
Unit 14
 dismal
adjective
1 sad and without hope:
a dismal expression
2 INFORMAL very bad:
The acting was dismal, wasn't it?
What dismal weather!
dismally
adverb
706
Unit 14
 absurd adjective
ridiculous or unreasonable; foolish in an
amusing way:
What an absurd thing to say!
 absurdly adverb
You're behaving absurdly.
absurdity noun [C or U]
There are all sorts of absurdities (= things that
are ridiculous) in the proposal.
707
Unit 14
 snap (BREAK) verb -pp-
1 [I or T] to cause something which is thin to break
suddenly and quickly with a cracking sound:
You'll snap that ruler if you bend it too far.
2 [I] to suddenly become unable to control a strong
feeling, especially anger:
When she asked me to postpone my trip to help her
move house, I just snapped (= got angry).
 snap (SPEAK) verb [I or T] -ppto say something suddenly in an angry way:
There's no need to snap at me - it's not my fault that you
lost your wallet.
708
Unit 14
A Roman nose
pug
noun [C]
a small dog with a flat face and a short
wide nose
709
Unit 14
drop by/in phrasal verb INFORMAL
to visit someone:
I dropped in on George on my way home
from school.
Drop by and pick up that book sometime.
710
Unit 14
 Vocabulary
 1. onlooker or a person who
watches without taking part
 1.spectator
 2. turn round and round quickly
 2.twirl
 3.thoroughfare  3. a busy main road
 4. strong
 4.stalwart
 5. a proud manner of walking
 5.swagger
 6. a very hard, valuable,
 6.diamond
precious colorless stone
711
Unit 14






7.correspon
8.proposition
9.moderately
10.release
11.patrolman
12.plain-clothes
man
 7. exchange letters regularly
 8. business undertaking: here the
implied meaning is "place where
fortunes can be made and adventures
sought"
 9. to an average degree, just "so-so"
 10. set free, allow to come out
 11. a policeman who regularly patrols
a particular area
 12. a policeman wearing ordinary
clothes rather than a uniform while on
duty
712
Unit 14
 episode21.rm
 Tim's treat Tim:
 Hiya folks. How's everyone this fine evening?
 Alice: Exhausted! I had to give someone mouthto-mouth for the first time today!
 Helen: That's so exciting, congratulations! You
must feel really proud.
 Alice: Yes I do. How are you Helen?
 Helen: I'm tired, I’ve been staring at
finance textbooks all day.
713
Unit 14
Michal: I think my head is going to expand
from all my studying too.
Tim: Well, how about a drink at the pub?
My treat! Would that make you two feel
less worn-out?
Helen: You paying for all of us? That’s not
like you.
Alice: What’s come over you?
Tim: Well let’s just say I got a special
bonus at work.
714
Unit 14
Vocabulary:
a treat (n): something special and nice
that you don't have very often
worn-out (adj, informal): tired
715
Unit 14
1. Pick out phrases and collocations in the
text.
2. The most famous detective story
3. Language Points
716
Unit 14
 Sir Arthur Conan Doyal
Most people like detective stories.
A famous detective story writer was
Conan Doyle, who was born in 1859
and died in 1930. He invented the
famous detective Sherlock Holmes.
The detective seemed so real that people wrote letters
to him, asking for help. His address was known: 221 B
Baker Street. It was a flat which he shared for many
years with his friend Dr Watson. It is Dr Watson who
tells most of the stories.
717
Unit 14
 Why were the stories so popular?
Not only because Conan Doyle
could tell thrilling events. The
readers liked Sherlock Holmes
as a person. He spoke little, he
was a sharp observer and a clear
thinker. He studied crime like a scientist. In his best stories
he puts the facts before us so that we can try and solve the
mystery ourselves. Moreover, Sherlock Holmes was
fearless, a man of great courage. He even enjoyed danger.
He was generous, a gentleman, always ready to help those
who needed him and to fight evil.
718
Unit 14
 scanty adjective
smaller in size or amount than is considered
necessary or desirable:
scanty evidence/information
scantily
adverb
scantily clad/dressed, etc. wearing very little
clothing:
scantily clad dancers
719
Unit 14
 confront
verb [T]
to face, meet or deal with a difficult situation or person:
It's an issue we'll have to confront at some point, no
matter how unpleasant it is.
I thought I would remain calm, but when I was
confronted with/by the TV camera, I became very
nervous.
confrontation noun [C or U]
a fight or argument:
She actually enjoys confrontation, whereas I prefer a
quiet life.
There were violent confrontations between police and
demonstrators.
720
Unit 14
twilight (EVENING)
noun [U]
the period just before it becomes
completely dark in the evening:
I could make out a dark figure in the
twilight.
721
Unit 14
twilight (UNCLEAR)
adjective LITERARY
used to describe a way of life which is
characterized by uncertainty and difficult
or slightly illegal situations, and which is
on the edge of normal society:
Leaving a secure job for the twilight world
of pop music was perhaps a mistake.
722
Unit 14
 subject sb/sth to sth phrasal verb [often
passive]
to make someone or something experience an
unpleasant or worrying thing:
The inquiry found that they had been subjected
to unfair treatment.
"I didn't want to subject him to such a long
journey, " she said.
723
Unit 14
stamp sth out phrasal verb [M]
to get rid of something that is wrong or
harmful:
The new legislation is intended to stamp
out child prostitution. (n.卖淫)
724
Unit 14
 cynical
adjective DISAPPROVING
1 believing that people are only interested in themselves
and are not sincere:
I think she takes a rather cynical view of men.
I've always been deeply cynical about politicians.
2 describes a tendency to use someone's feelings or
emotions to your own advantage:
He praises my cooking but it's just a cynical ploy (policy)
to get me to make his meals.
725
Unit 14
 05 曲目 5.wma
 Santa Clause is coming to town
 Santa Clause is comin'
Santa Clause is coming to town
Santa Clause is comin'
Santa Clause is coming to town
You better watch out, you better not cry.
Better not pout, I'm telling you why:
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is coming to town!
726
Unit 14
He's making a list, and checking it twice;
He's gonna find out who's naughty and
nice.
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is coming to town!
727
Unit 14
 He sees you when you're sleeping,
He knows when you're awake,
He knows if you've been bad or good,
So be good for goodness sake!
He sees you when you're sleeping,
He knows when you're awake,
He knows if you've been bad or good,
So be good for goodness sake!
728
Unit 14
 Oh! You better watch out, you better not cry.
Better not pout (v.撅嘴, 绷脸), I'm telling you why:
Santa Claus is coming to town.
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is comin'
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is comin '
Santa Claus is coming to town!
729
Unit 14
The kids in girl and boy land would have a
jubilee! (n.50年节, (天主教)大赦年)
they're gonna built a toyland all around the
christmas tree
730
Unit 14
You better watch out, you better not cry.
Better not pout, I'm telling you why:
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is coming to town!
731
Unit 14
 Santa Claus is comin'
Santa Claus is coming to town!
Santa Claus is come
Santa Claus is come
 Santa Claus is come
come comin' to town
Santa Claus is come
Santa Claus is come
Santa Claus is come
come comin' to town
732
Unit 15
1. Pick out the chunks in the text
2.About the author
3. Language Points
4. Vocabulary work
733
Unit 15
 Rachel Carson was born on a farm in Springdale,
Pennsylvania. She graduated from Pennsylvania College
for Women (now Chatham College), earned a Masters in
Marine Biology at Johns Hopkins, taught Zoology at the
University of Maryland, and eventually took a job with the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. While there, she wrote
three books about the sea which gave her the financial
independence to quit her government job and begin the
book which made her famous -- and infamous.
 In Silent Spring (1962) she challenged the practices of
agricultural scientists and the government, and called for
a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world.
734
Unit 15
fable
noun [C or U]
a short story which tells a general truth or
is only partly based on fact, or literature of
this type:
the fable of the tortoise and the hare
735
Unit 15
orchard
noun [C]
an area of land where fruit trees (but not
orange trees or other citrus trees) are
grown:
an apple/cherry orchard
736
Unit 15
oak noun [C or U]
a large tree that is common especially in
northern countries, or the hard wood of
this tree:
a mighty oak
The timbers of those old sailing ships were
mainly oak.
an oak table/cupboard
737
Unit 15
maple noun [C or U]
a type of large tree which grows in
northern areas of the world, or the wood of
this tree:
a maple leaf
maple trees
738
Unit 15
birch (TREE)
noun [C]
a tree with a smooth, often white bark and
thin branches
739
Unit 15
 flicker vi.闪动, 闪烁, 摇动, 扑动翅膀, [美俚]昏倒, 假装昏
倒 vt.使摇曳, 使闪烁
1 [I] to shine with a light that is sometimes bright and
sometimes weak:
I felt a cold draft and the candle started to flicker.
2 [I or T] to appear for a short time or to make a sudden
movement:
A smile flickered across her face.
He'd been in a coma for weeks, when all of a sudden he
flickered an eyelid.
740
Unit 15
 pine (tree) noun [C or U]
an evergreen tree that grows in cooler areas of the world:
a plantation of pines
a pine forest
pine
noun [U]
the wood of pine trees,
which is usually pale in color:
pine furniture
Pine is a softwood.
741
Unit 15
 fox (ANIMAL)
noun
1 [C] a wild mammal belonging to the dog family
which has a pointed face and ears, a wide furry
tail and often reddish-brown fur
2 [U] the skin of this animal used to make coats
and hats
3 [C usually singular] someone who is clever
and good at deceiving people:
He's a cunning/sly/wily old fox.
742
Unit 15
deer
noun [C] plural deer
a quite large four-legged animal which
eats grass and leaves. The male has
antlers (= wide branch-like horns). The
female is called a hind or a doe and the
male a stag or buck:
a herd of deer
743
Unit 15
reindeer
noun [C] plural reindeer
a type of deer with large horns, which lives
in the northern parts of Europe, Asia and
America:
Father Christmas travels in a sleigh pulled
by reindeer.
744
Unit 15
laurel noun [C or U]
a small evergreen tree
which has shiny leaves
and small black fruit
745
Unit 15
Viburnum n.荚莲属的植物: any of a genus
(Viburnum) of widely distributed shrubs or
trees of the honeysuckle (n.[植]忍冬, 金银花)
family with simple leaves and white or
rarely pink cymose (adj.[植]聚伞花序的, 聚伞状的)
flowers
746
Unit 15
alder: n.[植]桤木 any of a genus (Alnus) of
toothed-leaved trees or shrubs of the birch
family that have catkins (n.[植]柔荑花(如柳絮等) )
which become woody, that grow in moist
ground, and that have wood used in
turnery (n.车削产品, 车床工厂, 车工工艺)
747
Unit 15
fern
noun [C]
a green plant with long
stems, feathery leaves,
and no flowers
748
Unit 15
berry
noun [C]
any of various small, round fruits that grow
on plants and trees
749
Unit 15
 migrate verb [I]
When an animal migrates, it travels to a different place,
usually when the season changes:
These animals migrate
annually in search of food.
In September, these birds migrate
2000 miles south to a warmer climate.
migrant
noun [C]
These birds are winter migrants from
Scandinavia.
750
Unit 15
 trout (FISH) n. 鲑, 鲑鱼
noun plural trout or trouts
1 [C or U] a fish that is a popular food, especially
a brown type that lives in rivers and lakes or a
silver type that lives in the sea but returns to
rivers to reproduce:
Thousands of young salmon (鲑鱼,大麻哈鱼)and
trout have been killed by the pollution.
2 [U] the flesh of this fish eaten as food:
I love smoked trout, don't you?
751
Unit 15
barn noun [C]
a large building on a farm in which hay
and grain are kept
752
Unit 15
blight noun 枯萎病, 不良影响, 打击
vt.破坏, 使枯萎
1 a disease that damages and kills plants
2 something which spoils or has a very bad
effect on something, often for a long time:
His arrival cast a blight on the wedding
day.
753
Unit 15
spell (RESULT)
verb
spell disaster/trouble, etc. to cause
something bad to happen in the future:
The new regulations could spell disaster
for small businesses.
This cold weather could spell trouble for
gardeners.
754
Unit 15
malady noun [C] FORMAL
1 a disease:
All the rose bushes seem to be suffering
from the same mysterious malady.
2 a problem within a system or
organization:
Apathy (冷漠)is one of the maladies of
modern society.
755
Unit 15
moribund (dying)
adjective FORMAL DISAPPROVING
(especially of an organization or business)
not active or successful:
How can the Trade Department be revived
from its present moribund state?
756
Unit 15
 throb verb [I] -bb1 to produce a strong, regular beat:
Both records have a good throbbing bass which
is great to dance to.
2 If a part of your body throbs, you feel pain in it
in a series of regular beats:
His head throbbed, and his body ached.
The throbbing pain in his leg was becoming
unbearable.
757
Unit 15
robin
noun [C] (LITERARY robin redbreast)
a small brown European bird with a red
front, or a similar but slightly larger brown
bird of North America:
Robins mostly appear in the winter and
are commonly pictured on Christmas
cards.
758
Unit 15
 Catbird: an American
songbird that is dark gray
in color with a black cap
and reddish coverts under the
tail and is related to the mockingbird
be (sitting) in the catbird seat American, old-fashioned
to be in a position of power and importance
He'll be sitting in the catbird seat when the boss retires.
759
Unit 15
jay
noun [C]
Jay The common name given to the
number of birds
of the crow family found in Europe, Asia
and of the Americas. In America the best
known is the Blue Jay and the Canada jay.
760
Unit 15
wren (BIRD)
noun [C]
a very small, brown bird
761
Unit 15
marsh
noun [C or U]
ground near a lake, river or the sea, that
tends to flood and is always wet:
At the mouth of the river is a large area of
marsh.
Rain had been falling steadily all day and
the ground had become a marsh.
762
Unit 15
 pollinate noun [U] (授粉)a powder produced by
the male part of a flower, which is carried by
insects or the wind and causes the female part
of the same type of flower to produce seeds
pollinate verb [T]
Bees pollinate the plants by carrying the pollen
from one flower to another.
pollination noun [U]
Many species of tree depend on the wind for
pollination.
763
Unit 15
angling
noun [U]
the sport of trying to catch fish with a rod,
line (= plastic thread) and hook
angler noun [C]
a person whose hobby is catching fish
764
Unit 15
 gutter (CHANNEL) noun [C]
1 the edge of a road where rain flows away
2 an open pipe at the lower edge of a roof which
collects and carries away rain
the gutter noun [S]
the lowest level, especially of society:
Born to a poverty-stricken family, she dragged
herself out of the gutter to become one of the
wealthiest people in Britain today.
765
Unit 15
eaves plural noun
the edge of a roof that sticks out over the
top of a wall
766
Unit 15
 shingle (STONES)
noun [U]
small round stones that cover a beach or the
ground by the edge of a river:
a shingle beach
I love the noise of the waves on the shingle.
shingle (PIECE)
noun [C]
a thin flat tile usually made of wood, that is fixed
in rows to make a roof or wall covering
767
Unit 15
granule noun [C]
a small grain-like piece of something:
coffee granules
granular adjective
made of, or seeming like, granules:
a granular texture
768
Unit 15
lawn
noun [C or U]
an area of grass, especially near to a
house or in a park, which is cut regularly to
keep it short:
Will you mow the lawn at the weekend?
769
Unit 15
grim (WITHOUT HOPE)
adjective grimmer, grimmest
worried or worrying, without hope:
The future looks grim.
Her face was grim as she told them the
bad news.
The expression on his face was one of
grim determination.
770
Unit 15
spectre UK
noun
1 the spectre of sth the idea of
something unpleasant that might happen
in the future:
The awful spectre of civil war looms over
the country.
2 [C] (US specter) LITERARY a ghost
771
Unit 15
stark (BARE)
adjective
bare, simple or obvious, especially without
decoration or anything which is not
necessary; severe or extreme:
It was a stark room with its white walls,
and a bed and chair as the only furniture.
The stark reality is that we are operating
at a huge loss.
772
Unit 15
 Vocabulary
 1.bloom
 2.abundance
 3.migrant
 4.malady
 5.deserted
 6.moribund
 1.flower
 2. a great quantity, plenty
 3. bird that travels regularly
from one part of the world to
another according to the
seasons of the year
 4. an illness
 5. left empty
 6. at the point of death
773
Unit 15
 7. all the newly born young ones
 7. litter
of an animal
 8. angler
 8. a person who fishes with a
 9. eaves
hook and line
 10.shingle  9. the edges of a sloping roof
which come out beyond the walls
 11.granular
 12.spectre  10. small thin pieces of building
material laid in rows to cover a
roof or wall
 11. grain-like
 12. ghost
774
Unit 15
1. Pick out the chunks in the text
2. Language Points
3. Translation work
775
Unit 15
threshold (ENTRANCE)
noun [C]
the floor of entrance to a building or room
776
Unit 15
 Fascinating,
Bewitching,
Bewildering.
That's Calcutta,
 the capital of West Bengal 孟加拉邦
and India‘s largest city, a seething沸腾的, 火热的
mass of activity with a cosmopolitan
Atmosphere.
777
Unit 15
West Bengal is one of the most
culturally and ethnically diverse states
of India. Different ethnicity, religion,
languages and culture adds to this rich
landscape and unifies the people
instead of separating them.
West Bengal nestled in the eastern part
of India.
778
Unit 15
 1.抱很大期望
 2. 超出某人期望
 3. 辜负某人期望
 4. 符合某人期望
 5. 把钱存入银行
 6. 兑换钱
 7. 赚钱
 8. 从银行提款
 9. 筹款
 10. 退款
 11. 省钱
 12. 喜庆日子
 13. 欢乐日子
 14. 庆祝某日子
 15. 大好机会
 16. 工作机会
779
1.entertain great expectations
2.exceed/surpass one’s expectations
3.fall short of one’s expectations
4.answer/come up to/meet one’s
expectations
5.bank money/deposit money in a bank
6.change money
780
7.make money
8.draw money from a bank
9.raise money
10.refund money
11.save money
12.a festal/festive occasion
13.a happy/joyful occasion
14.celebrate/mark/observe an occasion
781
15.a capital opening
16. a job opening 2
782
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A NEW ENGLISH COURSE