The Bantu People
Migration from 3000 BCE—1100 CE through SubSaharan Africa
By Priyanka Juneja, Sasha Ree, and
Lauretta Zhao
Regional Impact – Central Africa
Politics
 largely local from 1000800BCE
 developed into larger
Kingdoms
 centralized government
evolved
Intellectual
 Bantu languages
dominate this region by
600-1000CE
 Introduced methods of
land clearing and
preparing soil for
farming
Religion
 rituals differed but some things were consistent:
belief in a supreme being, belief in the
communication between the spirits and ancestors,
interaction between the living and dead or seen and
unseen
 Their religion was pantheistic which means that
rather than giving God a personality they viewed
God as the manifestation of all their laws and forces
 These people were very tolerant which allowed
Christian missionaries easy conversion of the Bantuspeaking peoples.
Art/Architecture
 masks created the
Kuba a Bantu people
 they represented
deities and spirits and
we were worn on
special occasions by
select people like the
community head
dancer.
Technology
 more efficient food
production methods
introduced as they
brought with them
agricultural
technologies
 introduced pottery and
metal working
technologies like iron
Economy
 Lived in villages and
farmed along river
banks
 Introduced new crop
like bananas and yams
 More efficient food
production
Society
 subsistence farming
 pastoral pursuits
 gongs or iron bells of
African music are
products of Bantu’s
introduction of metal to
society
 permanent homes
Regional Impact – East Africa
Politics
 largely local from 1000800BCE
 central government
soon develops
Intellectual
 assimilated language
 Introduced methods of
land clearing and
preparing soil for
farming
Religion
 rituals differed but some things were consistent:
belief in a supreme being, belief in the
communication between the spirits and ancestors,
interaction between the living and dead or seen and
unseen
 Their religion was pantheistic which means that
rather than giving God a personality they viewed
God as the manifestation of all their laws and forces
 These people were very tolerant which allowed
Christian missionaries easy conversion of the bantuspeaking peoples.
Art/Architecture
Technology
 more efficient food
production methods
introduced they
brought with them
agricultural
technologies
 introduced pottery and
metal working
technologies like iron
Economy
 Since central African
rainforests didn’t boast
the greatest vegetation,
some moved here after
1CE and grew
vegetables
 Introduced new crop
like bananas
 More efficient food
production



artistic basketry, pottery,
the carving of wooden
vessels, stools and
headrests, ceremonial
weapons, spoons, pipes,
and beadwork
masks created the Kuba a
Bantu people
they represented deities
and spirits and we were
worn on special occasions
by select people like the
community head dancer.
Society
 subsistence farming
 pastoral pursuits
 Derived ethnic groups
like the Shona, the
Xhosa, the Kikuyu, and
the Zulu
 gongs or iron bells of
African music are
products of Bantu’s
introduction of metal to
society
 permanent homes
Regional Impact – West Africa
Politics
 largely local from 1000800BCE
 developed into larger
Kingdoms
 centralized government
introduced
Intellectual
 Assimilated Bantu
language
 Swahili is derived
Bantu with Arabic
influence language
 Introduced methods of
land clearing and
preparing soil for
farming
Religion
 rituals differed but some things were consistent:
belief in a supreme being, belief in the
communication between the spirits and ancestors,
interaction between the living and dead or seen and
unseen
 Their religion was pantheistic which means that
rather than giving God a personality they viewed
God as the manifestation of all their laws and forces
 These people were very tolerant which allowed
Christian missionaries easy conversion of the Bantuspeaking peoples.
Art/Architecture
 masks created the
Kuba a Bantu peoplethey represented deities
and spirits and we were
worn on special
occasions by select
people like the
community head
dancer.
Technology
 more efficient food
production methods
introduced they
brought with them
agricultural
technologies
 introduced pottery and
metal working
technologies like iron
Economy
 Introduced new
crop like bananas
 More efficient
food production
Society
Bantu first resided here
Subsistence farming and
pastoral pursuits
Herero and Tonga are
descendants of the western
Bantu group
gongs or iron bells of African
music are products of Bantu’s
introduction of metal to
society
permanent homes
Regional Impact – South Africa
Politics
 largely local from 1000800BCE
 created stone city states in
between 600-1000CE
 centralized government
evolves
Intellectual
 Bantu languages
dominate this
region by 6001000CE
 Introduced
methods of land
clearing and
preparing soil for
farming
Religion
 rituals differed but some things were consistent:
belief in a supreme being, belief in the
communication between the spirits and ancestors,
interaction between the living and dead or seen and
unseen
 Their religion was pantheistic which means that
rather than giving God a personality they viewed
God as the manifestation of all their laws and forces
 These people were very tolerant which allowed
Christian missionaries easy conversion of the Bantuspeaking peoples.
Art/Architecture
Technology
 more efficient food
production
methods
introduced as they
brought with
them agricultural
technologies
 introduced pottery
and metal
working
technologies like
iron
Economy
 Went into the dry,
grassy coast where they
raised livestock like
sheep, cattle and goat
after 1 CE
 Introduced new crop
like bananas
 More efficient food
production




The Zulu made wooden figures –
they made clay models of cattle
artistic basketry, pottery, the
carving of wooden vessels, stools
and headrests, ceremonial
weapons, spoons, pipes, and
beadwork
The Ndebele of the modern
province of South Africa painted
and decorated their walls
masks created the Kuba a Bantu
people- they represented deities
and spirits and we were worn on
special occasions by select people
like the community head dancer.
Society
 subsistence farming
 pastoral pursuits
 introduced Zimbabwe,
Dhlo-Dhlo, Kilwa, and
Sofala- stone city states
in between 600-1000CE
 gongs or iron bells of
African music are
products of Bantu’s
introduction of metal to
society
 permanent homes
Chronology










3000 BCE – Bantu migration begins from north Africa and expands
through west Africa because of population pressures
1500 – 1000 BCE – Bantu migration spreads south all over subSaharan Africa
ca. 1000 BCE – Bantu groups arrive in what is modern-day Uganda
500 BCE – 600 CE – massive transfer of Bantu traditions and practices
southward, eastward, and westward
500 BCE – 800 CE – Bantu language spreads throughout the African
Great Lakes region
750 CE – The first towns built by the Swahili people in Kenya emerge
1 – 1000 CE – Bantu people bring the skill of metalworking, mostly
iron, throughout sub-Saharan Africa – the Iron Age of Africa
1000 CE – Mapungabwe, the capital of a Bantu kingdom, develops from
settlements along the Limpopo River and controls most of the
surrounding territory
ca. 1000 CE – First great kingdoms of sub-Saharan Africa are
established in regions immediately south of the desert
1000 – 1800 CE – East Africa experiences a wave of Bantu migration.
This shows the approximate distribution of
African languages that are spoken today. The
orange represents the Bantu languages, which
shows how widely spoken the Bantu language
is throughout Africa.
This map shows the early
age iron findings in subSaharan Africa. As shown,
the areas where the iron
findings occurred parallels
the Bantu migrations
which show how the Bantu
migrations affected the
African knowledge of iron
smelting.
Modern-day Bantu people.
This picture shows the progression of the Bantu migrations
throughout Africa. This map traces the large expanse of the Bantu
people's migrations.
Key:
1 = 2000–1500 BC origin
2 = ca.1500 BC first migrations
2.a = Eastern Bantu, 2.b = Western Bantu
3 = 1000–500 BC Urewe nucleus of Eastern Bantu
4–7 = southward advance
9 = 500 BC–0 Congo nucleus
10 = 0–1000 AD last phase
Comparison and Contrast
The impacts of Bantu migrations on the various regions of Africa are
very similar as their culture is essentially sustained throughout this period.
In the field of politics, the Bantu migrations created local administration
that later evolved into a more centralized government. The Bantu also had
many intellectual innovations, such as their use and maintenance of the
Bantu languages. They also promoted the same land clearing techniques
throughout Africa. Religion was also essentially the same. It was
pantheistic, and very tolerant in nature allowing for most of them to be
converted to Christianity. In the field of economics, the Bantu depended
mostly on agriculture and introduced new fruits like bananas and yams.
However the artistic impacts do vary. In South Africa the Zulu made wooden
figures and clay models of cattle. The Ndebele of the modern province of
South Africa painted and decorated their walls. Artistic basketry, pottery, the
carving of wooden vessels, stools and headrests, ceremonial weapons, spoons,
pipes, and beadwork was also prevalent in both South and East Africa.
However the Kuba, who created masks that represented deities and spirits
and were worn on special occasions by select people like the community head
dancer, were spread throughout Africa. Societal impacts varied as well. The
Bantu migrations enabled the creation of many new ethnic groups derived
from the Bantu. Each region grew distinct ethnic groups. In East Africa
Shona, the Xhosa, the Kikuyu, and the Zulu were created. IN West Africa
the Herero and Tonga formed and in the south Zimbabwe, Dhlo-Dhlo, Kilwa,
and Sofala stone-states were created.
Change Over Time







Bantu refers to a group of languages spoken by certain groups of
people throughout Africa. As the people spread, a variety of
different Bantu languages developed.
The Bantu migration was most likely caused by a population
increase, which was a result of more efficient food production of
new crops such as the banana.
Societies were mostly agriculture-based, and the development of
iron tools would have helped make farming more efficient.
Political organization was mostly local, though later larger
kingdoms developed in western and central Africa.
At the beginning of the first millenium BCE, two major linguistic
branches emerged, the Eastern and Western language branches.
The Eastern branch migrated south, and the Western branch
migrated north.
The spread of Bantu traditions and ideas intermingled with
preexisting societies, and the new ideas that emerged became
known as Pan-African traditions.
Impact on the World Today



The Bantu peoples migrated throughout sub-Saharan Africa and as
a result their language spread throughout Africa as well. Today,
Bantu languages are spoken throughout the entire continent. An
example of a Bantu language is Swahili, which is the most widely
spoken language in Africa today. The widespread knowledge of the
Bantu languages is a result of the extensive Bantu migrations that
occurred in 1000-800 BCE.
Another impact that the Bantu migrations had on the world today is
the spread of different agricultural products, such as yams, bananas,
and plantains. Because the Bantu peoples dispersed these
agricultural products, many villages grew greatly in size. Therefore,
the Bantu peoples are responsible for the development of village life
until today. An example of one of the city-states the Bantu peoples
created is Zimbabwe, which is still successful today.
The Bantu migrations are also responsible for the widespread
knowledge of iron smelting. Before the Bantu migrations, the
knowledge of iron smelting was confined to a small area in subSaharan Africa. However, when the Bantu migrations occurred, the
Bantu peoples spread the knowledge and therefore affected the
growth of many city-states that still exist today.
Jobs
Priyanka Juneja – PIRATES (1),
Comparison/Contrast (4a)
 Sasha Ree – Pictures (3), Impact on World
Today (5)
 Lauretta Zhao – Chronology (2), Change Over
Time (4b)

Bibliography







http://web.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/timelines/htimeline.
htm
http://web.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/timelines/htimeline
2.htm
http://www.slideshare.net/gdholbrookwhap/ch-7-bantumigrations-spread-of-religions-5377296
http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/aes_01/aes_01_00042.html
http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?histo
ryid=ab24
http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CIVAFRCA/IRONAGE.HTM
http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/bantu.html
Descargar

The Bantu People