The Industrial Revolution
Chapter 25
I. Beginnings of the Industrial
Revolution

Increased output of machine-made
goods

Began in England in 1700s


Had resources to support it (water power and
coal, iron ore, rivers, harbors)
Had all 3 factors of production:
1.
2.
3.

Land
Labor
Capital (wealth)
Spread to Europe and North America

People wove textiles by hand before the I.R.
Beginnings of the Industrial
Revolution (cont’d)


Agricultural Revolution helped jumpstart
the I.R.
Wealthy landowners bought more land,
called enclosures (b/c they put fences
around them.)

Experimented with more productive methods,
which led to crop rotation: rotated crops to
restore nutrients to the soil.
Important Inventions
1.
Cotton Gin by Eli
Whitney

Separated raw
cotton from the
seeds

American cotton
production went
from 1.5 million
pounds to 85
million pounds
Important Inventions
2.
Steam Engine by James Watt


Invented a much more efficient engine with
help of entrepreneur (Boulton); organizes,
manages, and takes on the risks of business
Led to steam boats and steam powered
locomotives (trains)
Important Inventions
3.
Railroad




Spurred industrial growth
Created hundreds of thousands of new jobs
Boosted agricultural and fishing industries
(could now transport their products far
away)
Encouraged people to take distant city jobs
Impacts of Industrialization
1.
Widened the wealth gap between
industrialized and non-industrialized
countries

But it strengthened their ties meaning:
--industrialized countries needed raw materials for
their factories to run (from less developed
places)
--saw the non-industrialized countries as markets to
sell their products
--leads to imperialism--one country’s rule over
another land
Impacts of Industrialization (cont’d)
2.
Transformed Society
 Gave Europe tremendous economic
power
 Population, health, and wealth
eventually rose, despite harsh working
conditions
 Development of a middle class created
better education and democratic
participation
II. Rise of Socialism
Background
 I.R. increased the gap between rich and
poor
 Business leaders wanted the gov’t to stay
out of business affairs
 Reformers thought gov’t should play an
active role to improve conditions
 Workers wanted more rights and
protection
Philosophers of Industrialization
Laissez faire: economic policy of letting
owners of industry and business set
working conditions without interference
(“hands off” “let do” policy)
Adam Smith
 Defended the idea of free economy
 The Wealth of Nations economic liberty
guaranteed economic progress

Philosophers of Industrialization

Smith and others laid the foundation for
Capitalism: economic system where the
factors of production (land, labor, capital)
are privately owned and money is invested
in business ventures to make a profit
Rise of Socialism


In contrast to laissez-faire, others
believed governments should intervene in
business
Socialism: factors of production are owned
by the public and operate for the welfare
of all.
Rise of Socialism (cont’d)
Karl Marx


The Communist Manifesto: book outlining his
radical ideas of Socialism (communism)
A form of complete socialism in which the
means of production would be owned by the
people (all goods and services would be
shared equally.)
Reform Movement

The gap b/t rich and poor failed to widen
like Marx predicted because of reforms set
by the govt’s.


Workers joined unions: voluntary labor
associations
Unions went on strike: refusal to work; to get
better working conditions/wages
Reform Movement (cont’d)

Reform laws created




Child labor laws
Women labor laws
Britain abolished slavery in 1825; U.S. in 1865
Free public education
U.S. Civil War and
Expansion
Ch. 26 Section 3
IV. U.S. Civil War
Background
• 1803 Thomas Jefferson bought Louisiana
Purchase from Napoleon. (doubled the size of
the U.S.)
• 1819 Spain gave up Florida
• 1846 Great Britain gave part of the Oregon
Territory to the U.S.
U.S. Civil War (cont’d)
• 1836 Texans revolted from Mexico and won
independence
• 1845 Texas annexed by U.S. (Mexico still claimed
Texas so U.S. and Mexico fought the Mexican-American
War)
• 1853 Gadsden Purchase: U.S. got its modern day
boundaries
• Led to Manifest Destiny: the idea that the U.S. had the
right and duty to rule North America from the Atlantic
Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
• Helped justify kicking Native Americans off of their lands
Civil War Begins
• All the new territory led to conflicts on whether
the new land should enter the Union as Free or
Slave states.
• This separated the North and South
• North: farms and industry; relied on mostly free
workers
• South: Farms (cotton); relied mostly on slaves
Civil War Begins
• 1860-Abraham Lincoln elected president.
• South really angry and secedes: withdrew from the union
• April 12, 1861 Confederates fired on Fort Sumter and the
Civil War began
• North won in April 1865 due mostly to a larger population,
better transportation and resources, and more factories
Civil War (cont’d)
• 1863 Emancipation Proclamation issued by
President Lincoln: declared all slaves in the
states of rebellion to be free.
• 13th Amendment passed after the war: abolished
slavery in the U.S.
• Reconstruction: 1865-1877 Union troops
occupied the south to enforce constitutional
policies
Post-Civil War
• Civil War sped economy greatly, by 1914 the
U.S. was a major industrial power.
• Immigration grew rapidly; by 1914 20 million had
moved from Europe and Asia
• Leads to transcontinental
railroad and other important
inventions.
th
19
Century Inventions
Ch. 26 Section 4
V. 19th Century Inventions
 Thomas
Edison: light bulb, phonograph
 Alexander Graham Bell: telephone
 Henry Ford
Assembly line: line of workers
who each put a single piece
on unfinished cars as they
passed on a moving belt

 Wright
Brothers: airplane
19th Century Inventions (cont’d)
 Germ




Theory of Disease
Led to pasteurization
Sterilization in hospitals
Plumbing and sewage systems
Vaccines for typhus, typhoid fever, yellow
fever, etc.
19th Century Inventions
(cont’d)
 Charles

Darwin
Theory of Evolution: idea of change through
natural selection; everything evolved from
earlier living forms
 John
Dalton: atoms
 Dmitri Mendeleev: periodic table
 Marie Curie: radioactivity- energy
The Age of Imperialism
Chapter 27
VI. The Scramble for Africa


Imperialism – the seizure of a country or
territory by a stronger country
Africa before Imperialism



100s of languages and ethnic groups
Mostly traditional beliefs (some Muslim and
Christian influence)
Some empires and some villages
The Scramble for Africa

Forces that drove Imperialism




European Superiority – “We’re more civilized than
they are.”
Nationalism – Pride in your country, and its
accomplishments
Social Darwinism – Survival of the Fittest
Missionary work – to “save the heathens”
Imperialistic Countries from
Europe in African Areas
British Imperialism in India


Britain began to colonize in India in the
1600s
Why colonize in India?


Because of the potential economic impact
that it could have for the Europeans (it would
make them even richer!)
Britain considered India the “Jewel in the
crown” of their expansion efforts.
British Imperialism in India
Positives
Negatives
1)
Built Railroads
1)
British held most of the
political and economic
2)
Built roads
power
3)
Built Hospitals
2)
British were racists
4)
Built dams, bridges, and
3)
Famine caused because
irrigation
Indians were reliant on cash5)
Sanitation a public health
crops instead of food crops
improved
lead to persecution
6)
Schools and colleges were built, 4) Revolts
and death
so literacy improved
7)
Cleared India of bandits and
thieves
British Imperialism in India



Indians became more
demanding for their rights.
They hated the fact that the
British were there.
Sepoy Mutiny
Nationalism grew for the
Indians
Imperialism in Southeast Asia

Who was involved in Southeast Asia?






Dutch
Portuguese
British
French
United States
Results: Typical improvements to the countries
colonized, and typical resentment for “intruding.”
Summary of Imperialism
IMPERIALISM
CAUSES
1) Nationalism
2) Economic
Competition
DEFINITION
the seizure of
a country or
territory by a
stronger
country
3) Missionary Spirit
EFFECTS
1) Colonization
2) Economic Expansion
3) Christianization
VII. China and Japan
Chapter 28
China
Opium War
 Chinese were addicted to Opium (which the
British smuggled into China)
 Sea Battles: British won (of course)
 Acquired Hong Kong

Extraterritorial rights (foreigners were not subject to
Chinese law in their ports)
Changes in China


Disagreement over modernization
Empress Cixi (tso-shee)- Self-strengthening
Movement
updated China’s education and military systems
 built few factories


USA feared China would be colonized so it
declared the Open Door Policy China would be
open to all merchants
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The Industrial Revolution