Islam and the Islamic Empires IslamAn Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists. They believe in the JudeoChristian God, which they call Allah. Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, is the word of God. Peoples of the Book The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad Some Definitions ISLAM: The “Yoke” or submission to the will of God MUHAMMAD: The prophet of Islam MUSLIM: A follower if Islam ARAB: An ethnic/linguistic group centered on the Arabian peninsula, with members throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Majority are Muslim, minority are Christian. ARABIC: The language of Arabs and of the Qur'an Arabia in the Sixth Century Most Arabs were Bedouins – nomadic people of the desert A tribal society – constant wars between clans Mecca was a major caravan city The majority of Arabs were polytheists Idols of gods contained in the Ka’aba The Prophet Muhammad 570-632 • Born in Mecca , orphaned at an early age • Raised by his uncle • Worked for a camel caravan company • Married his boss—Khadija • At age 39, in the year 609, he received a revelation from Allah (God) during the month of Ramadan • His mission to reveal the Qur’an to the people created tension between Muhammad’s monotheism and the polytheism of the people of Mecca The Birth of Islam Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 609. The rest were revealed over the next 23 years, and compiled after his death as the Qur’an 622 Hegira (flight) Muhammad flees Mecca for Medina. * The beginning of the Muslim calendar After a long and bloody war, Muhammad defeats the Meccans, purifies the Ka’aba and establishes Islam as the major religion of Arabia The Qur’an Muslims believe it contains the word of God. 114 suras (chapters). In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. Written in Arabic. 1. The Shahada The testimony. The declaration of faith: There is no god worthy of worship except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet]. 1 2. The Salat The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed Wash before praying. Face Mecca and use a prayer rug. 2 2. The Salat The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret. Pray in the mosque on Friday. 2 3. The Zakat Almsgiving (charitable donations). Muslims believe that all things belong to God. Zakat means both “purification” About 2.5% of your income. and “growth.” 3 4. The Sawm Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. Considered a method of selfpurification. No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. 4 5. The Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca. Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime. 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5 5. The Hajj Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the title hajji to their name. 5 Other Islamic Religious Practices and Traditions Up to four wives allowed at once. No alcohol or pork. No gambling. The Hadith (traditions) account of the deeds and sayings of Muhammad Sharia body of Islamic law to regulate daily living. Three holiest cities in Islam: * Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem. Death of the Prophet • Muhammad died in 632 and rose into heaven from a holy rock (where Jews believe Abraham prepared the sacrifice of his son) in Jerusalem. On the site Muslims built a mosque called the Dome of the Rock. DOME OF THE ROCK, Jerusalem The Dar al-Islam The World of Islam 1 2 3 4 5 Essential Question: Why was Islam able to spread so quickly and convert so many to the new religion? The Spread of Islam Easy to learn and practice. No priesthood. Teaches equality. Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes. Jihad (“Holy War”) against pagans and other non-believers (“infidels”). Countries with the Largest Muslim Population 1. Indonesia 183,000,000 6. Iran 62,000,000 2. Pakistan 134,000,000 7. Egypt 59,000,000 3. India 121,000,000 8. Nigeria 53,000,000 4. Bangladesh 114,000,000 9. Algeria 31,000,000 10. Morocco 29,000,000 5. Turkey 66,000,000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world. Spread of Islam The Islamic Caliphate • After the death of Muhammad, caliphs (leaders) controlled the Muslim world. • Most famous caliphates: the Umayyad dynasty and the Abbasid dynasty. • Umayyad capital city: Damascus (in Syria). Abbasid capital: Baghdad (in Iraq). Battle of Tours, 732 ce Muslims expand across North Africa, into Spain Islam threatens to take over Christian Europe!!! Battle of Tours, 732 ce Charles Martel, king of the Franks, defeats the Muslims, which stops their expansion into Europe Sunnis vs. Shi’ites Sunnis The caliph may be elected from the Muslim community. Shi’ites (Shia) The caliph must be a descendant of the family of Muhammad Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali is assassinated in 651 The Shia Ali (partisans of Ali) have never accepted the rule of the succeeding Sunni caliphs The Shia are a minority in the Muslim world(10-15% worldwide, but 39% in Middle East); a majority only in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and Azerbaijan The Rise of Islamic Empires in the Middle East, Europe, and India The Rise of The Ottoman Empire The Rise of the Ottoman Turks Under Osman Bey (12581326) the Ottomans, a seminomadic Turkic people created an empire that would expand rapidly and survive until 1923. They expanded the empire into the Balkans, where young Christian boys became slaves of the Sultan and served as Janissaries. In 1453 Under Sultan Mehmet II,(1451-1481) they besieged and conquered Constantinople, (renamed Istanbul) which ended the Christian Byzantine Empire. Constantinople becomes Instanbul Churches like Haghia Sophia were transformed into mosques, though many Christian features remain. Ottoman rule In the conquered territories, the Turks faced hostile populations of Jews, Catholics, Orthodox Christians and even Muslims. The Turks allowed everyone to practice whatever religion they wanted as long as they paid taxes. They managed a vast, culturally diverse empire through the Janissary Army and Civil Service. Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) Empire at its peak, included the Balkans, Greece, Syria, Egypt and Iraq. In 1529 he attacked Vienna, the capital of the Habsburg Empire He had many challenges Mostly from the Safavid Empire (the Shi’ite Persians) How Did Ottomans Exercise Power? Center of Power – in Istanbul—the Topkapi Saray A fortress, sanctuary, and shrine Laid out by Mehmed II Outer walls and inner walls with Inner palace in deep interior— palace housed treasury, a library, and the sultan’s pavillion Inner court closed to all but state officials – visitors confined to outer court Around the edges, secret hideaway spots for the Sultan’s harem Ottoman Power Topkapi Palace housed 10 mosques, 14 bathhouses, 2 hospitals, 2,000 women and 4,000 horses Sultan housed in sacred spaces with relics of the prophet Muhammad – controlled the institutions and sacred places related to Sunni Islam Externally—law code, tolerance, military power, still profited from spice trade, tribute from Europeans Internally—palace often ruled by eunuchs and concubines, as well as sultan’s mother, but more rational than many Europeans believed Safavid Empire Created by the young Shah Ismail (1501-1524). Ismail established “Twelver Shiism” as the state religion (belief that twelfth imam would be the leader of all Islam. Defeated by the Ottomans at the battle of Chaldiran in 1514 Like Ottomans, benefitted from trade across Eurasia Ruled through a hereditary class of fighters – the Qizilbash Shah Abbas Expanded the Safavid Empire from 1588-1629 Created capital at Isfahan Won gains in the caucuses and central Asia, expelled the Portuguese from Hormuz Insisted that everyone practice Shi’ite version of Islam – left no room for religious pluralism – even though most people they governed were not originally Shi’ites The Mughal Empire Babur, claiming descent from Chinggis Khan, started to conquer India in 1523 and took Delhi in 1526. He founded a ruling dynasty known as the Mughal, the Persian word for Mongols Early Mughal Rulers – Babur (1483-1530) Early Mughal Rulers – Humayun – Babur’s Son Legacy of Humayun (1508-1556) Faced many obstaclesmostly from brothers Consolidated Rule Interested in Science and Astrology Died falling down stairs from library carrying books Picture—Humayun with Babur Akbar – Humayun’s Son (15561605) Created a centralized state He encouraged art and architecture. Continued to expand the Empire into Gujarat and Bengal encouraged toleration of Hindus Akbar’s Palace – Fatehpur Sikri Jahangir (1569-1627 Ruled from 1605-1627 after father-Akbar-died Very well educated, spoke 4 languages He had little interest in India Emphasized Sunni Islam He married a Persian – Nur Jahan and let her run the country – she had been a widow in his court More interested in drinking and smoking opium than ruling Nur Jahan – Power Behind the Throne Persian – gave positions in government to all her male relatives Tough ruler Good businesswoman– encouraged trade and industry-manufactured perfume, cosmetics Owned ships she used for commercial endeavors Wrote poetry under the name Makhifi Shah Jahan Jahangir’s son Basically imprisoned Nur Jahan until she died (she had backed his brother) He ruled from 16281657. Built the Peacock throne and the Taj Majal. Built the Taj Majal as a monument to his wife when she died in childbirth in 1631. Peacock Throne Taj Majal Rebellion of Aurangzeb Defeats Father - Shah Jahan in 1658 and becomes emperor. Ruled until 1707. He actively tries to conquer all of India and got most of it except the South. Rule of Aurangzib Aurangzib (1659-1707) was an ardent Muslim and he prohibited the Hindu religion and destroyed the Hindu temples. In 1679 he imposed a special tax on non-Muslims and created an Islamic moral police that tried to enforce orthodoxy. He also required all women to marry By his death there was much turmoil. The Islamic empires Though these were powerful empires why did they decline? One reason was they spent a lot of money fighting wars Spent enormous sums on monumental architecture to display power Power – Superficially external visible – Real power Hidden in inner quarters Worked well when tolerant – mostly not Resisted new developments in western technology and science Saw trade very differently from Europeans.