Reducing Failure of
Persons with Learning
Disabilities Introducing "Universal
Design" to Adult
Literacy
Glenn Young
Learning Disabilities
Consultant
[email protected]
glennyoungcsld.com
How Do We Measure Drop Outs –
Changing Paradigm

In 1996 the U.S. Department of
Education's National Center for Education
Statistics (NCES) reported three types of
dropout rates:
The same data could give very different
results
• The national dropout rate using one
approach was 4.5 percent, and
• Using a different approach it was 11.0
percent.
http://www.ed.gov/pubs/OR/ConsumerGuides/dropout.html
How Do We Measure Drop Outs

Old way of counting the data was
showed a situation bad enough
A 1996 report showed
• In 1993, approximately 381,000
students in grades 10 through 12
dropped out of school
• Approximately 3.4 million persons in the
United States ages 16 through 24 were
high school dropouts.
http://www.ed.gov/pubs/OR/ConsumerGuides/dropout.html
How Do We Measure Drop Outs –
The Change
The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research
(2002) counted all those entering 9th grade and
followed the whole cohort. They found not a rate
of 11% but 29%:
• The national graduation rate for the class of 1998 was
71%.
 78%, for white students
 56% for African-American students and
 54% for Latino students.

Manhattan stated that the discrepancy between the NCES’
finding and the 71% rate is largely caused by NCES’
counting of General Educational Development (GED)
graduates and others with alternative credentials as high
school graduates, and by its reliance on a methodology that
is likely to undercount dropouts.
http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_baeo.htm
How Do We Measure Drop Outs –
Special Education

Graduation: Graduation from high school
with a standard diploma for students with
LD covered under IDEA in 1999-2000 -using USED standards was 62 percent.
• Dropout: The dropout rate for students with
LD was 28 percent in the school year 19992000. This compares to a national dropout rate
of 11 percent for the general student
population.

http://www.ncld.org/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=256
New Understandings Based on
Research - Implications of the
Studies


The majority of persons with LD are not
being served in Special Education
It is not possible to tell what percent of
the dropout rates actually have LD (No
Research) – All data may be tainted
• Studies do show that the least successful of
those drop outs who are in welfare or prisons
are later to be found to have LD.

Our view of what happens to those who
are LD is tainted
Disability, not Teaching
Failure

The definitions show learning disabilities to
have a foundation of impairment in the
central nervous system.

The academic (and social) failings are based
on the impairment, not lack of access or
opportunity
How Do We Measure Drop Outs
Comparing Manhattan and USED
 Drop out rate = Overall
• USED 11% (or even as low as 4.5%)
• Manhattan 29%
• Minority
• USED - African Americans – 13.5%
Hispanics 27.5%
• Manhattan – African Americans -44%
Hispanic 46%
How Do We Measure Drop Outs
How does Florida Rank?
Using the new methods
Ranking State
% of High School
Completion
6 Montana
83
5 Vermont
84
4 Nebraska
85
3 Wisconsin
85
2 North Dakota
88
1 Iowa
93
How Do We Measure Drop Outs
http://www.unitedhealthfoundation.org/shr2005/components/hsgrad.html
How does Florida Rank?
Ranking State
% of High School
Completion
45 Mississippi
59.1
46 Alabama
57.2
47 Tennessee
56.7
48 Florida
55.7
49 Georgia
53.6
50 South Carolina
49.2
National average
68.3
IMPACT OF LACK OF DEGREE
High school graduation is a very important
predictor of young people’s life prospects.

Among those over 25 years old who failed to
complete high school or receive a GED,
• 55% report no earnings in the 1999
• For people reporting any earnings the median
income for those was $15,334


compared to $29,294 for people with at least a high
school degree or GED
Students who fail to graduate high school
• Are significantly more likely to become single
parents and have children at young ages.
• Are significantly more likely to rely upon public
assistance or be in prison.
http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_baeo.htm#11
Without Education …..




More than nine million working Americans—25
percent of whom work full time, year round—
earn less than the official poverty level, and
More than 40 million Americans earn below 200
percent of the poverty level, a widely accepted
proxy for a minimum family sustainable.
The longer one stays in a low-wage, low-skill job,
the farther one falls behind other workers in
whose skills and futures employers are more
eager to invest (Andersson, Holzer, and Lane
2003).
http://www.jff.org/jff/PDFDocuments/nextchallenge.pdf
For every action ….

With the high dropout rate comes a
greater demand for adult literacy services
In states with lower graduation rates
there is:
• Higher rate of GED participation
• Higher rate of ESL populations
• Higher rates of LD and other disabilities
populations
Adult literacy should be seen as a
major factor in increasing the
overall economic viability of a state
Why So Many Failures?
There are too many potential
reason to list why the skill level
of students transitioning into
employment are not adequate
• However, one issue that is
consistently missed is the issue of
Learning Disabilities
Estimated Rates of Adults with LD
Documentation




While schools are identifying about 5% with LD,
While the estimates run as high as 15-20% of adults with
LD
While adult education and literacy programs have
estimated ranges of 30-70% LD.
Due to none identification and decrease requirements for
“retesting” in K-12
• IT IS ESTMIATED THAT LESS THAN 1% OF
ADULTS AND OUT OF SCHOOL YOUTH, WITH
LD, HAVE PROPER DOCUMENTATION TO
PROVE THE DISABILITY OUTSIDE OF
SCHOOLS
Estimated Rates of Adults and Out
of School Youth with LD
Documentation

Who are these 99% of adults and Out of
School Youth who have LD who do not
have documentation?
• Disproportional rates of women
• Minority language populations
• Low-literate adults (disproportional people of
color)

Where do we find them?
•
•
•
•
Job training programs
Literacy/LEP programs
Prisons
Not in standard disability programs.
Estimated Rates of Adults with LD
Documentation
These “99% of those with LD” can
not fit the standard disability
process.
• Under current law, persons with
disabilities are responsible for
self identifying and asking for
accommodations.
• Adult with LD either do not know
they have a disability, or
• No longer have current
documentation (was documented
in school)
Estimated Rates of Adults with LD
Documentation
Most if not all of these persons
received no transition services
• They were not in special
education
• They dropped out prior to the
start of transition services
• They were not considered
“disabled enough” by
transition service programs
Bottom Line
Without solid research its hard to really say,
but based on  The NALS, the NAALS, and the studies
of Welfare and other limited achieving
populations indicates that:

It appears that the majority of those
in adult literacy programs (both
English and ESL) have LD, and
• Are without any real record of it – or with
documentation that is “too old” for
current use
WHO HAS BEEN MISSED

Clearly the populations that have
been missed for definition of LD in
the current system and in current
transition services
• Low-income populations
• Females
• Minority Language Populations
Gender Bias

20th Report to Congress talks of
ongoing Gender Bias in reference to
Special Education of Females for LD
services
• Presumed issues are:


Boys act out more
Boys have LD at a higher rate
• Actual Issue includes – Diagnostic Tests
are Gender Biased
Gender Bias
Reading Disorder Require a Reading
Failure of 1.5 Deviation from the Mean
How far
Girls
Have to
Fall
How far
Boys
have
To Fall
True Girl
Mean
Mean
True Boy
Mean
1.5 SD
Since Girls learn to read earlier and better then boys
Identifying LD in Minority Languages


Allyn, and Bacon in Selective Crossbattery Assessments: Guideline for
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
Populations (Intelligence Test Desk
Reference (McGraw & Flanagan, ed.),
state that
“Assessment of the cognitive
capabilities of individuals from
culturally and linguistically
diverse populations” is “one of
the most difficult tasks facing
psychologist today.”
Changing View of Disabilities and
Workplace – LEP and LD – What the
Research is Showing
What is the real percentage of overlap?
Undiagnosed LD/LEP Population
Limited English
Proficiency (LEP)
Learning Disabilities
Research showing that perhaps as high as 25%
THE THREE USES OF THE TERM
LD
LD - Learning Differences
LD - Learning Difficulties
LD - Learning Disabilities
Who is Covered by
Civil Rights Laws
Only persons with disabilities are covered
by civil rights laws.
• There is no civil rights protection for having a
learning difference.
• There is no civil rights protection for have learning
difficulties
• There is civil rights protection for having a disability including learning disabilities, if there if proof of the
disability

Therefore, under current structure … Most of
those with LD are not covered
FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS LAWS FOR
DISABILITY ISSUES




THE REHABILITATION ACT OF
1973/SECTION 504
INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES
EDUCATION ACT (IDEA 1990/97)
(FORMERLY- PUBLIC LAW 94-142
THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES
ACT OF 1990
WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT OF
1998/SEC.188
Not Entitled to Reasonable
Accommodations

In Federal law "reasonable accommodations," is
defined as meaning: modifications or adjustments
. . . that enable a qualified individual with
disability
to perform the essential functions
(of the job or activity). {ADA regulation. Section 1630.2(o)}

A qualified individual means an individual with a
disability who . . . with or without reasonable
accommodations, can perform the essential
functions (of the activity). {ADA regulation Section 1630.2(m)
New Paradigm of Learning
Disabilities - Why We Really Need
to Know
The LD affects
employment…
The LD affects the
family…
The LD affects literacy
skills…
The LD affects mental
health and
depression…
The LD affects
transportation…
The LD affects child
care…
The LD affects
workplace skills…
The LD affects problem
solving skills…
The LD affects social
skills…
The LD affects
AD/HD…
The adult with LD
has protections under
the ADA.
The LD affects other
disabilities…
Why We Really Need to Know
Critical Factors for Success of
Persons with Disabilities



Self Awareness - understanding of having a
disability.
Understanding of laws and protections
under the laws and,
Accessing assistive technology and other
accommodations.
• Office of Disability and Employment Policy
(ODEP) http://www.dol.gov/odep/
Critical Factors for Success of
Persons with Disabilities

Most adults and older teens with Learning
Disabilities are not self awareness
• do not have an understanding that they have a
disability.
• do not understand disability laws and
protections offered under these laws, and
• are not able to access assistive technology and
other accommodations.
• They don’t fit into the standard
models for success
--- Accommodations and Age --Findings of Sally Shaywitz (Lead NICHD
Researcher)
Childhood
Literacy Training
Accommodations
Adulthood
What is Needed to Diagnose LD
Diagnostics for LD need to be conducted by
professional psychologist or psychiatrist
There are two main diagnostic approaches
Educational Psychological (ED-PSYC)
Neurological Psychological (NERUO-PSYC)
What is Needed to Diagnose LD
Different “settings’ require different types of evaluations
If a new diagnostic is needed, the type should be based on
consumer need.
Educational Psychological (ED-PSYC)
K-12, Adult Education programs, Community
Colleges, most Four-Year Colleges.
Neurological Psychological (NEURO-PSYC)
Vocational Rehabilitation, most job training
programs, most employment settings.
GED requires its own testing requirements (Form L-15)
that has elements of both Ed-Psycs and Neuro-Psycs)
The Key Diagnostic Testing Tool
for Spanish

The Woodcock-Muñoz Psychoeducational Battery or in Spanish,
“Bateria Woodcock-Muñoz Revisada.”
• The Cognitive Battery is named Pruebas de
habilidad congitiva (tests of cognitive
ability)
• The achievement battery is the “Pruebas de
aprovechamiento” (tests of achievement).

Administering all the sub-tests of the
Pruebas de Habilidad Cognitiva would
involve up to 4 hours of testing.
Percentage Within Sub Groups
of Youth and Adults with LD
If we look at the overall LD population,
(both those identified and those not
identified) we find that in school and right
after school, of those with LD:



Identified and successful Apx. 5%, perhaps as high as 10%
Identified and unsuccessful Apx. 25- 30%
Out of school, previously and
continuingly, not identified Apx. 65%
What Can We Do?





Hey, were just little literacy
programs
We don’t have control of state
programs and agendas
We have to follow the curriculum
We can’t afford to get diagnostics
The student doesn’t want to know
about it – shame, denial, bad
memories of special education
UNIVESAL DESIGN

The general core of the “universal”
concept developed in the 1960’s, can
simply be stated as:
 If “things” (buildings and services)
are planned with the needs of
persons with disabilities taken into
consideration, then all persons
benefit.
Unintended Consequences
Most of the Use of Disabilities
Interventions are not by people with
Disabilities
 Closed Captioning (bars and
bedrooms)
 Curb Cuts (Bike riders and baby
carriages
 Books on Tape (Everyone with a CD
player in the Car)
UNIVESAL DESIGN
The Core Principles of UD are:
 Equitable Use: Useful and marketable to
people with diverse abilities.
 Flexibility in Use: Accommodates a wide
range of individual preferences and
abilities.
 Simple and Intuitive Use: Easy to
understand, regardless of the user’s
experience, knowledge, language skills, or
current concentration level.
UNIVESAL DESIGN
The Core Principles of UD are:
 Perceptible Information: Communicates
necessary information to the user, regardless of
ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities.
 Tolerance for Error: Minimizes hazards and the
adverse consequences of accidental or
unintended actions.
 Low Physical Effort: Can be used efficiently and
comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue.
 Size and Space for Approach and Use:
Appropriate size and space is provided for
approach, reach, manipulation, and use
regardless of user’s body size, posture, or
mobility.
UNIVESAL DESIGN
Acceptance in the general One Stop world …





Wisconsin has developed state-wide standards for One-Stop
Centers that include many of the concepts of universal
access.
http://www.dwd.state.wi.us/dws/staff/jc_standards_ta_not
es.htm
Rhode Island has instituted a wide range program to assure
incorporating the universal access approach through a
number of partnerships, training efforts, and designated
staff.
http://www.onestoptoolkit.org/profile_RhodeIsland.cfm [1]
[1] For an overview of other state activities in Universal
Access efforts see:
http://www.onestoptoolkit.org/statelocal.cfm and (youth
website)
Universal Design Model
in Adult Literacy

Treat everyone as if they have LD
and teach them as if they were LD –
without ever calling it LD.
• Give them intensive phonics training
• Give them assistive technology from the
start – including tape (CD) where they
can learn on their own (addressing
Information Deficit Disorder)
• Give them the accommodations they
need to pass the GED in training for the
GED (extended time, calculator, etc.)
Universal Design Model
– In Adult Literacy

Treat everyone as if they have LD
and teach them as if they were LD –
without ever calling it LD.
• Fight the powers that be where you can
… challenge the GED rules … get the
high school documentation if it exists
• Don’t be passive … be aggressive with
both the student and the system
Customize, Customize,
Customize


UD does not mean one size fits all – (we make
everything open and were done)
UD means meeting the individualized needs of
each student based on student needs and
timeframe and evaluation
• Intake is key and - use of validated screening for LD
should be done at intake
• Stop TABEing everyone to death … also use





screens for phonemic awareness
short term memory recall
sequencing issues
auditory processing
basic vision and hearing
Lessons for Adult Literacy from UD
- Focus on Customers Needs

What are the immediate needs of the student?
(Identified or not)
•
•
•
•

Get a GED?
Get a Job ?
Avoid Dropping out?
Is testing needed for these goals?
What are the long-term goals?
• Go to College
• Be successful in work?
• Is testing needed for these goals?

What is the student’s time-frame?
• http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/
Greatest Barrier to Success

In adults (and youth out of school) the greatest
barrier to success may not be low-literacy per
say, but
• Information Deficit Disorder
While everyone was trying to teach them
how to read … they didn’t teach them
what everyone else was learning …
So they do not have the same base of
knowledge as others with which they are
competing
So while we are trying to teach them to
read (again) we really should be giving
them information in the manner they can
manage to learn and be more competitive.
How Do We Translate
To Adult Literacy
We have to follow the existing rules




We have to collect data for NRS
We need to show gain
You need “proof of disability” to give
the accommodations
We can’t afford testing (so best to
ignore the issue?)
How Do We Translate To Adult Literacy
Yes - We have to follow the existing rules –
but what really are the rules?
 We have to collect data for NRS – yes but so what?
• Report the rates found –keep second
book on screened and suspected rates
(building the case for more recognition)
 We need to show gain - yes
• The is nothing in the rules that says you
can not measure gain using
“accommodations” – so since they don’t
say you can’t, you can …
How Do We Translate To Adult Literacy
Yes - We have to follow the existing
rules – but what really are the rules?
 You need “proof of disability” to give
the accommodations
• No you don’t – adult literacy is not
required to do so in how it gives
services … It is needed for GED or
CC but not in adult literacy - call it
“teaching methods” and your
covered
How Do We Translate To Adult Literacy
Yes - We have to follow the existing rules- but
what really are the rules?
 We can’t afford testing (so best to ignore the
issue?)
• Testing not actually required in Adult Literacy – for in
house service interventions
• Testing needed for GED or Community Colleges
 Multiple ways to get the testing for those who really
need it …
• Use the internet with Puerto Rico VR … for
Spanish speaking diagnostics

So go ahead … Based on UD Principles provide
the services as if there was a disability.
Treat Everyone Like Having A
Disability, But ….

For some students, with certain goals, just
treating them like the have a disability will meet
their needs ..
• But if they have goals that require
documentation … Adult literacy should
see themselves as the


Source for more information and,
Conduit for the student’s greater need for
services and documentation
• We must end the smokestack mentality
Lessons from UD –
Focus on Customers Needs
Student With Different Background Need
Different Information
For the Student - previously unidentified with LD –
but show indications and have shown LD through
screening
 Would knowledge that they have LD impact
• the student’s goals?
• the student’s time-frame? If so, how?


Would knowledge of the LD open up additional
resources?
If so, what are these resources?
Can the program get them tested in time?
Lessons for UD Model - Focus on
Customers Needs
Student With Different Background Need
Different Information
For Programs For previously unidentified with LD –
but show indications and have shown
LD through screening
• Would the knowledge that they have LD
impact the programs approach to literacy
training (and if not, why?)
Under A UD model – (not one size fits
all) it should make little difference -
Lessons for Adult LiteracyFocus on Customers Needs –
Other Sources If Needed ..
Student With Different Background Need Different Information
If a record of Special ED


Do they really have an understanding of LD,
Do they understand the difference between IDEA and ADA
and how that will impact the workplace and/or in college ?
For Student with goals of the GED and College 

Do they have the documentation from school needed to
maintain their status as a person with a disability out side of
the school?
Are they aware of the models of success that have been
developed for their futures based on disability approaches?
Legal Rights – Not a New Barrier

Adult Literacy is covered under Workforce
Investment Act (WIA) of 1998, Section
188, which requires nondiscrimination
based on disability
• These rules need to be addressed in service
models

However. the lack of ability to prove
disability should not prevent appropriate
services.
• This is the message of Universal Design for
Adult Literacy
Real Compliance
Title II of the ADA
…(2) The term qualified individual with a disability means
an individual with a disability who,
• with or without reasonable modifications to rules,
policies, or practices, the removal of architectural,
communication, or transportation barriers, or the
provision of auxiliary aids and services,
• meets the essential eligibility requirements for the
receipt of services or the participation in programs
or activities provided by a public entity.
Addendums



NICHD Research on LD
Federal Definition of Disability
Definitions of LD
• IDEA
• VR
• NJCLD




Known Causes of LD
Subtypes of LD
Intervention models
Resources
New Research - Roots of “No Child
Left Behind”

In 1984 A report to Congress on Learning
Disabilities basically said no one agrees on
definition, demographics and impact.

Congress commissioned National Institute
for Child and Human Development
(NICHD) to conduct research to answers
questions on LD
NICHD LD Research Network
University of Washington LDRC
Berninger
Boy’s Town
Smith
Tufts Rx
Waber
Toronto Rx
Lovett
Beth Israel Dyslexia
Galaburta
Syracuse U
Blackman
SUWY-Albany
Vellutino
Yale LDRC
Shaywitz
Yale Dyslexia
Shaywitz
Jogn Hopkins LDRC
Denckla
Bowman Gray Dyslexia
Wood
UC Irvine
Colorado LDRS
DeFries
Yale Methodology
Fletcher
U. Houston Rx
Foorman
Florida State Rx
Torgesen
Georgia State Rx
R Morris
U, Florida Rx
M Morris
FINDINGS OF NIH RESEARCH IN THE
AREA OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
(1987-97)


RATE: 17% of the population has a reading
disability
CRITICAL DEFICIT: Specific deficits within
the language system concerning processing of
sound (phonemic awareness); damage in links to
area of brain involved in reading process
FINDINGS OF NIH RESEARCH IN THE AREA
OF LEARNING DISABILITIES (1987-97)



No significant gender differential
Persistence of reading disabilities
into adulthood
Early identification and
intervention based on multiple
approaches lessen impact of
impairment
NIH RESEACH SUGGESTS MAJOR
SERVICE GAP



NIH is finding 17%
Schools are identifying 5%
Two thirds of persons with LD have not been
getting services in schools
• They have gone through unidentified and unserved.
• Who are they?
Part of the Problem - Traditional
Paradigm of Adults with LD
Hoffmann et al. (1987) describes the
“typical learning disabled adult”
subject in his studies as:


an unemployed, unmarried 23-year
old white male
who had graduated from high school
Traditional Paradigm of Adults with
LD (cont.)
Hoffmann et al. (1987) describes the “typical
learning disabled adult” subject in his
studies as:
 who had received some form of specialized
education
 who had previously been labeled learning
disabled, and
 who was being supported by his parents
New Paradigm on Make-up of
Adults with LD.
UNLIKE - Hoffmann et al. (1987)
“typical learning disabled adult” we
now see that adults with LD can be:
 any age - and struggling with work, or
education
 of any color or race, with a greater
chance for minorities based on poverty.
 who HAS NOT graduated from high
school
New Paradigm on Make-up of
Adults with LD. (cont.)
UNLIKE - Hoffmann et al. (1987)
“typical learning disabled adult” we
now see that adults with LD can be:



who HAS NOT received some form
of specialized education
who HAS NOT previously been
labeled learning disabled, and
who was on TANF, in job training
programs of all kinds, at work, in
college - etc.
The Operative Word in “Learning
Disabilities is “Disabilities”

In order to understand
Learning Disabilities we
need to first understand
disabilities
Federal Definition of Disability
for purpose of Civil Rights



A physical or mental impairment that
substantially limits one or more of the
major life activities of such individual
A record of such an impairment
Being regarded as having such and
impairment.
ADA Regulations 1630.2 - Definition
Federal Definition of Physical or
Mental Impairment

Any physiological disorder, or
condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or
anatomical loss affecting one or more
of the following body systems:
neurological, musculoskeletal, special
sense organs, respiratory,
cardiovascular, reproductive,
digestive, genito-urinary, memic and
lymphatic, skin and endocrine, or
• ADA Regulations 1630.2, Definition
Federal Definition of Physical or
Mental Impairment

Any mental or psychological
disorder, such as mental
retardation, organic brain
syndrome, emotional or mental
illness and specific learning
disabilities
ADA Regulations 1630.2, Definition
Federal Definition of Major Life
Activity
Functions such as:
caring for oneself
performing manual tasks
walking
seeing
hearing
speaking
breathing
learning
working
ADA REGS 1630.2 DEFINITIONS
Federal Definition of “Substantially
Limits:
ADA Regs. 1630.2 Definitions
1) Unable to perform a major life activity that the
average person in the general population can
perform, or:
2) Significantly restricted as to the condition
manner or duration under which an individual
can perform a particular major live activities as
compared to the conditions manner or duration
under which the average person in the general
population can perform that same major life
activity
WITH RESPECT TO THE MAJOR LIFE ACTIVITY
OF "WORKING" THE FEDERAL DEFINITION OF
SUBSTANTIALLY LIMITS IS


Significantly restricted in the ability to perform
either a class of jobs or a broad range of jobs in
various classes as compared to the average
person having comparable training skills and
abilities.
The inability to perform a single particular job
does not constitute a substantial limitation in the
major life activity of working.

AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT REGULATIONS 1630.2
DEFINITION
“Specific Learning Disability” in the
Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act (IDEA)



The term 'specific learning disability' means a disorder in
one or more of the basic psychological processes involved
in understanding or in using language, spoken or written,
which disorder may manifest itself in imperfect ability to
listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical
calculations.
The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities,
brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and
developmental aphasia.
The term does not include a learning problem that is
primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities;
of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance; or of
environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. [34 CFR
300.7(c)]
Vocational Rehabilitation Services
Administration - Definition

VR defines LD as:
A specific learning disability is a
disorder in one or more of the
central nervous system processes
involved in
• perceiving, understanding, and/or
using concepts through
• verbal (spoken or written)
language or non- verbal means.
Vocational Rehabilitation Services
Administration - Definition
VR defines LD as:
 This disorder manifests itself with a deficit in one
or more of the following areas:
• attention,
- reasoning,
• processing,
- memory,
• communication, - reading,
• writing,
- spelling,
• calculation,
- coordination,
• social competence, and
• emotional maturity.
National Joint Committee on Learning
Disabilities (NJCLD)
(definition revised 1994)


“Learning disabilities” is a general term that
refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders
manifested by significant difficulties in the
acquisition and use of listening, speaking,
reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical
abilities.
These disorders are intrinsic to the individual,
presumed to be due to central nervous system
dysfunction, and may occur across the life span...
National Joint Committee on Learning
Disabilities (NJCLD) (Definition revised
1994)
Although learning disabilities may occur
concomitantly with other handicapping
conditions
• (for example: sensory impairments, mental
retardation, or serious emotional
disturbance) or with extrinsic influences
(such as cultural differences, insufficient or
inappropriate instruction),
they are not the result of those conditions or
influences.
Every Child a Learner: Reducing Risks of
Learning Impairment During Pregnancy and
Infancy, Newman and Buka, 1990

The causes of learning impairments are:
1) low birth-weight,
2) prenatal alcohol exposure,
3) maternal smoking,
4) prenatal exposure to drugs,
5) lead poisoning,
6) child abuse and neglect, and
7) malnutrition.
Genetic Defects
Birth trauma
Endocrine gland dysfunction Diet
Lead poisoning
Oxygen deprivation
Accidents
Toxins
Chronic illness (ear infections, etc.)
Early childhood high fevers
Pre-natal malnutrition
Maternal substance abuse
US Dept of Labor -1991
New evidence points to a
link between
environmental poisons
and learning disabilities.
Kids at Risk!
June 19, 2000
Chemicals in the environment
come under scrutiny as the
number of childhood learning
problems soars!
TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
(From

“Steps to Independent Living” by Dale Brown)
ACADEMIC DIFFICULTIES:
 DYSLEXIA - INABILITY OR
REDUCED ABILITY TO READ
 DYSCALCULIA - INABILITY OR
REDUCED ABILITY TO DO MATH
 DYSGRAPHIA - INABILITY OR
REDUCED ABILITY TO WRITE
TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
(From “Steps to Independent Living” by Dale Brown

Auditory perceptual problems:
Auditory discrimination problems
- (the difference between "th" and
"F", "m" and "n"
 Auditory figure-ground problem
- (Hearing over background noise)
 Auditory sequencing problem
- (Hearing 49, instead of 94 or "treats” instead of
"street"

TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
(From “Steps to Independent Living” by Dale Brown

Catastrophic response:
- Involuntary reaction to too many
Sights, sounds or extreme
emotions or other strong stimuli.

Directional problem:
- Trouble telling left from right

Memory problem, short term:
- trouble remembering: names, numbers,
specific facts, what happened a few
minutes ago.
TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
(From “Steps to Independent Living” by Dale
Brown

Tactile perceptual problem:
Immature tactile system
- problems with soft touching
Tactile defensiveness
- avoiding being touched
Tactile discrimination problem
- problems in determining differences in similar
objects
TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
(From “Steps to Independent Living” by Dale
Brown

Visual perceptual problem

-

-
Visual figure-ground problem
trouble seeing a specific image
Visual sequencing problem
trouble seeing things in order
Visual discrimination problem - trouble seeing the difference
Between similar objects (v and u)

CONTINUUM OF NEUROLOGICAL
DISORDERS POSSIBLE WITH LEARNING
DISABILITIES - From Dr. Larry Silver






Language disability
Motor disability
Attention deficit
/Hyperactivity disorder
Chronic-motor/tic
disorder/Tourettes
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Compulsive disorder
COMORBID PSYCHIATRIC
DISORDERS
- From Dr. Larry Silver
Internalized:

Anxiety

Depression
Externalized:

Oppositional defiant/

conduct disorder

Borderline personality
disorder
Substance abuse:

Alcohol

Drugs
Bridges to Practice in Adult Literacy
Bridges to Practice: A Research-based Guide for Literacy Practitioners Serving Adults
with Learning Disabilities is the latest publication of AED’s National Adult Literacy and
Learning Disabilities Center. The guide is designed to increase awareness among
practitioners in adult literacy programs about learning disabilities, and to help program
leaders make programs more responsive to the needs of adults with learning
disabilities. Such adults frequently experience difficulties in reading, getting off welfare,
and finding and keeping jobs.
The product of a five-year collaboration between the Center and the University of
Kansas Institute for Research on Learning Disabilities, Bridges to Practice is a
research-based, five-book series that documents "best practices." Tools include four
guidebooks, a professional development manual with training agendas and scripts,
transparency and handout masters, and an 11-1/2 minute motivational video, Bridges to
Systemic Reform.
Some Contacts

National Center on Workforce and Disability
for Adults (www.onestops.info)

Collaborative on Workforce and Disability
for Youth (www.ncwd-youth.info)

Job Accommodation Network
(www.jan.wvu.edu/)

National Institute for Literacy
(www.nifl.gov)

NIFL Adult LD site
http://ldlink.coe.utk.edu/
Some Contacts


Office Of Disability and Employment
Policy (ODEP)
http://www.dol.gov/odep/
Section 188 Check list
• http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/cr
c/WIASection188DisabilityChecklist.htm
Job Accommodation Network
Helping employees with disabilities
and managers achieve
an adaptive and welcoming
Public Service work environment
The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) is not a job placement service, but an international tollfree consulting service that provides information about job accommodations and the employability
of people with disabilities. JAN also provides information regarding the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA). Please take a few moments to surf around and find out about our free
services. Click on "Points of Interest" for our table of contents.
West Virginia University
PO Box 6080
Morgantown, WV 26506-6080
1-800-526-7234
Learning Disabilities in Adulthood:
Selected Bibliography





Books and Reports:
Government:
Interagency Committee On Learning Disabilities,
Learning Disabilities - A Report to the U.S
Congress (Washington DC: 1987)
National Institute for Literacy Bridges to Practice
– A Research- Based Guide for Literacy
Practitioners Serving Adults with Learning
Disabilities (Washington, DC 1999)
National Institute for Literacy Learning
Disabilities Training and Dissemination
(Washington, DC: 1999)
National Institute for Literacy, National Adult
Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center, and
Maryland State Department of Education Vision
for an Ideal System - Improving Services to
Adults with Learning Disabilities (Baltimore:
1997)
Learning Disabilities in Adulthood:
Selected Bibliography





Office of Family Assistance, Department of Health and Human
Services, and Administration for Children and Families
Helping Families Achieve Self-Sufficiency: A Guide on
Funding Services for Children and Families Through the
TANF Program (Washington, DC 2000)
Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with
Disabilities Re-charting the Course: First Report of the
Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with
Disabilities (Washington, DC: 1998)
Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with
Disabilities Recharting the Course: If Not Now, When?
(Washington, DC 1999)
United States Department of Education Twenty-first Annual
Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act (Washington, DC: 1999)
United States Department of Health and Human Services,
Office of Inspector General. Functional Impairments of AFDC
Clients. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
(Washington DC: 1992)
Learning Disabilities in Adulthood:
Selected Bibliography
United States Department of Labor, Employment and
Training Administration, The Learning Disabled in
Employment and Training Programs. Research and
Evaluation Report Series 91-E. U.S. Department of
Labor (Washington DC: 1991).
Private Sector:

American Educational Research Association Standards
for Educational And Psychological Testing (Washington
Dc: 1999)
Bowler, Rosemary F. Learning To Learn (New York:
1996)

Brown, Dale S. Learning a Living – A Guide to Planning
Your Career and Finding a Job for People with Learning
Disabilities, Attention Deficit Disorder and Dyslexia
(Bethesda, MD: 2000)

Brown, Dale, Steps to Independence for People with
Learning
Disabilities. (Washington DC: 1980)

Learning Disabilities in Adulthood:
Selected Bibliography






Prohibition Against Discrimination on the Basis of Disability in the Administration of
TANF, Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
January 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/prohibition.html
Terri S. Thompson, Kelly Mikelson, Screening and Assessment in TANF/Welfare-toWork: Ten Important Questions TANF Agencies and Their Partners Should Consider,
Urban Institute, March 2001, available at
http://www.urban.org/pdfs/screening_and_assessment_TANF-WtW.pdf
Amy Brown, Beyond Work First: How to Help Hard-to-Employ Individuals Get Jobs
and Succeed in the Workforce: A How-To Guide, Manpower Demonstration
Research Corporation, April 2001, available at http://www.mdrc.org
Michelle K. Derr, Heather Hill, LaDonna Pavetti, Addressing Mental Health Problems
Among TANF Recipients: A Guide for Program Administrators, Mathematica Policy
Research, July 2000, available at http://www.mathematicampr.com/PDFs/address_mental.pdf
Cary LaCheen, Using Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Behalf of
Clients in TANF Programs, Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law and Policy, Volume
VII, Winter 2001; also available on the Welfare Law Center's website,
http://www.welfarelaw.org
Eileen P. Sweeney, HHS Guidance Explains How Federal Laws Barring
Discrimination Against People with Disabilities Apply in State and County TANF
Programs, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, February 2001, available at
http://www.cbpp.org/2-26-01wel.htm
Learning Disabilities in Adulthood:
Selected Bibliography







Fletcher, Todd and Bos, Candace –Helping Individuals With
Disabilities and Their Families Mexican and U.S. Perspectives
(Tempe, AZ: 1999)
GED Testing Service - Form L-15 Accommodation Request
for Learning Disabilities ND/OR Attention
Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Gerber, Paul J. and Brown, Dale S. Learning Disabilities and
Employment (Austin: 1997)
Gerber, Paul J. and Henry B. Reiff, Learning Disabilities in
Adulthood, Persisting Problems and Evolving Issues.
(Boston: 1994)
Giler, Janet Z. Socially ADDept, A Manual For Parents and
Children with ADHD and/or Learning Disabilities (Santa
Barbara, CA 2000)
Gregg, Noel, et al, Adults with Learning Disabilities –
Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. (New York: 1996)
Health Resource Center, and The National Adult Literacy and
Learning Disabilities Center, National Resources for Adults
with Learning Disabilities. (Washington DC: 1996)
Learning Disabilities in Adulthood:
Selected Bibliography







Henderson, Cathy College Freshmen With Disabilities
Statistical Year (Washington, DC1999)
Johnson, Doris J., and Jane W. Blalock, Adults With
Learning Disabilities. (Orlando: 1987).
Krasnegor, Norman A., Kavanaugh, James F., Gray, David
B., and Lyon, G. Reid Better Understanding Learning
Disabilities (Baltimore, MD: 1993)
Krupska, Marysia and Klein, Cynthia Demystifying Dyslexia
- Raising Awareness and Developing Support for Dyslexic
People and Adults (London: 1995)
Latham, Peter, and Patricia, H. Latham, Learning
Disabilities and the Law. (Washington DC: 1993)
Learning Disabilities Association of America, Secondary
Education and Beyond - Providing Opportunities for
Students with Learning Disabilities. (Pittsburgh: 1995)
Lyon, Reid G., Frames of Reference for the Assessment of
Learning Disabilities - New Views on Measurement Issues.
(Baltimore:1994)
www.ldonline.org
Here’s a sampling of assistive technology
resources useful to students and adults
with learning disabilities:
•Keyboard Alternatives
•Keyboard/Mouse Interface Software
•Portable Word Processing Alternatives
•Word Prediction Software
•Text-To_Speech
•Screen Reading Software
•Optical Character Recognition Software
•Writing/Composing Software
•Spelling Checkers, Dictionaries,
•& Thesauruses
•Assistive Technology Information Sites
•Speech Recognition
•Books on Disc/Tape
•Variable Speech Control
•Listening Aides
•Talking Calculators
Accommodating Adults
with Disabilities in Adult
Education Programs
University of Kansas
Institute for Adult Services
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