Language-Based Learning
Disabilities in the School-Age
Population
Chapter 9
DEFINITIONS
• Learning Disability: Any one of a
heterogeneous set of learning problems that
affect the acquisition and use of ________,
speaking, writing, reading, mathematical, and
________ skills. Presumed to be due to ______
_______________ dysfunction
• Language-Based Learning Disability: A _____
disorder that manifests itself in different ways at
various points in development as
______________ contexts and ___________
change
SLP’s Role
• SLP is responsible for________ and ________
language-based learning disabilities
• Not all learning disabilities are ____________
• Children with non-language-based learning
disabilities should be referred to other
____________: OT, PT, school psychologist, or
education for remediation
Learning Disabilities
• Heterogeneous
• Subgroups can be
 ________ deficits
 ________ deficits
 Children with ____
 General _____________ impairments
Language-Based Learning Disabilities
• Most language-based learning disabilities
(LLDs) manifest as ______ or _______ or both
• Most LLDs are extensions of speech and
language delays and disorders occurring during
the _________ years
• _____% under 18 years of age with learning
disabilities
• These children can go undetected due to subtle
deficit
• “ABNQ”- “___________”
 These children manage to _______ with their
classmates, particularly in the language-based
portions of academics
 These children ___________: cognitive
impairments, moderate to severe language
delays, or physical or sensory impairments that
interfere with language and social interactions
 They _______ specific language and learning
disabilities that interfere with their educational
and social progress
Impacts on Children
• Problems with
 _________ environments
 _________ environments
 _________ environments
 Impacts on __________
 Impacts on __________
Definition of Learning Disabilities
• Page 390 - original definition of LD
• Page 392 – new definition of LD
Difference between language
disorder and learning disabilities
• Language disorder _______ the learning
disability
• Language-learning disability is a single disorder
that manifests itself _________ abilities,
narratives, and classroom discourse, figurative
language use and written language skills
Curricular demands based on
Language
• Preschool – language development and
______________ growth
• Kindergarten to 2nd grade – basic skills needed
for ______ and ________
 Learn about phoneme-grapheme correspondence
 Spelling, oral and written, and begin math skills
• 3rd and 4th grade – _____________
 Recall skills within specific subjects
• 5th to 6th grade – acquiring knowledge in the
_______ areas that were introduced previously
 Increase reliance on metalinguistics,
metacognitive skills, meaning from context, to
analyze abstract language
• 7th to 9th grade – should be able to read popular
_________.
 Foreign languages
At Risk
• __________ illiterates
• High school __________
• _______
• Academic __________
• _____ and impoverished
• Poor early ______ and _______ skills
• Poor __________ awareness
• Abused and _________ children
Clinical Findings
• Phonological Deficits
 Speech that is _______to understand
 Due to a simplification of the manner in which
sounds are _______
 ________ and graphomotor deficits
 Difficulty processing the ______________
association
 Difficulty with ___________
Semantic Deficits
• Children establish meaning by combining
features that are ______ and _________ in the
environment.
• Difficulty organizing ____________
 A result of underdeveloped lexical skill
• Difficulty with ________ the name of an item
 Circumlocution
• Word ____________
• Difficulty _______ something that has been
described to them
Syntactic Deficits
• Lack of early _____________ is the first sign of
delay
• Decreased ____
• Constant _________ of learning syntax
• These children have difficulty with ______
• Often more ________ delays than ________
• Poor sentence ____________
• Exhibit _________ deficits
Pragmatics
• Pragmatic deficits tend to often be ______ than
content and form deficits
• May have _______ linguistic skills but poor
ability to ___________ in an appropriate
manner in a variety of settings.
• Pragmatic deficits may be more linguistic than
social
 Poor ___________ repair
 More _______ in a group and ask few questions
 Possible overuse of _______ starters
 Difficulty with ______________
Classroom Issues with Students
with SLI
• Emotional Regulation: The ability to control
one’s ______ and express them __________
based on the myriad components of a setting
• Participation in _______________
 Those activities that involve the ______
participation and cooperation of the members of
a group
Auditory Processing
• _____% of school aged children have Auditory
Processing Disorder
• Processes identified as being impaired are:
 Sound ___________ and lateralization
 Auditory ______________
 Auditory _______ recognition
 _______ aspects of audition
•
•
•
•
Temporal integration
Temporal masking
Temporal resolution
Temporal ordering
 Auditory performance decreases with ________
acoustic signals
 Auditory performance decreases with degrading
acoustic ________
 Children who exhibit signs of LLDs or reading
and/or spelling disorders should be referred to
an _________ to rule out auditory processing
disorders
 Children who have poor academic achievement,
behavior problems, phonological deficits, ADHD,
or problems with oral language should be
referred for _____________ testing
Response to Intervention (RTI)
• RTI emphasizes the use of ___________
intervention for students who are ______ for
academic failure
• Collecting _____ that documents students’
_______ in response to intervention serves as
the basis in identifying students who truly have
a ____________ (rather than underachieving
student or inadequate instruction)
• Key element of RTI is ____________ when
students first experience academic difficulties
RTI Service Delivery
• _________
• Implementation of intervention in the _______
education setting
• Implementation of a ______________
instructional/intervention trial
• Monitoring student’s _____________ to trial
intervention
• Determine true disability and placement in
_______________________
RTI Focus
• RTI focuses on _______________
• Enables educators to identify students using a
_________, _________ problem-solving
approach to assess actual student performance
• Does not rely on ________ test scores
• RTI measures a student’s ___________
___________ then uses that data to develop an
appropriate __________ or intervention
process based on evidence-based teaching
methods
RTI Funding
• Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act (IDEIA-2004) allows schools
to use up to ___% of special ed funds to
provide “additional academic and behavioral
support” to students who do not meet the
qualifications to receive special education, but
who most likely _______ succeed in the
general education classroom
Let’s Talk
• Review Case Study (pg 429-432) if time allows
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Language-Based Learning Disabilities in the School