Primary Education
Presentation for Consultative
Committee
16th July 2007
Primary Education : Basic Statistics
Child Population 6- 11 years
(Census 2001)
12.13 cr.
Number of Primary Schools
7,67,520
Number of Primary Teachers
21,60,666
Number of EGS centres
146240
Primary Education : Initiatives
• SSA initiated in 2001-02; effectively started in
2002-03.
• Operation Blackboard merged with SSA.
• NFE scheme modified to new EGS & AIE
scheme, included under SSA
• DPEP now only in 17 districts in 2 States under
overall umbrella of SSA.
• KGBV scheme merged with SSA w.e.f 1.04.07
WHAT DOES SSA PROVIDE :
Providing basic facilities in each school
 Setting up of primary schools within 1 k.m. radius
 Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative
Innovative Education centres as alternative schools.
 Back to school programme through bridge courses
and residential camps.
 Additional classrooms – a room for every teacher
with minimum of two teachers at Primary level
 Toilets/drinking water/child friendly elements.
 Additional teachers to get pupil teacher ratio of 40:1.
What SSA Provided for Basic Facilities
Targets up
to 2006-07
(in lakh)
Achievement up
2006(in lakh)s
% Cumulative
achievement
New Primary
Schools opened
1.33
1.09
75%
Teachers appointed
10.03
8.25
81%
Drinking Water
1.7
Toilets
2.35
Item
Construction
Primary School
building
Additional
Classrooms
1.58
93%
2.03
83%
Comp.
IP
Comp Comp. &
IP
1.21
0.69
0.23
54%
74%
6.92
4.05
2.46
58%
94%
Access at Primary Stage
Access less (no school within 1 km.)
habitations as per 7th AIES
Primary schools provided till 2007-08
under SSA and DPEP
1,60,528
2,04,200
98% of rural population has access to primary
school within 1 km. of habitation.
92000 EGS centres are providing education
to 24 lakh children in sparsely populated
habitations with relaxed norms in tribal areas.
About 28 lakh children are covered through
context specific AIE intervention
Enrolment at Primary Stage
Gross Enrolment Ratios
GER
110
108
• GER < 100 in AP, Bihar,
Haryana, J&K, Jharkhand,
Kerala, Nagaland, Punjab,
Chandigarh,
Delhi and
Laksadweep
106
104
102
100
98
96
94
• 52 lakh children in EGS
and AIE
92
90
88
• GER at primary stage is
107.8.
200102
200203
200304
200405
GER 96.3
95.3
98.2
107.8
GER at Primary Level
Goal – I contd…/-
Out of School Children
In lakhs
350
• The number of out of
school children is
75
lakh (2007) (3.5%).
320
300
250
• 2.9% in 6-11 yrs OoSC
249
200
150
100
116
135
70
75
50
0
2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 200602
03
04
05
06
07
• Number of districts with
more than 50,000 OoSC
has reduced from 48
(2005) to 24 (2007).
(Assam 1, Bihar 11,
Chattisgarh 1, Haryana 1,
Orissa 1, West Bengal 9)
Bridging Gender Gap at primary
• Girls enrolment increased from
43.7%(2000-2001)to 46.7%(20042005).
• Gender gap reduced from 19 to 6
percent pts.
• 48 distt. Gender Gap > 10% pts.
• High gender gap
 Bihar(24)Rajasthan (9)
 Gujarat(16)Jharkhand (16)
Districts with gender gap > 10% points
What does SSA Provide for
Bridging Gender Gap

Programme for participation of girls

Free Text Books

National Programme on Education of Girls at
Elementary level started in 3291 educationally
backward blocks.

Innovative activities like pre-school centres/bridge
courses/vocational education/bicycles etc.

Gender sensitization of education personnel and
teachers.

Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (residential
schools) in educationally backward blocks launched
in July, 2004.
Bridging Social Gaps – Scheduled Castes &
Scheduled Tribes
• GER gap SC (nil) ST (2.15%pts )
• State variations (GER Gap)
 Primary (SC)
Delhi-28.01 Chandigarh-24.17
T.Nadu-12.22 Puducherry-7.8
Goa-4.38
Jharkhand-2.70
Bihar-2.60.
 Primary (ST)
SC
ST
Rajasthan-13.67 Bihar-11.52
Orissa-9.76
Manipur-8.46
Meghalaya-7.58 Nagaland-4.9
Chatisgarh-4.05 Tripura-2.99
What Does SSA Provide for
Bridging SC & ST Gaps

Free Text Books

51 SC concentration and 75 ST concentration districts
identified)

EGS & AIE centres being opened in tribal areas with
relaxed norms (10-15 children).
Flexible
schooling strategies for working migrant
children
NGO’s
involved in specific initiatives in urban slums
and street children
What Does SSA Provide for
Bridging SC & ST Gaps

District specific strategies for SC & ST children (15 lakh
for innovation

Recruitment of local tribal teachers.

Development of specific modules for training of teachers
in tribal areas (AP, Gujarat, Orissa)

Use of primers in tribal languages to help in better
transition to State language

Priority in KGBV hostels, 25% SC and 29% ST girls
Goal – II contd../-
Bridging Social Category Gaps Muslim Minorities)
•
9.97% (22 lakhs) muslim children (6-14) were out of school
(SRI-IMRB 2005 Survey).
10
8
7.84
6.23
6
3.88
4
2
0.85
1.46
0.66
0.62
0.61
0.38
0
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What Does SSA Provide for
Bridging Muslim Minoritiy Gap

Free Text Books to Minority girls.

Text Books in Urdu

88 districts with more than 20% muslim population
focussed for Muslim minority under SSA.

4624 PS, 1780 UPS and 31,702 EGS opened in these
districts in 2006-07. 25.5% of total SSA allocation for
these districts

Priority in KGBV Hostels, 529 KGBV Hostels in Muslim
minority concentration districts
What Does SSA Provide for
Bridging Minoritiy Gap

Muslim educational indicators being collected under
DISE.

Supporting formal curriculum to children not attending
regular schools through recognized / unrecognized
Madarsas / Maktabs (13,176).
Teaching
Teacher

Learning Material Grants
Training
Free Text Books
Additional
curriculum
instructor
to
impart
formal
What Does SSA Provide for
Children With Special need
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support to CWSN, specific provision of Rs 1200 per
child
Coverage through enrolment in schools(19.97 lakh),
EGS/AIE centres(1.12 lakh) and home based education
(77140).
19.10 lakh CWSN (63%) enrolled in schools out of 23 lakh
identified.
Provided assistive devices to 7.12 lakh CWSN
Teachers training to 50000 teachers
6678 resource teachers appointed in 21 States.
Barrier free access ramps in the 5.02 lakh school
620 NGOs involved in planning for IE, identification on
CWSN, provision of aids and appliances, training on
teachers etc.
Focus now on in-class attention and appropriate
materials/ teaching methods for enrolling CWSN
Universal Retention by 2010
•
45
40
35
30
Dropout rates (pry.) have
fallen by 11.3% pts. since
2001.
(2.3% drop between 19902000)
25
20
15
•
Reduction in girls > 15%
pts.
•
Transition rates Pry. to U.
Pry. improve from 74.15
(2003-04) to 83.36 (200506).
10
5
0
Pry Girls
Primary
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
39.9
39
33.72
34.89
28.57
31.47
25.42
29
Dropout Rates
Goal III : Universal Retention by 2010
Primary
Dropout Rates
•Drop out at National level
29.21% (SES 2004)
•Dropout more than
National Average is in
Upto 10%
10 to 20%
20 to 30%
30 to 40%
> 40%
Assam, Bihar, Goa,
Meghalaya,
Rajasthan,
Sikkim, Tripura, and
West Bengal
Universal Retention – Scheduled Castes
Primary
Dropout Gap
• Gap between general and SC
dropout rate is 5.21%
• Interstate variations
Goa-53.67
UP-18.54
T. Nadu-12.72
WB-11.28
Dropout Gap
Upto 10% points
Haryana-9.8
10-20% points
Chandigarh-7.61 Punjab-5.24
> 20% points.
HP-8.79
Universal Retention – Scheduled Tribes
Primary
Dropout Gap
• Gap between general and ST
dropout rate is 13.32%
• Interstate variations
Dropout Gap
Upto 10% points
10-20% points
> 20% points.
Maharashtra - 25.65
Andhra Pradesh - 22.09
Manipur - 19.82
Orissa - 19.28
Gujarat - 13.71
Tamil Nadu-10.73

What SSA Provides for Quality improvement









Provide additional teachers for PTR 1: 40 with
minimum of two teachers
Grants – Teachers
Development of improved textbooks
Free textbooks for girls, SC, ST’s
Remedial teaching (for students needing greater
attention )
Annual 20 day training of teachers
Decentralized
academic
support
to
schools/teachers through block & cluster level
resource centers
Improved pupil assessment systems
School monitoring indicators
Appointment of Teachers
States with high PTR at pry PTR at primary – 41:1
 State have recruited 8.25 lakhs
teachers against the target of
10.03 lakhs teachers.
 States with high PTR at Pry
Bihar (73:1),Jharkhand (53:1),
UP (60:1), W. Bengal (47:1)
 States that have to recruit more
than 15000 teachers under SSA.
PTR more than 41:1
Bihar - 29218
West Bengal - 39486
Rajasthan – 33057
Jharkhand – 18480
Orissa- 16486
Teacher Training
• Less than 40%
• 40 – 60% progress
• 60 - 80% progress
• More than 80%
• Target in 2006-07 was 34,05,615
• Overall progress 87%
• Less than 40% progress in Bihar,
Sikkim, A & N Islands,
Lakshadweep
• Fresh NCERT guidelines for in
service training (The Reflective
Teacher)
• Evaluation of teacher training
underway (April, 2008)
• SSA also supports induction
training and training of untrained
teachers
• Focus on outcome oriented
teacher training , to enable
teachers to attain pre identified
performance standards
Textbooks
• Progress > 90%
• Progress < 90%
• From State budget
• Target in 06-07 was
6,68,77,585
• Overall progress 96%
• Issue of timeliness in
distribution being
addressed/monitored
through MIEs/IPAI
• Free textbook from state
budget: Puducherry,
Karnataka, T. N., Gujarat
(up to class VII), etc.
• Textbook revision recently
completed , or currently
underway in several states.
Assessment based learning improvement
efforts
• Learning Improvement Initiatives
• Recent initiatives
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Quality Tracking in Kerala
KSQAO – Karnataka
ABL – Tamil Nadu
CLAPS – Andhra Pradesh
LATS – Orissa
GAP – Gujarat
Buniyad – Jharkhand
Read C. – Chhattisgarh
Read M. – Madhya Pradesh
LAP, LGP – Rajasthan
School Grading, Nayee Disha – UP
PLEP – Punjab
SSUU – West Bengal
Bidya Jyoti, LAP – Assam
School Monitoring - Uttarakhand
Remedial Teaching
• Target in 2006-07 was
43,60,095
• Overall progress 78%
• Less than 40% progress in
Andaman & Nicobar Is.,
Lakshadweep, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Nagaland,
Orissa, Punjab and Sikkim
• Several States running
programmes with NGOs.
• Less than 40%
• 40 – 60% progress
• 60 - 80% progress
• More than 80%
Learning Achievement Surveys by NCERT-Class III
Mean Achievement
Class-III
Language
63. 12
Maths.
58. 25
(29 states / UTs)
(S.D. 22.05)
(S.D. 24. 89)
Language
Maths
0-50%
0-50%
50-60%
60-70%
70-80%
50-60%
60-70%
70-80%
Learning Achievement Surveys by NCERT- Class V
Mean Achievement
Math
Lang.
EVS
Class -V
(31 states / UTs)
46. 51
58. 57
50. 30
(SD 21.30)
(SD 18.30)
(SD 20.67)
Language
0-50%
50-60%
Maths
0-50%
60-70%
50-60%
60-70%
70-80%
70-80%
Sub-dist. academic support structures
• Over 90% operational in all
states except in Assam and
some UTs
• Urban Resource Centers
(URCs) being set up (SSA
guidelines amended recently)
• Evaluation study being
commissioned.
< 90% functional
• BRCs
• CRCs
• Efforts to identify performance
standards (ADEPTS) and
emphasise primacy of the
academic support role of BRCs
and CRCs (e.g. through QMTs).
Improving Quality
Attendance.
100
90
In Percent
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
AP
Ass Bih Cha Guj
Kar Ker
Ma
PJ
Ukd
HP
MP
Or.
Raj. TN
UP WB
am ar tt. arat
n. ala
h.
B
.
Teacher 73.9 82.2 43.8 68.4 76.5 95.1 86.3 91.7 73.3 90 67.8 80.9 66.3 89.1 81 59.6 75.1
Students 72.7 81.4 42 67.7 75 94.6 86.2 91.4 72.1 89 66.8 81.7 62.7 88.3 80 57.3 75.7
What Does SSA Provide for Community
Involvement
Community involvement - must in SSA
 Village Education Committees and School
Management Committees given key role in SSA
implementation.
 50% funds go to VEC/ SMC
 VECs/Women’s groups monitor primary schools
 Roles in implementation/monitoring assigned to
Panchayati Raj Institutions.
 More than 6000 NGOs involved in support to, and
implementation of SSA interventions.
Focus in 2007-08
Outcomes Expected
•
Reduction in dropouts by at least 5% at primary
level.
•
Reduction in gender gap by at least 5%.
•
Enhancing student and teacher attendance.
•
Focused programmes for improving levels of learning in
Maths and Language in classes I to III.
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