Five years after Dakar:
Overview of progress and
challenges in EFA
Nicholas Burnett
EFA Global Monitoring Report
Ministerial Round Table on Education for All
UNESCO, 7 October 2005
www.efareport.unesco.org
1
The Education for All Global Monitoring Report
• Charts progress towards the six Dakar goals agreed to by 164 countries in
2000
• Monitors international commitments to education
• Highlights effective policies and strategies, allows for comparisons
between countries
• Draws attention to emerging challenges
• Analyses administrative data collected by UNESCO Institute for Statistics
• Reports on:
• Overall challenges (2002)
• Gender (2003/4)
• Quality (2005)
• Literacy (2006, launch on 9 November 2005)
(Prepared by an independent team housed at UNESCO)
2
Education and literacy:
an imperative for development
• Rights that permit access to other rights
• Human capabilities: widening choices
• Gender equality: empowering the disadvantaged
• Economic growth and poverty reduction: higher
productivity, higher incomes
• Improved health, lower fertility and HIV/AIDS prevention
• Social cohesion and participation
• Sustainable development
EFA is necessary but not sufficient for achieving equitable
human development
3
Education and HIV/AIDS:
Knowledge causes behaviour to change
18
16
HIV prevalence (%)
14
12
10
8
6
No schooling
4
Primary
2
Secondary
0
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
HIV prevalence in rural Uganda (%)
by education category, 1990-2001 (individuals aged 18-29)
4
Education for All
Dakar Goals and Millennium Development Goals
EFA Goals
MDGs
1.
Expanding early childhood
care and education
Goal 2: Achieve Universal
primary education
2.
Universal primary education
by 2015
3.
Equitable access to learning
and life skills programmes for
young people and adults
(Target 3: Completion of full
primary schooling by all
children by 2015)
4.
50% improvement in adult
literacy rates by 2015
5.
Gender parity by 2005 and
gender equality by 2015
6.
Improving quality of education
Goal 3. Promote gender
equality and empower
women
(Target 4: eliminate gender
disparity preferably by 2005
and no later than 2015)
LITERACY IS AT THE CORE
5
The shifting EFA context
Big trends:
•
Globalisation and knowledge economies
•
Sustained economic growth in the South
•
Promises of increased aid
•
Inequality worsening
Education under stress:
•
•
Over 30 civil conflicts, all in low-income countries
•
•
•
HIV/AIDS: child orphans, teacher shortage and absenteeism
Natural disasters – Indian Ocean tsunami
Fertility still high in regions with greatest EFA challenge
Rapid expansion of secondary education
6
Expanding secondary education
The number of secondary school students has risen four times
faster than that of primary school students since 1998
Gross enrolment ration in secondary education (%)
120
100
80
1990
60
2002
40
20
0
World
Arab
States
Central and
Eastern
Europe
Central
Asia
East Asia
and the
Pacific
Latin
America
and the
Caribbean
North
America
and
Western
Europe
South and
West Asia
SubSaharan
Africa
7
Overall progress
The EFA Development Index covers 123 countries and
incorporates the four most “quantifiable” EFA goals
EDI
Countries have achieved the goals
or are close to doing so
46
0.95-1.00
Countries in intermediate position.
In these countries, quality of education is
an issue, especially in Latin America, and
adult literacy in the Arab States.
Countries far from meeting the goals,
including 16 in sub-Saharan Africa
49
0.80-0.94
28
less than 0.80
8
Early childhood care and
education
A strong influence on future school
performance, a positive impact on
girls’ enrolment in primary
•
Slow global progress: in the majority of countries, GER in preprimary education is still below 50%
•
Children from disadvantaged backgrounds more likely to be
excluded
•
Attendance rates considerably higher for urban children than
those living in rural areas
•
Theme of 2007 EFA Global Monitoring Report
9
Universal primary education
•
Sharp enrolment increases in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia
•
About 100 million children still not enrolled in primary school -- 70% in
Sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia
•
67 countries at risk of not achieving UPE by 2015 -- in 23
net enrolment ratios are declining
•
Over 80 countries still charge fees
Out-of-primary school children by region (in millions), 2002
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Central Asia Latin America
North
and the
America and
Caribbean
Western
Europe
Central and
Eastern
Europe
Arab States
East Asia
and the
Pacific
South and
West Asia
Sub-Saharan
Africa
10
Gender Parity
•
Considerable progress in countries with lowest gender parity index
•
94 countries will miss 2005 gender parity target
•
Disparities at primary level in over 60 countries are nearly always at
the expense of girls
•
At secondary level, boys under represented in 56 countries
Gender parity index (F/M), 2002
1.20
Gender
parity
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
Sub-Saharan
Africa
Arab States
South/West
Asia
Central /
Latin America/
EasternEurope
Caribbean
Central
Asia
East Asia/
Pacific
N. America/
W. Europe
primary
secondary
11
Literacy and adult learning
771 million adults without literacy, 75% live in 12 countries,
64% are women
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Rest of the
world
25.0%
1.2
India
34.6%
World
D. R. Congo
1.2%
South/West Asia
Arab States
Morocco
1.3%
Sub-Saharan Africa
Iran, Isl. Rep.
1.4%
East Asia/Pacific
Centr/East. Europe
Brazil
1.9%
Latin America/ Caribbean
N. America/West. Europe
Central Asia
Gender parity index (F/M), 2002
Egypt
2.2%
Indonesia
2.4%
Gender
parity
China
11.3%
Ethiopia
2.8%
Nigeria
2.9%
Pakistan
6.2%
Bangladesh
6.8%
12
Literacy:
what direct testing shows
•
CONVENTIONAL statistics:
 based on indirect assessments (official census figures rely on
self-assessments or years of schooling)
•
DIRECT assessments give policy-makers a more accurate
picture of needs
 Several countries (eg. Brazil, Botswana, China, Lao PDR, Morocco,
U.R. Tanzania) have conducted direct assessments.
All show that individuals overestimate their literacy skills
•
Direct assessments suggest that the global literacy challenge is much
greater
13
Education quality
In many low-income countries more than one third
of children have limited reading skills even after
four to six years in school
• Drop-out: in 41 out of 133 countries with data, less than two-thirds of
primary school pupils reach the last grade
• Large classrooms: pupil-teacher ratios on the rise in countries where
education has expanded rapidly.
• Lack of teacher training and poor teacher conditions of service hinder
learning in many low-income countries.
• Instructional time: few countries reach recommended 850-1,000
hours/year
14
Reading scores
Changes between Sacmeq 1 and 2
560
Kenya
540
Mauritius
Mean scores in reading
520
500
Average
480
Zanzibar
(U.R. Tanzania)
460
Namibia
Zambia
440
Malawi
420
400
SACMEQ I 1995-1996
SACMEQ II 2000-2001
15
National resources: finance and quality
Students in countries that invest more in education tend to have
better literacy skills. In high-income states, the impact of
additional resources is less clear
Average combined literacy score
600
550
Rep. of Korea
Finland JapanCanada
UK
Australia
Sweden
Ireland
Austria
Norway
BelgiumFrance
Czech Rep.
USA
Denmark
Hungary
Germany
Poland
Spain
Italy
Portugal
Greece
500
450
Mexico
400
Chile
Argentina
Indonesia
Brazil
350
Peru
300
0
10 000
20 000
30 000
40 000
50 000
60 000
70 000
80 000
90 000
Cumulative education expenditure per pupil (PPP US$)
16
Public spending: making education
a national priority
• 6% of GNP recommended on education spending not reached in
majority of countries
• Public spending on education as share of national income
increased between 1998 and 2002 in two-thirds of countries
with data
• Education spending insufficient in countries where access and
quality remain a top challenge (under 4% in in the majority of
countries in Central Asia, South and West Asia and sub-Saharan
Africa).
• Literacy typically receives less than 1% of national education
budgets
• Efficiency of spending is an issue
17
International commitments
The Dakar Pledge: No country seriously committed to
education will be thwarted by lack of resources
• 60% bilateral aid still going to post-secondary education.
• Total estimated annual external aid to education required to reach UPE of
reasonable quality by 2015: $7 billion
• Bilateral and multilateral aid to basic education = $2.1 billion.
• New pledges could increase aid to $3.3 billion. A large funding gap remains.
• Aid is not going to regions where EFA challenge is greatest and countries with
lowest EDI index.
• Fast Track Initiative: a key coordinating mechanism endorsed by G8 but
resources so far raised are very small compared with requirements.
18
EFA: Policy pillars
A holistic strategy is essential:
all the goals, for children, youth and adults
• Strong leading role by government – political commitment at
highest levels to all EFA dimensions, including literacy and
ECCE
• Act on obstacles to education – especially fees
• Recognize critical role of teachers: numbers, women teachers,
training, conditions of service
• Build literate societies to encourage literacy for all
• Education as a societal project – engage civil society
• Assure policy continuity over time
19
Literacy: A three-pronged approach
1. Universal quality
basic education for
girls and boys
2. Scale up youth
and adult literacy
programs
3. Develop
rich literate
environments
•
Clear frameworks: Coordinate public, private and civil society programs
•
Literacy educators: Adequate pay, professional status and training
•
Budget for youth and adult literacy programs: integrate literacy into
education sector planning
•
Curricula that build on learners’ motivations and demands
•
Language policy: start in mother tongue, smooth transition to learning in
regional and official languages
20
Setting Priorities for Action
1.
All 6 EFA goals, plus lower secondary
and literate environments
2.
UPE: eliminate fees, inclusion policies
3.
Gender parity: renew commitment
4.
Quality at all levels: teachers, school health and nutrition
5.
Literacy: move up on agenda, individual skills and literate
societies; a lead government responsibility
6.
Public finance: continue to increase, address inefficiency
7.
Aid: double to basic education, focus on need, analytical
and knowledge support
21
Accelerating the pace of change
• 100 million children out of
school
• Girls: highly unequal
chances
• Education quality
too low
• 771+ million adults without
• Rights denied
• Human potential lost
• Economic growth slowed
• Poverty persists
• Societies less
participatory
literacy skills
22
EFA Global Monitoring Report
EFA Global Monitoring Report Team
c/o UNESCO
7, place de Fontenoy
75352 Paris 07
France
[email protected]
www.efareport.unesco.org
23
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