El Subjuntivo
A “mood”, not a “tense”
The Moods
 Indicative


Knowledge
Certainty
 Subjunctive



Doubt
Desire
Emotion
The Bad News…
 For every tense that you have learned




Present
Past
Future
Etc.
There is an equivalent Subjunctive form!
The Good News…
 None of this (in my opinion) is as difficult
as the distinction between Preterite and
Imperfect.
Let’s look at the conjugations of the Present Tense!
Present Tense (Review)
Write the conjugations of the present tense for these regular verbs:
Cantar
Meter
Escribir
Yo
Canto
Meto
Escribo
Tú
Cantas
Metes
Escribes
Él, ella, Ud
Canta
Mete
Escribe
Nosotros
Cantamos
Metemos
Escribimos
Ellos, Uds.
Cantan
Meten
Escriben
A few irregular “yo” forms (Rev)
Tener
Decir
Conocer
Yo
Tengo
Digo
Conozco
Tú
Tienes
Dices
Conoces
Él, ella, Ud
Tiene
Dice
Conoce
Nosotros
Tenemos
Decimos
Conocemos
Ellos, Uds.
Tienen
Dicen
Conocen
Present Tense
Subjunctive
How to conjugate it.
Remember “Formal Commands?
 Take the “yo” form of the verb
 Add the opposite endings expected



Yo hablo -> Yo hable
Yo como -> Yo coma
Yo tengo -> Yo tenga
Use –ar
endings for –
er/-ir verbs &
vice-versa
If you know how to form formal commands, you
can conjugate in the Present Tense Subjunctive.
Answers to exercise
cante
Dr. García, ____________________________(cantar),
por favor.
digan
¡Amigos! ¡No ____________________________(decir)
mentiras!
tenga
Señora, por favor __________________________(tener) cuidado.
escriban
Alumnos, ¡______________________(escribir)
un ensayo de 100 palabras!
What you are actually using here is the subjunctive!
Form the Present Tense
Subjunctive
Don’t forget: Use the yo form and add the opposite endings.
Aplastar
Conocer
Decir
Yo
Aplaste
Conozca
Diga
Tú
Aplastes
Conozcas
Digas
Él, ella, Ud
Aplaste
Conozca
Diga
Nosotros
Aplastemos
Conozcamos
Digamos
Ellos, Uds.
Aplasten
Conozcan
Digan
Irregulares
Ser
Ir
Saber
Dar
Estar
Yo
Sea
Vaya
Sepa
Dé
Esté
Tú
Seas
Vayas
Sepas
Des
Estés
Él, ella, Ud
Sea
Vaya
Sepa
Dé
Esté
Nosotros
Seamos
Vayamos
Sepamos
Demos
Estemos
Ellos, Uds.
Sean
Vayan
Sepan
Den
Estén
Don’t mix this one up with the
preterite tense: “supe, supiste, etc.”!
A little linguistics terminology
clause – a part of a sentence containing a subject and verb
conjunction – a word that connects two clauses (que)
The man says that he is tired.
Main clause
Dependent clause
conjunction
Rule: Spanish NEVER avoids using “que” when connecting
two clauses (English often avoids using a conjunction.)
O.K. when do we use it?
We use it when the Main Clause expresses:
 Emotion
(Yo tengo miedo…)
 Doubt/denial
(Nosotros dudamos…)
 Imposition of will
(María recomienda…)
“indirect command”
After any of the above, the dependent clause will be subjunctive.
Nosotros tenemos miedo que tú no la conozcas.
(We are afraid that you don’t know her.)
The “Formula” (copy it)
Main Clause
que
Emotion
Doubt/denial
Change
+
of
Subject
Imp. of will
Dependent Clause
=
Subjunctive
Some structural rules
 When connecting two sentences
together, a “que” must always be used.
 Only the verb on the “right-hand” side is
subjunctive
 All other grammar rules that you have
learned apply
Let’s try one…
Emotion
Translate:
I am afraid.
Yo tengo miedo.
Miguel doesn’t speak Spanish
Miguel no habla español.
Connect both clauses with the word “that”.
Yo tengo miedo que Miguel no hable español.
Note how the verb changed!
Let’s plug that into the “formula”
Main clause
que
 Emotion
 Doubt/denial
 Imp. of will
Yo tengo miedo
Dependent clause
Change of
+
Subject
que
=
Subjunctive
Miguel no hable español.
What happens if part of the
formula is missing?
Main clause
que
 Emotion
 Doubt/denial
 Imp. of will
Yo
Yo tengo
sé
miedo
Dependent clause
Change of
+
Subject
=
Subjunctive
que que Miguel
Miguel
no hable
no hable
habla
español.
español.
español.
Indicative
Copy these verbs of emotion
Tener miedo
To be afraid
Temer
To fear
Esperar
Ojalá
To hope
“I hope”
Alegrarse de
To be happy
Sentir
To regret, to be sorry
Celebrar
To rejoice, celebrate
Sorprenderse
To be surprised
Doubt/Denial
Dudar
To doubt
No creer
To not believe
negar
To deny
Imposition of Will
Recomendar
Insistir en
Sugerir
Rogar
Pedir
Querer
Necesitar
Mandar
exigir
To recommend
To insist upon
To suggest
To beg
To ask for
To want
To need
To order
To demand
Homework
 Learn the conjugations
 Learn the formula
 Learn the vocabulary that expresses
emotion
Descargar

El Subjuntivo