GENDER BUDGETING
IN INDIA
MINISTRY OF WOMEN AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
1
Difference between Gender and Sex
Gender is culturally and socially constructed
roles, responsibilities, privileges, relations
and expectations of women and men, boys
and girls and changes with time and from
place to place.
Sex refers to biological differences between
the male and female of the species. It
remains unchanged.
2
INDIA-AT A GLANCE
Area
Administrative
Unit
3,287,263
sq.km
35 States and
Union
Territories
Population (Census 2001)
Total
1,028,610,328
Female
496,453,556
Male
532,156,772
Language
18 principal
languages
3
Constitutional Provisions
Article 14
Equal
Rights
and
Opportunities
Political Economic and Social Spheres
Article 15
Prohibits discrimination on grounds
of sex
Article 15(3)
Enables affirmative discrimination in
of women
favour
Article 39
Equal means of livelihood and
for equal work
pay
Article 42
Just and Humane conditions of work
maternity relief
Article 51(A)(e)
Fundamental Duty to renounce practices,
derogatory to dignity of women
equal
in
and
4
Women and Legal Framework
Women specific Legislations
• Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
• The Maternity Benefit Act 1961
• The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
• Indecent
Representation
(Prohibition) Act, 1986
of
Women
• The Commission of Sati (Prevention)Act,
1987
• Protection of Women from Domestic Violence
Act, 2005
5
Women related Legislations
(contd..)
Forty One laws covering various spheres.
•
Economic
Factories Act 1948, Minimum Wages Act 1948, Equal
Remuneration Act 1976, The Employees’ State
Insurance Act, 1948, The Plantation Labour Act, 1951,
The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976.
•
Protection
Relevant provisions of Code of Criminal Procedure,
1973; Special provisions under IPC, The Legal
Practitioners (Women) Act, 1923, The Pre-Natal
Diagnostic Technique (Regulation and Prevention of
Misuse) Act, 1994.
6
Women related Legislations
• Social
Family Courts Act, 1984; The Indian
Succession Act, 1925; The Medical
Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971; The
Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929; The
Hindu Marriage Act, 1955; The Hindu
Succession Act, 1956 (& amended in
2005); The Indian Divorce Act, 1969
7
National Policy for Empowerment of
Women
• Objective– advancement, development
and empowerment, elimination of
discrimination.
• Themes and issues– Judicial legal
system,
economic
empowerment,
social
empowerment
(health,
education, science and technology,
drinking
water
and
sanitation,
protection from violence) women and
decision making, girl child.
8
International Commitments
• UN Convention on Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women
(CEDAW)
• UN Convention on the Rights of the
Child (CRC)
• SAARC Convention
• UN Protocol on Trafficking (signed)
• MDGs Goals
9
Evolution of Indian
Initiatives
10
Seventh Plan
• 1985
Ministry of Human Resource
Development set up; Department
for Women and Child Development
constituted in HRD Ministry
• 2006
Independent Ministry of Women
and Child Development
• 27 major women specific schemes
identified for monitoring to assess quantum
of funds/benefits flowing to women
11
Eighth Plan (1992-97)
• The Eighth Plan for the first time
highlighted the need to ensure a definite
flow
of
funds
from
general
developmental sectors to women
• It commented:
“… special programmes on women should
complement the general development
programmes. The latter in turn should
reflect greater gender sensitivity”.
12
Ninth Plan (1997-2002)
• Women’s Component Plan--30% of funds were
sought to be ear-marked in all women related
sectors – inter-sectoral review and multisector approach
• Special vigil to be kept on the flow of the
earmarked funds/benefits
• Quantifies performance under Women’s
Component Plan in Ninth Plan-Approach
Paper Tenth Plan indicates 42.9% of gross
budgetary support in 15 women related
Ministries/Departments has gone to women
13
Tenth Plan (2002-07)
• Reinforces commitment to gender budgeting to
establish its gender-differential impact and to translate
gender commitments into budgetary commitments.
• Aims at initiating immediate action in tying up the two
effective concepts of Women Component Plan (WCP)
and Gender Budgeting to play a complementary role
to each other, and thus ensure both preventive and
post-facto action in enabling women to receive their
rightful share from all the women-related general
development sectors.
14
Approach Paper to Eleventh Plan
(2007-12)
• Gender equity requires adequate
provisions to be made in
policies and schemes across
Ministries and Departments . It
also entails strict adherence to
gender budgeting across the
board’
15
Parliamentary Standing
Committee
• The
Parliamentary
Standing
Committee has recommended the
Gender Budget Cells which are set up
in the Ministries should become
operational
and
GB
to
be
disseminated widely.
16
Ministry of Finance
Commitment in Union Budget 2005-06
Departments in Union Government to
 Undertake review of Public Expenditure
profile
 Conduct beneficiary incidence analysis
 Recommend
specific
changes
operational guidelines of schemes
in
from a gender perspective
17
Union Budget takes Gender
Budgeting forward
• The Union Budget has brought out Statement
on Gender Budgeting, which indicates Budget
Provisions for 100% Women Specific
Programmes and 30% Women Specific
Programmes.
• 14 Ministries/Departments indicate Rs 87955
Million as 100% allocation and 13 Ministries
indicate Rs 223825 Million as 30% allocation.
The
100%
allocation
Ministries
are
“traditional” Sector with women related
programmes (in 2007-08).
18
Summary of Allocation for Women (Union
Budget)
Year
No. of Ministries
(No. of Demand)
Total magnitude of
Gender Budget
(Rs in Million.)
Gender Budgeting in
2005-06
9 (10)
242405 (Exp.)
(4.77%)
Gender Budgeting in
2006-07
18 (24)
222514 (Exp.)
(3.8%)
Gender Budgeting in
2007-08
27 (33)
311778 (BE)
(4.58%)
19
MWCD’s Mission Statement
“Budgeting for Gender Equity”
20
What is Gender Budgeting
Gender Budgeting is a process that entails
incorporating a gender perspective at various stagesplanning/
policy/
programme
formulation,
assessment of needs of target groups, allocation of
resources, implementation, impact assessment,
reprioritization of resources.
Gender
Responsive
Budget
and
Gender
Mainstreaming are outcomes of Gender Budgeting.
21
Why Gender Budgeting ?
• Women represent 48 percent
population in the country.
of
the
total
• They face disparities in access to and control over
services and resources.
• Bulk of Public Expenditure and policy concerns
are in
“gender neutral” sectors–Power,
Defence, Petroleum, Transport etc.
• Implications on women in the above sectors are
not recognized or identified.
• Union Budget shows only 4.9% of Public Sector
Outlays flow to women.
22
The Approach of MWCD to Gender
Budgeting
• In Gender Budgeting, “Gender” means women and
her empowerment.
• It is not an accounting exercise.
• An ongoing process of keeping gender perspective
in policy/ programme formulation, implementation
and review.
• To extend the process to all levels of governanceCentre, State, District , town and village and also to
Public Sector Units and Autonomous Bodies.
• Also extend it to Civil Society and Corporate Sector.
23
Dimensions of Gender Budgeting
Empowerment has to be
–Holistic (Political, Social and
Economic)
–Universal (equal opportunity
and level playing field)
–Participative and Inclusive
24
Convergence approach to
Empowerment
Health
& Nut.
Water & San.
Political
Participation
Education
Asset base
Skills
Marketing
Technology
Credit
25
Illustrative Lists of Responsibilities
of MWCD
• 52 Ministries have set up GBCs.
• Training of GBCs and Capacity Building through workshops and
one-to-one Ministerial meetings.
• Regional workshops with State Governments.
• Workshops for Training Institutes to develop a core group of
Trainers.
• Development of GB strategy framework and tools and their
continuous up gradation.
• Formulation of Gender Budgeting Manual.
• Gender Impact Assessment (proposed).
• Network with National and International agencies.
• Dissemination of Best Practices.
• Constant Advocacy to set-up Gender Budget Cells (GBCs) in
Ministries.
26
• Research and Surveys.
Components of Training for GB Cells
To serve as a focal points for coordinating gender budgeting initiatives
within their Ministries/ Departments through: • Pilot action on gender sensitive review of their budgetary allocations.
• Guide their Ministries in review of policies and programme for gender
content.
• Review whether the implementation mechanism is gender friendly or
sensitive.
• Have gender based impact analysis, beneficiary needs assessment
and incidence conducted.
• Ensure that the programme and implementing mechanism has in built
provision for gender disaggregated data collection and compilation.
• Identify gaps/ constraints/ shortcomings in existing programmes/
budget heads which stand in the way of smooth flow of funds/
benefits to women.
• Reprioritize budgetary allocation to address these gaps.
27
Tools of Gender Budgeting
•Distinction between Budgeting and Budget
–
Budgeting is a process; budget is a major outcome
Tools for the Process
• Macro level Gender budgeting
–
Gender sensitive review of public expenditure and policy
–
Preparation of Gender based profile of public expenditure (gender
disaggregated data)
–
Assessing impact on gender development indices
–
Reprioritization of resources
•
Micro level Planning
• policy & programme design to be gender defined
• Requisite allocation of resources in budget
• Participative budgeting at grass root levels
• Beneficiary incidence analysis
• Change in programme design/ reprioritization of allocation in
budget
28
Action Plan – Macro level
Macro
level
Gender
Budgeting
Budget
Allocation
Sectoral
Allocation
Gender Based Profile of Public
ExpenditureSituational
Analysis/Benchmark
Enhancement in Allocation to meet
Targeted outcomes for women
Monitoring Releases and Utilization
of Funds and achievement of
Physical Targets and outcomes
Re-prioritization in Allocations based
on inputs from Micro level Gender
Budgeting
29
Action Plan-Micro-level Planning
Spatial Mapping of
Infrastructure
(Water Sanitation, Electricity,
Roads) &
Employment Opportunities
Assessing gaps
and identifying
resources required
Synergy in allocation of
resources across
levels of governance,
programmes
and Departments
Universal Coverage
and Access
Take into account regional
Imbalances/ geographical
constraints
Reprioritize resource/
allocation to address
these issues
30
Micro-level Planning (Contd..)
Impact Assessment of Schemes/Programme/
Delivery of Services
Beneficiary Needs assessment at field level
Redesign
programme
format/
allocation/implementation to address gender
gaps, barriers to access to benefits and
affirmative action
31
Checklist I - for Gender Specific
Expenditure
For Ministries/Departments which have gender
specific programme/ expenditure like Health
and Family Welfare, Rural Development,
Human
Resource
Development,
Urban
Employment and Poverty Alleviation, Youth
and Sports Affairs, Labour, Social Justice and
Empowerment, Tribal Affairs, Drinking Water,
Small Scale Industries and Agro and Rural
Industries, Science and Technology, NonConventional Energy Sources, Textiles and
Agriculture etc.
32
Suggested steps are :
(i)
Planning and Budgeting
•
List of schemes and programmes which are gender specific
•
Briefly indicating activities undertaken under the programme
for women.
•
Indicating expected output indicators like number of women
beneficiaries, increase in employment of women, post project
increase in resources/income/ skills etc. (if possible relating to
important HDI parameters like MMR, IMR etc)
•
Quantifying allocation of resources in annual budget and
physical targets thereof.
•
Assessing adequacy of resource allocation in terms of
population of targeted beneficiaries that need the concerned
schematic intervention, the trend of past expenditure etc.
33
(ii) Performance Audit
•
Reviewing actual performance- physical and
financial vis-a-vis the annual targets and
identifying constraints in achieving targets
(like need for strengthening delivery
infrastructure, capacity building etc.)
•
Carrying out reality check- Evaluation of
programme
intervention,
incidence
of
benefit, identifying impact indicators like
comparative status of women before and
after the programme etc.
•
Compiling a trend analysis of expenditure
and out put indicators and impact indicators.
34
(iii) Future Planning and Corrective Action
•
Addressing constraints
performance audit.
•
Establishing requirement of resources in
terms
of
population
of
targeted
beneficiaries/ magnitude of perceived
problems like IMR, MMR, literacy ratio etc.
•
Reviewing adequacy of resources available
– financial and physical like trained
manpower etc.
•
Planning for modification in policies and/or
programmes/schemes based on results of
review.
identified
from
35
Checklist II for mainstream sectors
Mainstream sectors like Defence, Power, Telecom, Communications,
Transport, Industry, Commerce etc. may consider adopting the
following check list to determine the gender impact of their
expenditure.
• List of all programmes entailing public expenditure with a brief
description of activities entailed.
• Identifying target group of beneficiaries/users.
• Establishing whether users/beneficiaries are being categorised by
sex (male/female) at present and if not, to what extent would it be
feasible.
• Identify possibility of undertaking special measures to facilitate
access of services for women- either through affirmative action
like quotas, priority lists etc. or through expansion of services that
are women specific like all women police stations, women’s special
36
buses etc.
GENDER CHARTER
Combined Charter of Ministry of Finance and MWCD.
• The Ministry of Finance Issued the Gender Charter on 8 march, 2007 and
has mandated the role for GBC. The salient features of the Charter are: • To be headed by a Officer not less than the level of a Joint Secretary
• Identification of a minimum of 3 and maximum of 6 largest programmes
(in terms of budget allocation) implementation by the Ministry and the
major Sub -Programmes.
• Conducting/Commissioning Performance audit (at the field level
wherever possible) for reviewing the actual physical/ financial targets
of the programme, the constraints if any, in implementation, the need
for strengthening delivery systems, infrastructure/ capacity building etc.
• In gender-neutral sectors such as Defence, Power, Telecom,
Communications, Transport and Industry, etc., the GBCs may undertake
exercise to identify the possibility of undertaking initiatives/ special
measures to facilitate/ improve access to services for women and their
active participation in the decision making process at various levels. 37
PURSUIT OF GENDER CONCERNS WITH VARIOUS MINISTRIES
MINISTRY OF FINANCE
• Micro-finance and its regulation to prevent exploitation.
• Including a column on gender outcomes in the Outcome Budget
of GOI to ensure that gender concerns are kept in view.
• Gender sensitive review of monetary and fiscal policies.
• Based on recommendations of workshops held by MWCD,
Gender Budgeting Charter issued on 8th March, 2007 mandating
Ministries
to
identify
3-6
programmes
for
Gender
Mainstreaming; Conduct/Commission Performance audit;
undertake initiatives/special measures to facilitate/ improve
access to services for women.
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
• Gender Implications for Women in SEZ projects and WTO
agreements .
38
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT
• To make available Carbon Emission Reduction (CER)
credits under the Kyoto Protocol to women SHGs for
income generation purposes.
MINISTRY OF SPORTS AND YOUTH AFFAIRS
• Raising participation of women in sports and according
them due recognition.
• Youth Bodies of NYKS and NSS to propagate against
female foeticide. MWCD is drawing a campaign plan.
• Declining sex ratio to be part of training programme for
10,000 National Social Volunteers and Nehru Yuva
Sahakari.
39
MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE
• Health Insurance Scheme for women.
• Stringent implementation and eventual amendment of the PC
and PNDT Act.
• Reduce Maternal and Infant Mortality rates, better
immunization levels for girls and increasing number of
institutional deliveries.
PLANNING COMMISSION
• To ensure that Central and State Plans are engendered and
identify outcomes for women.
MINISTRY OF LAW
• Compulsory registration of marriages.
• Harmonization of various laws to make them gender friendly.
40
MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS
• To set up helpline in embassies/high commissions
abroad for deserted wives/trafficked women. Enable
immediate shelter, medical and legal aid and
repatriation for women in distress.
MINISTRY OF OVERSEAS INDIAN AFFAIRS
• Issue of deserted wives of NRI marriages.
• Periodical return on the status of the welfare of
female domestic servants in foreign country
(especially gulf) by employer.
• Tighter immigration measures.
41
MINISTRY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Jawahar Lal Urban Renewal Mission: • Safe housing; crèches, health Care Centers and Maternity
Centers; hygienic road side public toilets for women; Shelters
for women in need of protection; Proper street lightning and
transport facilities which are gender friendly.
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
• National Gender Resource Centre in Agriculture (NGRCA)
serves as a focal point for convergence of all gender related
issues in agriculture.
• Develop women friendly farm implements, access to credit,
better seeds, fertilisers, market linkages etc.
42
MINISTRY OF DEFENCE
•
•
•
•
•
NCC youth body to be involved in campaign against female foeticide.
Training workshops by MWCD.
Services Wives Welfare Association to take up issues of female
foeticide.
Awareness generation on PNDT for medical personnel of armed
forces.
Gender inclusion and non-discrimination in armed forces.
Contract to War widows SHGs to supply to Canteens
MINISTRY OF PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS
•
•
•
•
Advocacy and sensitization on child sex-ratio and PNDT Act, child
marriage, dowry prohibition, domestic violence etc.
Elected women representatives to counsel expectant mothers and
families on nutrition, pre and post natal care, safe delivery etc.
To organize SHGs, adolescent groups etc on preventing social evils.
To organize competitions among school students, street plays and IEC
material.
43
MINISTRY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
• Developing a CD having information on basic health, child health,
reproductive, education and social issues like rights of women etc;
•
•
•
•
e-governance kiosks to be allotted to women;
Training of Self Help Groups in software solutions;
Developing simple modules to promote computer literacy;
Core group to take stock of inventory of gender oriented technology.
MINISTRY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT
• NREGA norms to be made gender friendly; flexible work norms;
women friendly tools and appliances; adequate facilities at work site
such as medical aid, drinking water, crèche and toilet facility.
• In SGSY to contain IEC on social evils like dowry, female foeticide.
•
In PMGSY the benefits to women workers such as field facilities,
crèches etc.
44
MINISTRY OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
• Improved Chulhas (stoves) have been scientifically designed
and have a thermal efficiency of 20 to 30 percent.
• A scheme where solar lanterns are provided to girls studying in
the 9th and 10th classes, so that they don’t drop out of school.
• SHGs trained as women entrepreneurs so that they can be
engaged in repairs, maintenance and the sale of renewable
energy devices.
• Aditya solar shops are also being run exclusively by women.
• Test projects on village energy security especially in remote
villages, which are inaccessible and cannot be reached by the
grid.
DEPT. OF ATOMIC ENERGY
• Nuclear Medicine for treatment of thyroid, uterine , ovarian
cancer etc
• Energy requirements for women
45
MINISTRY OF EARTH SCIENCES
• Crab and lobster tracking technology for
elderly and widowed fisherwomen where
cages are left in the water. Ensure good
catch a good catch and income has gone up
from Rs. 300 to Rs. 2000 over a period of
time.
DEPT. OF SPACE:
• Village Resource Centre broadcasts through
space on malnutrition, health etc
• EDUSAT & GRAMSAT taking information and
education to remote areas
46
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY
•
Earmark funds for undertaking research and technology innovation on
health and nutrition of women and children.
•
Prepare a directory of technological innovations which have gender
impact.
What technology means for Women :
•
A bus designed without seats to carry vegetables, goats etc
•
Cotton cloth designed for different uses- Cradle, Carry seeds, fodder
etc
•
Low cost disposable sanitary napkins
•
Women friendly protective shoes in salt brines
47
DEPARTMENT OF FOOD :
• Accessible and affordable PDS system
• Setting up of Grain Banks in vulnerable areas
DEPT. OF POSTS & TELECOM :
• Promotion of Small Saving facilities at Post offices
• Postal Life & Crop Insurance
• SHGs to set up PCOs
MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS
• Setting up of Women thanas wherever possible.
• Setting up of women and child help desk in every thana.
• Gender sensitization exercises and training for police on
women’s issues/laws.
48
• Recruitment of more women police.
Ministry of Tourism:
• Women-friendly
tourists
safeguards
for
women
foreign
• Special Beach police
for checking to prevent
paedophilia & child sex-tourism
• To ensure proper lighting , transport & security at
important tourist spots
• Special checks on Pilgrim Towns to prevent CSE
• Safe and women-friendly boarding and lodging
facilities
• Hygienic & accessible toilet facilities alongside
Tourist highways & towns
49
THANK YOU
50
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WORKSHOP ON GENDER BUDGETING For State …