Unit 1 - AP Objectives 1-4 – American and European Societies before 1492 1. What were Native American societies like before Europeans arrived. 2. What changes occurred Europe that made exploration possible. 3. What impact did European arrival have on Native Americans. 4. To what extent did Native Americans resist European encroachment. America: Past and Present Chapter 1: New World Encounters NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORIES BEFORE CONQUEST The chapter opens with the story of a fatal misunderstanding between members of the Wicomesses and the Susquehannocks at a trading post owned by British Captain William Claiborne. After being embarrassed by the Susquehannocks in front of the Brits, the group of Wicomesses gained revenge by killing 5 of their mortal enemies and three Englishmen from the trading post. Wicomess leaders approached the governor of Maryland to offer to make amends. The governor then expected the natives to hand over the offenders to suffer British justice. The Wicomesses were astonished that the visitors assumed the right to be in control of this legal situation even though they were the ones who had encroached and were truly little more than visitors in 1635. This would, of course, be just the beginning of a grand series of misunderstandings that would change the culture and history of natives and Europeans forever. Certainly there were people on the North American continent before the Europeans arrived, people who had populated the land for thousands of years. Their physical isolation (or absence of domesticated livestock) had protected them from various diseases such as smallpox, and measles, but that protection also meant a loss of immunity. *”By placing these complex, often unsettling experiences within an interpretive framework of creative adaptations-rather than of exploration or settlementwe go a long way toward recapturing the full human dimensions of conquest and resistance.” “Bering Straight” Land Bridge “Indian” Virginia The Great Transformation: Food, Climate, and Culture Rapid population growth in the Americas Sustained by abundant natural food supplies Hunting and gathering Agricultural cultivation SW=beans, corn and squash Agricultural Revolution Revolutionized early American cultures Stable food supplies allowed other developments Material culture Governmental hierarchies Permanent villages 4 million Native Americans lived north of Mexico at the time of the original encounter with Europeans Mysterious Disappearances Anasazi Pueblo culture was sophisticated (NM) Pueblo housing structures Irrigation canals for agriculture Hundreds of miles of roads Cahokia (Ill.) had a population of 30,000+ Large ceremonial burial mounds remain *Both cultures disappeared before Europeans arrived, survivors dispersed and built new cultures Cahokia burial ground Aztec Dominance Many impressive cultures inhabited Mexico and Central America Incas (Peru), Mayan and Toltec (Central Mexico) Built vast cities (perhaps 100,000= in some) Governed bureaucratically Developed hieroglyphics Had accurate solar calendars Aztecs (Valley of Mexico) Aggressive and warlike Conquered established city-states Tenochtitlan - major ceremonial center 250,000= residents Site of human sacrifice to Aztec sun god Huitzilopochtli Connected to agricultural cycle Victims’ blood= fertility powers Eastern Woodlands Culture (Check out the map on p.8) Fewer than 1 million on the Atlantic Coast Primarily subsisted on hunting and gathering, some agriculture Women cultivated maize while men hunted and fished English settlers were likely to cross paths with Algonquians (CAN) Powhatans (VA), Narragansetts (RI) and Abenakis (CAN) Spoke different dialects, did not communicate easily Were often enemies but shared “cultural assumptions” - Personal and familial bonds defined one’s “place” “kinship” - The “clan” was the basic social unit - Authority was often egalitarian and loosely structured - Some matriarchal with women owning the planting fields and houses, maintaining tribal customs, and had a role in tribal gov’t Warfare was rare and conducted on a small scale Motivated by revenge for insult or attack Captives could be tortured or adopted Eastern Great Lakes Indians spoke Iroquoian dialects THE INDIANS DISCOVER A “NEW WORLD” (Pretty clever of your authors, eh?) Perhaps they just want you to note that native cultures were profoundly changed by the influence of European explorers, conquerors, traders and settlers. Creative Adaptations 1. Natives desired fair and peaceful trade with Europeans 2. Natives and Europeans saw their own culture as superior, although each desired aspects of the others material culture 3. Communication was aided by sign language and gestures 4. Europeans tried to impose their culture, language and customs - Some natives converted to Christianity, others pacified the Europeans - Native women were less likely to embrace conversion - Preferred polygamy and systems that gave power, independence 5. Young natives rejected traditional European classroom education - In cases of intermarriage, the couple usually adopted native culture Dependency: Trade and Disease Interaction between natives and Europeans altered the landscape and led to debt Debt led to dependence Disease was more destructive than debt - Natives lacked natural immunity to smallpox, measles and the flu - Some historians estimate a 90-95% population loss - Perhaps led to the importation of slaves - Tribes who “kept their distance” were more likely to survive Population loss led some to question traditional religious beliefs Columbian Exchange - See Featured Essay (p. 12-13) “Ecological Revolution” WEST AFRICA: ANCIENT AND COMPLEX SOCIETIES Islam was a major cultural force in W Africa starting in 1030 AD Muslim missionaries made many converts in this region Intricate trade networks linked regional cultures Mali, Benin and Kongo were major states during initial European contact Governments and languages varied widely within the region Euro contact began with the Portuguese Lateen (triangular) sails and new ship designs enabled these voyages African trade networks charges tolls and fees to Europeans Slave sales were negotiated as local currencies Slaves were readily used in the Madeira and Canary Islands (note—near the coast of Morocco) More Africans than Europeans “emigrated” to the America from 1650-1831 Madeira and the Canaries EUROPE ON THE EVE OF CONQUEST Yes, the Vikings were the first Europeans on American shores 984 AD - Eric the Red traveled from Iceland to Greenland His son Leif founded Vinland in Newfoundland [see map of L’Anse aux Meadows] Other Europeans (Columbus) were unaware of these voyages L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove") is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Norse village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and his wife Anne Stine Ingstad, an archaeologist. L'Anse aux Meadows was determined to be Norse because of definitive similarities between the characteristics of structures and artifacts found at the site and those of Greenlandic and Icelandic sites from around A.D. 1000 Building New Nation-States - Ignorance, disease and provincial loyalties discouraged early exploration - But, changed conditions led to a greater desire for exploration and trade = population growth, general prosperity • • • • • The Renaissance – fostered an expansive outlook Improved food supplies Greater earnings for landlords-more people, more land needed More $$ and desire for luxuries from Asia Centralized political authority-New Monarchs Powerful Nation-States 1400s • Tudors ended the “War of the Roses” [between the Houses of Lancaster and York for the English crown] • Ferdinand and Isabella’s union brought the reunification of Spain (Aragon and Castile) and the Reconquista-all of the Iberian peninsula united under Christian rulers • Ancient knowledge of geography became more widely known • Printing press/movable type facilitated communicationcommunications revolution 1440s Johann Gutenberg MAKING SENSE OF A NEW WORLD Those seeking the infamous “Three Gs” (God, Gold, Glory) spurred the urge for adventure in Spain - ”los conquistadores” Spain became the leading world power in spite of a lack of natural resources Sugar plantations were created in the Canary Islands Native deaths led to the growth of African slavery The labor system was brutal Calculating Risks and Rewards Our Italian friend Columbus made a plan to sail west to China Portugal wasn’t funding… The King thought Columbus underestimated the length of the voyage [est. 3,000 nau. miles was 10,600] They funded Vasco de Gama and others instead Spain was interested = hired Columbus King and Queen provided leadership and support for overseas exploration The voyage took Columbus to the W Indies Columbus returned three times—no gold or spices The “new” continent was named for Amerigo Vespucci Pope Alexander IV arranged for the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Prevented war over “Asia” Divided the “new world” between Portugal and Spain The Conquistadores (Spainsh) These “adventurers” certainly left their mark on the Americas They desired instant wealth (not permanent settlements) Bernal Diaz—the Caribbean Islands Hernan Cortes “Cortez the Killer” - Cuba, Mexico He apparently looked like a god (or at least an agent) The guns and horses were also quite impressive Montezuma’s indecision cost him dearly… Spain and the conquistadors gained great wealth-precious metals From Plunder to Settlement Conquistadores were awarded encomiendas Main goal—to re-establish royal authority Dominicans and Franciscans were also sent to protect and convert Bartolome de las Casas defended Indian rights-Historia de las Indiassome reforms as a result A mixing of cultures and peoples occurred Catholicism and native traditions combined La Virgen de Guadalupe-symbol of Mexican nationalism Many single men came from Spain… Mestizos=Spanish + Indian Mulattos=Spanish + black Other terms: peninsulares=pure blood Spanish from Spain Criollos=Spanish heritage but born in the New World A caste system helped keep folks in their places Spain could not rule these vast land claims - The area was too large and too distant - The treasure bankrupted the economy due to inflation Spain became dependent on “American” wealth THE FRENCH CLAIM CANADA [see map] Jacques Cartier looked for a NW passage through the Americas (1534) Navigated through the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Left in 1542) Samuel de Champlain returned to settle the region in 1542 French explorers hoped for three Gs also Rivers and Great Lakes helped establish a profitable trading network All exports and imports had to go through Quebec Pere Jacques Marquette traveled down the Mississippi Robert de LaSalle followed the river through the Gulf of Mexico Louisiana was then established New Orleans was the most important port city on the Gulf Priests (Jesuits and Recollects) had some success at conversion Small population and harsh weather hampered France’s imperial dreams *French viewed the natives as necessary economic partners *French crown remained indifferent to Canadian affairs THE ENGLISH ENTER THE COMPETITION John Cabot and his son Sebastian sailed for England and explored the Hudson Bay while looking for a NW passage *England behind in exploration a. Henry VIII no standing army, small navy b. international diplomacy-English merchants enjoyed limited rights to trade in Spain’s Am. colonies Birth of English Protestantism Yes, the Reformation. Henry VIII (Tudor) broke with the Catholic Church over some great matter of theology Cardinal Thomas Wol$ey did his part to sway the people [flaunted his wealth-symbol of spiritual corruption] = led to anticlericalism Pope Clement VII refused the king’s request for an Annulment - this got Henry angry The King severed ties with the Church, assumed property & leadership of the new Church of England (1534) Henry and many others continued as observant Catholics *Land owned by Cath. Church passed into private hands-gave people a vested interest in Protestantism Mary I (the first) attempted to return England to the Church Dissenters were martyred (recorded by John Foxe) Book of Martyrs Mary died, Protestants returned – now Marian exiles exposed to Calvinism become leaders of the Elizabethan church Elizabeth I established English Protestantism *Max Weber-German sociologist-argues Protestant ethic led to diligence, large profits thus economic impact Militant Protestantism The Reformation proper begins in Germany 1517 = Martin Luther God spoke to ordinary men through the Bible Indulgences and rituals did not gain one salvation Salvation was through faith alone John Calvin (Swiss) stressed God’s omnipotence & the idea of “the elect” “The elect” would exhibit proper holy behavior [predestination] Not knowing whether or not you were saved caused a bit of tension French Huguenots and Scottish Presbyterians shared these beliefs Those in England who shared these beliefs were known as “Puritans” Woman in Power The Pope referred to her as a “woman of illegitimate birth” Elizabeth pursued moderate change, preserved old rituals Radical change and persecution seemed impractical to her Pope Pius V excommunicated her Spain vowed to restore England to the Church and overthrow theTudors Religion, War and Nationalism English Protestantism became an accepted part of the national identity English “Sea Dogs” seized Spanish treasure for the Virgin Queen Philip II constructed the Spanish Armada to counteract the arrogant Brits The small, maneuverable British fleet defeated the Armada IRISH BACKGROUND FOR AMERICAN SETTLEMENT English settlers inhabited N Ireland in hopes of civilizing the inhabitants The “natives” were Gaelic-speaking Catholics who did not take well to rule by British Protestants This conflict will continue…William Wallace anyone? English Conquest of Ireland The English ridiculed Irish pastoral farming, customs, superstitions, etc The English began to structure Irish society “as it ought to be” English Brutality Irish resistance to English rule led to violence and brutality Sir Humphrey Gilbert beheaded captors * Conquest in Ireland led to conquest in the Americas-here the English first learned to subdue a foreign population. • • After Irish Catholic rebellion and civil war, Oliver Cromwell, on behalf of the English Commonwealth, reconquered Ireland during the time from 1649 to 1651. Under Cromwell's government, landownership in Ireland was transferred overwhelmingly to Protestant colonists. AN UNPROMISING BEGINNING Roanoke Mystery Elizabeth I granted the land to Sir Walter Raleigh but didn’t help w/ $ Sir Walter Raleigh founded Roanoke in 1584-difficult to reach on NC Outer Banks [see map] When Sir Francis Drake returned from a Caribbean voyage and visited Roanoke colonists all went home 1587-Ralegh launched a second colony John White was left in charge – The settlers landed on Roanoke Island on July 22 1587. On August 18, White's daughter (Eleanor) delivered the first English child born in the Americas: Virginia Dare. Spanish Armada severed as communication -all Eng. vessels in military service so no ship arrived. When Raleigh returned, the colony was gone Croaton? Ask Stephen King *Failure of Roanoke colony may have been a blessing in disguise Spanish would be aware of English intrusion and send out an expedition or build forts on entire coast and it was likely the English would not return Dreams of Possession Richard Hakluyt the Younger published The Principall Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries of the English Nation (1589) He told readers they would reap without sowing, ignored toil and suffering Hakluyt’s central point-England needed American colonies – they were essential to the nation’s prosperity and independence *His writings greatly encouraged colonization-without him the dream of American colonization might have died in England.