U.S. History I: to 1877 Chapter 1: When Old Worlds Collide: Contact, Conquest, Catastrophe 21 slides online 2 non-note images only • I. Peoples in Motion – a) From Beringia to the Americas – b) Extinction and Rise of Agriculture – c) Explorers • II. China and Islam – a) China – b) Islam • III. Europeans: – – – – a) Portugal b) Slave Trade c) European Exploration d) Columbus • IV. Meso American Civilization – a) Mayan – b) Aztecs • V. Urban Cultures of the Old Southwest – a) Anastazi Chapter 1 When Old Worlds Collide: Contact, Conquest, Catastrophe I. Peoples in Motion 5 different waves of immigrants When did they come? How did they get here? ice I. Peoples in Motion a) From Beringia to the Americas 1st people from Beringia -Hunters: furs for clothing, meat for eating -About 40,000 ya Problem with the numbers By 8,000 ya – humans had reached the southern tip of South America a) From Beringia to the Americas (con’t) 1st Wave: 14k ya: spoke Amerind - forerunner of Algonquin, Iroquoian, Siouan, Aztec, Mayan 2nd Wave: 12k ya: Spoke Na-Déné - forerunner of Apache and Navajo 3rd Wave: 7k ya: Inuits - Aleut or Yupik languages closest to original b) Extinction and Rise of Agriculture With the development of the Clovis spearhead about 9,000 ya Advent of semi-permanent structures and domestication of some animals (turkey, duck, dog) Diet of those in the northern areas – fish, game c) Explorers Around 874 AD – Vikings in Iceland 982-983 AD – into Greenland – Eric the Red 1000-1014 – Greenland to Newfoundland and all the way down into Maine – Leif Ericson Europe was great but ……… CHINA was greater Developed compass, gunpowder, paper money, silks, teas Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644), China was often neglected and through the isolation, developed inwardly into a great civilization. Until mid 1400s China sent out sailing expeditions. By mid-1400s, China again turned inward, closing doors to the outside world. Forbid development of ships that could sail far distances. China closed itself off to the outside world! Besides Europe and China, there was also another area of the world that was doing well, but would begin to falter. ISLAM Rising I. Medical Science II. Hospitals WATERMILLS III. Pharmacology IV. Industry V. Geography WATER CLOCKS WINDMILLS VI. Chemistry VII. Mathematics VIII. Art IX. Mechanical Engineering CANDLE CLOCKS By the 1400’s, Arabs were a great sea people. By 1453 – Ottoman’s were expanding and by mid-1500s, Muslims had moved all the way up into Vienna. . Problem was? Europe was still very fortunate … while China and the Islamic world shut themselves off – Europe advanced: -Technology -Population: -Art, Renaissance, Architecture -Military III. Europeans a) Portugal: Bartholomeu Diaz Portugal 1486 Sailed around Southern tip of Africa Vasco de Gama Portugal 1497-1503 Reached India by sailing arounds S.tip of Africa Amerigo Vespucci Spain/Portugal 1497-1504 Explored Eastern coast of SA First Europeans to: -interact with Arabs -Become involved in the slave trade. Why did they go? -Have superior navigation skills -Large and superior navy Portuguese interest was primarily? Arabs as Middlemen? By 15th century Portuguese out-paced other Europeans in ship building. Also by mid-15th century, began exploring African coast. Late 15th century – 1470s - Portugal began colonization. As a result of their colonization … Portuguese farmers required labor supply. By 1450s on, Portuguese also found the trading in human cargo to be lucrative … thus began the slave trade. b) Slave Trade First fort built in 1448 to support cause of slave trade Slaves were purchased from local tribal leaders for as little as £5. Majority of slaves were enslaved by Africans Slavery predated Europeans, in Africa but form was different. Portuguese and later other Europeans exploited rivalries between tribal groups in effort to secure slaves. Purchase of a pagan not immoral. d) -From Genoa -Served Portuguese -Tried for many years to get funding for travel -Intention was to reach? Motives: Religious Practical IV. Mesoamerican Civilizations – a) Mayan • Appeared around 100 AD, blooms between 600- 900 AD • Location: Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Honduras – – – – – Primitive Agriculture King very powerful, theocratic Religion Inventions Ball game • Mayan Hieroglyphics • Mystery of Mayan Decline – Decline about 9th – 10th centuries – Collapsed 10th century • Final collapse - 1699 – b) Aztecs • Overthrew Toltec 1350 • Settled – Lake Texcoco » Tenochtitlán • Confederation – feudal • Agricultural • Exploration • Warriors • Similarity to Mayan – sacrificial, agricultural Politics and Society Monarch: semi divine Commoners Calpulli -- kinship group Separate neighborhoods Often members performed a particular function Own temples and schools Farmland held in common Gender roles: highly stratified Male children trained for war Women did the work at home, raised children, and wove textiles Women not equal to men • Religion and Culture – Religion » Huitzilopochtli » Quetzalcoatl » Fatalistic religion » Human sacrifice – Writing based on hieroglyphs • Destruction of Aztec Civilization – Hernán Cortés, 1519, invasion of Mexico – Moctezuma held captive – Cortés was aided by native groups hostile to the Aztecs, especially the Tlaxcallans – Defeat of the Aztecs » Disease brought by the Europeans swept the population V. Urban Cultures of the Old Southwest 1. Technology 2. Earliest inhabitants used crude tools, rocks, scraping implements 3. Many were nomadic, in numbers between 20-60 (30-50) 4. Agriculture: more sedentary, roots, settlements, domesticated animals 5. Farming: Mexico: Maize, beans, squash, tomatoes, pepper, avocados, cocoa SOCIAL/CULTURAL CHANGES DUE TO agriculture, farming -More permanent settlements could be erected, defended, and permitted storage of foods. -Improved health a bit, and permitted foods during winter when less available. a) Anastazi Southwest, 1st century, around area of 4 corners states: AZ, UT, NM, CO Developed from pit houses to apartment type structures called pueblos. Complexes centered around plazas with circular underground KIVAS. FOOD: Grew maize, hunted meat w/bow and arrow (around 500 AD) LIVING AREA extended over a region in SW, larger than CA today Developed roads, religious temples, food stores, homes WARFARE: Due to pressure from invading groups (Athapascans) in the 15th century, Anastazi moved to cliffs.