U.S. History I: to 1877
Chapter 1:
When Old Worlds Collide:
Contact, Conquest, Catastrophe
21 slides online
2 non-note images only
• I. Peoples in Motion
– a) From Beringia to the Americas
– b) Extinction and Rise of Agriculture
– c) Explorers
• II. China and Islam
– a) China
– b) Islam
• III. Europeans:
a) Portugal
b) Slave Trade
c) European Exploration
d) Columbus
• IV. Meso American Civilization
– a) Mayan
– b) Aztecs
• V. Urban Cultures of the Old Southwest
– a) Anastazi
Chapter 1
When Old Worlds Collide: Contact, Conquest, Catastrophe
I. Peoples in Motion
5 different waves of immigrants
When did they come?
How did they get here?
I. Peoples in Motion
a) From Beringia to the Americas
1st people from Beringia
-Hunters: furs for clothing, meat for eating
-About 40,000 ya
Problem with the numbers
By 8,000 ya – humans had reached the southern tip of South America
a) From Beringia to the Americas (con’t)
1st Wave: 14k ya: spoke Amerind
- forerunner of Algonquin, Iroquoian, Siouan, Aztec, Mayan
2nd Wave: 12k ya: Spoke Na-Déné
- forerunner of Apache and Navajo
3rd Wave: 7k ya: Inuits
- Aleut or Yupik languages closest to original
b) Extinction and Rise of Agriculture
With the development of the Clovis spearhead about 9,000 ya
Advent of semi-permanent structures and domestication of some
animals (turkey, duck, dog)
Diet of those in the northern areas – fish, game
c) Explorers
Around 874 AD – Vikings in Iceland
982-983 AD – into Greenland – Eric the Red
1000-1014 – Greenland to Newfoundland and all the way
down into Maine – Leif Ericson
Europe was great but ………
was greater
Developed compass, gunpowder, paper money, silks, teas
Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644), China was often neglected
and through the isolation, developed inwardly into a
great civilization.
Until mid 1400s China sent out sailing expeditions.
By mid-1400s, China again turned inward, closing
doors to the outside world.
Forbid development of ships that could sail far
China closed itself off to the outside world!
Besides Europe and China, there was also
another area of the world that was doing
well, but would begin to falter.
ISLAM Rising
I. Medical Science
II. Hospitals
III. Pharmacology
IV. Industry
V. Geography
VI. Chemistry
VII. Mathematics
IX. Mechanical Engineering
By the 1400’s, Arabs were a great sea people.
By 1453 – Ottoman’s were expanding and by mid-1500s, Muslims had moved
all the way up into Vienna.
Problem was?
Europe was still very fortunate … while China and the
Islamic world shut themselves off – Europe advanced:
-Art, Renaissance, Architecture
III. Europeans
a) Portugal:
Bartholomeu Diaz
Sailed around Southern tip of Africa
Vasco de Gama
1497-1503 Reached India by sailing arounds S.tip of Africa
Amerigo Vespucci
1497-1504 Explored Eastern coast of SA
First Europeans to:
-interact with Arabs
-Become involved in the slave trade. Why did they go?
-Have superior navigation skills
-Large and superior navy
Portuguese interest was primarily?
Arabs as Middlemen?
By 15th century Portuguese out-paced other Europeans in ship
Also by mid-15th century, began exploring African coast.
Late 15th century – 1470s - Portugal began colonization.
As a result of their colonization … Portuguese farmers required
labor supply.
By 1450s on, Portuguese also found the trading in human cargo
to be lucrative … thus began the slave trade.
b) Slave Trade
First fort built in 1448 to support cause of slave trade
Slaves were purchased from local tribal leaders for as little as £5.
Majority of slaves were enslaved by Africans
Slavery predated Europeans, in Africa but form was different.
Portuguese and later other Europeans exploited rivalries between
tribal groups in effort to secure slaves.
Purchase of a pagan not immoral.
-From Genoa
-Served Portuguese
-Tried for many years to get funding for travel
-Intention was to reach?
IV. Mesoamerican Civilizations
– a) Mayan
• Appeared around 100 AD, blooms between 600- 900 AD
• Location: Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Honduras
Primitive Agriculture
King very powerful, theocratic
Ball game
• Mayan Hieroglyphics
• Mystery of Mayan Decline
– Decline about 9th – 10th centuries
– Collapsed 10th century
• Final collapse - 1699
– b) Aztecs
• Overthrew Toltec 1350
• Settled
– Lake Texcoco
» Tenochtitlán
• Confederation – feudal
• Agricultural
• Exploration
• Warriors
• Similarity to Mayan – sacrificial, agricultural
 Politics and Society
 Monarch: semi divine
 Commoners
 Calpulli -- kinship group
 Separate neighborhoods
 Often members performed a particular function
 Own temples and schools
 Farmland held in common
 Gender roles: highly stratified
 Male children trained for war
 Women did the work at home, raised children, and wove textiles
 Women not equal to men
• Religion and Culture
– Religion
» Huitzilopochtli
» Quetzalcoatl
» Fatalistic religion
» Human sacrifice
– Writing based on hieroglyphs
• Destruction of Aztec Civilization
– Hernán Cortés, 1519, invasion of Mexico
– Moctezuma held captive
– Cortés was aided by native groups hostile to the Aztecs,
especially the Tlaxcallans
– Defeat of the Aztecs
» Disease brought by the Europeans swept the population
V. Urban Cultures of the Old Southwest
1. Technology
2. Earliest inhabitants used crude tools, rocks, scraping implements
3. Many were nomadic, in numbers between 20-60 (30-50)
4. Agriculture: more sedentary, roots, settlements, domesticated animals
5. Farming:
Maize, beans, squash, tomatoes, pepper, avocados, cocoa
-More permanent settlements could be erected, defended, and permitted storage of foods.
-Improved health a bit, and permitted foods during winter when less available.
a) Anastazi
Southwest, 1st century, around area of 4 corners states: AZ, UT, NM, CO
Developed from pit houses to apartment type structures called pueblos.
Complexes centered around plazas with circular underground KIVAS.
FOOD: Grew maize, hunted meat w/bow and arrow (around 500 AD)
LIVING AREA extended over a region in SW, larger than CA today
Developed roads, religious temples, food stores, homes
Due to pressure from invading groups (Athapascans) in the 15th century,
Anastazi moved to cliffs.