Library of Congress Subject Headings Lecture 1 Purpose of Subject Headings • Provide additional access to the work via the subject content Growing petunias in Poughkeepsie • Bring together in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminology Cyberterrorism, electronic warfare… • Provide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possible Guppies Cataloging a book on Koi 245 04 |a The essential book of koi / … 650 _0 |a Koi. Subject heading Koi Subject heading: Koi Title Essential book of koi Koi Complete introduction to koi and garden pools Koi Professional's book of koi Specificity of heading 245 04 |a The essential book of koi / … 650 _0 |a Koi. 650 _0 |a Fishes. Subject heading Title Fishes Advances in fish research Fishes Genshoku gyorui daizukan = Illustrated fishes of the world in colour Indexing The process of analyzing a bibliographic entity and creating entries for it, especially subject entries, in an index. Subject cataloging – two main steps 1) Conceptual analysis - decide what the book is about 2) Translation - conversion of the conceptual analysis into a particular set of authorized terms Lists of authorized terms • Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) • Subject headings for children (used in conjunction with LCSH) • Sears List of Subject Headings • Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Controlled vocabulary Books Authorized Terms Alligators Asparagus Bananas Bears Corn Problem: Ambiguity Books Term ? Faults Specify single meaning per term Books Authorized term Faults (Geology) Problem: Synonyms Books on UFOs Authors’ Terms Flying saucers Unidentified flying objects Alien spacecraft Single authorized term per subject Books Authorized term Unidentified flying objects Flying saucers See Unidentified flying objects Controlled vocabulary (1) • Restricted to authorized terms • Increases precision — fewer "false drops" • Out-performs keyword searches Controlled vocabulary (2) • Expensive — requires human knowledge Controlled vocabulary (3) • Implemented in two ways: – Pre-coordinate indexing – Post-coordinate indexing Pre-coordinate subject heading String built at time of indexing using the rules of the indexing language Examples: Railroads—Right of way—Massachusetts Children as inventors Post-coordinate descriptors Terms put together at time of retrieval Railroads AND Right of way AND Massachusetts Children AND Inventors Railroads Right of way Massachusetts Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) • Indexing using terms that are chosen and coordinated at the time of indexing • Usually a person trained in indexing assigns the terms • Can be one term or a combination of terms but they are pre-determined (i.e., they are “authority controlled”) Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) • Older; associated with books • Associated with card catalogs • Usually referred to as subject headings • Examples: –Children as air pilots –Humor in education Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) • Consistency - we all use the same terms to mean the same things • More precise - we can obtain things specifically about our topic Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) • Prevents false drops - because the phrase has been constructed in a manner that has a specific meaning Children as inventors would obtain works dealing with children in the role of inventors rather than inventors creating objects for children Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (1) • Assumes that users know the indexing language--both its vocabulary and syntax. • Everyone has to use the same term; if I don't know the predetermined term or if I have a different perception of the same thing then I may not find the item. Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (2) • Some systems will not allow user to search on subordinate term For example, if you have: Seeds—Cleaning—Equipment and supplies The system may not allow you to search on equipment and supplies and find this subject heading Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799— Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799— Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799— Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799— Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799— Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Searching for subject heading France—History—Revolution, 1789-1799— Art and the Revolution—Catalogs. Post-Coordinate Indexing (1) • Coordination takes place at time of retrieval • Example would be ERIC descriptors • Newer; associated with documents Eric descriptors Profiles; Cognitive Ability; Gifted; Cognitive Development; Bilingualism; Monolingualism; Socioeconomic Status; Quasiexperimental Design; Children; Hispanic Americans; Measures (Individuals); Cultural Influences Post-Coordinate Indexing (2) • Associated with computers and Boolean logic • Usually referred to as descriptors • Examples: – Children – Gifted – Foreign countries Gifted children in China gifted children china Gifted children in China Gifted children—China Gifted children—China—Anecdotes Gifted children—China—Biography Gifted children in China Gifted children in China Gifted children in China gifted children china Gifted children in China No results were found. Gifted children in China gifted children foreign countries Gifted children in China 97 Gifted children in China Intelligence, Gifted, Brain, Children, Comparative Analysis, Foreign Countries Advantages of Postcoordinated Indexing • Allowed the freedom to combine authorized terms that are relevant • Can do Boolean logic Disadvantage of PostCoordinated Indexing • Lack of precision: Few items really can be described by a single descriptor; most searches involve Boolean logic, truncation, etc. These techniques, while powerful, result in obtaining things we don't want (e.g., children AND inventors will retrieve items about people who invent things for children as well as children as inventors). In general… Post-coordinated indexing increases recall (retrieves more items) but decreases precision. If both the indexer and the searcher know the indexing language, and both do their jobs well, then pre-coordinate indexing will do as well as or better than postcoordinate indexing. Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (1) Published 1904 • The reader as focus: Use terms that the user uses Housefly Musca domestica Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (2) Published 1904 • Unity Objective is to unite all the books about a specific subject under one heading Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (3) • Usage Common usage (determined by literary mandate) What happened in Hawai`i in 1893? Old term: Hawaii—History—Revolution of 1893 New term: Hawaii—History—Overthrow of the monarchy, 1893 Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (4) • Specificity The terms should be as specific as possible (e.g. Calico cats) In applying headings, rather than using broader subject heading use 2 specific headings if apply Rule of 3: If more than 3 related subject headings use the broader term (e.g., 4 dog breeds) Library of Congress Subject Headings • Established ~1898* • Adopted by many libraries around the world • Now published annually • Now five volumes • Referred to as LCSH or “The Big Red Books” • Subject authority records available online *or 1902 or 1909 Types of LCSH headings • • • • • • • Single nouns Two word headings Adjectival headings Conjunctive headings Prepositional headings Glossed headings Proper nouns Authorized terms Authorized terms are in BOLD print Authorized terms in bold Aztec dance Aztec drama USE Nahuatl drama Aztec Eagle, Mexican order of the USE Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca Aztec ethics authorized terms Headings — Nouns • Concepts — usually singular Love Viscosity Bereavement • Objects — usually plural Birds Bookmobiles Korean-Japanese dictionary Korean-Japanese dictionary Title: Chosŏnŏ sajŏn Subject(s): Korean language Dictionaries Japanese. Japanese language Dictionaries Korean. Headings — Nouns (cont'd) • Exceptions to the singular/plural generalization Bibliography • Movement toward singular nouns • Authorized terms in BOLD print New terms Cyberspace (May Subd Geog) BT Space and time RT Computers Telematics — Religious aspects — — Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.] Cyberterrorism (May Subd Geog) Here are entered works on attacks or threats of attack against any portion of an information infrastructure. Library of Congress. Subject Authority Cooperative Program Two word headings • Adjective & noun • Normal word order (current policy) Chariot racing • Inverted form — used to bring noun into initial position Charities, Medical Inverted heading Bull Run, 1st Battle of, Va., 1861 Adjectival headings (1) • Common adjective Dental records • Ethnic, national, or geographic adjective African American librarians • Participial (verb form used as adjective) modifiers Applied anthropology Adjectival headings (2) • Common noun used as a modifier Household pests • Proper noun used as modifier Disney characters Conjunctive phrase headings (1) • Two or more nouns connected by and or ending with etc. • Established to describe a relationship Conjunctive phrase headings (2) • May include similar elements Wit and humor • May be opposites Right and wrong Prepositional phrase headings • Express relationships Art in education • Inverted (no longer added) Plants, Effect of alcohol on (New term: Plants—Effect of alcohol on) Prepositional phrase heading examples • against Offenses against property • as Alfalfa as feed • for Sports for children • of Illustration of books • to Ceramic to metal bonding Glossed headings • Also called parenthetical qualifiers • Used to reduce ambiguity, clarify identical terms Annuals (plants) Bear (Fictitious character : Henson) COGNAC (Computer) UF Combined geometric-network analog computer (Computer) Headings — Proper nouns • Any proper name can be used as a subject heading • Not all will appear in LCSH • Correct form in LC's Name Authority File (NAF) • Name established in accordance with LC's interpretation of AACR2R Washington, George, 1732-1799 Gandhi family Components of entry • Heading • Subdivision for heading • Syndetic information • Class numbers • Scope notes Main terms Peabody picture vocabulary test [BF432.5.P42] BT Intelligence tests Psychological test for children Vocabulary tests Peabodys (Awards) USE Peabody Awards Peace Use references Direct user from unauthorized heading to authorized heading Pacifists, African American USE African American pacifists Use-for references See-from reference. UF term should point to authorized term. Unidentified flying objects [TL789-TL789.6] UF Flying saucers [Former heading] Saucers, Flying UFO phenomena UFOlogy UFOs MARC authority record for Unidentified flying objects 150__ |a Unidentified flying objects 450__ |a Flying saucers 450__ |a Saucers, Flying 450__ |a UFO phenomena 450__ |a UFOlogy 450__ |a UFOs USE and UF references Reciprocal Ahimsā . UF Non-harming (Ethics) Non-injury (Ethics) Non-harming (Ethics) USE Ahimsā . NT - Narrower terms Cereal products (May Subd Geog) [TP434-TP435] UF Grain products BT Seed products NT Alimentary paste products Cereal-soy blends Cereals, Prepared Enriched cereal products … Narrower and broader terms Fairies BT Folklore NT Changelings Elves Fairy poetry Gnomes … Elves BT Fairies RT - Related terms Stars UF Sedereal system BT Galaxies RT Circumstellar matter SA names of individual stars, e.g. Sirius; and headings beginning with the word Stellar NT Alpha Centauri … Related terms - reciprocal Librarians BT Information scientists Library employees RT Libraries NT Acquisitions librarians … Libraries BT Documentation Public institutions RT Librarians … Syndetic structure BT RT RT Term RT RT NT Topical subdivisions Decoration and ornament (May Subd Geog) ... — Chippendale style … — Queen Anne style … Headings appear in card catalog as: Decoration and ornament — Chippendale style Decoration and ornament — Queen Anne style Period subdivisions (1) Church and state (May Subd Geog) — — — — — — — Germany — History — — 19th century — — 1933-1945 — — 1945Ireland Mexico … Period subdivisions (2) Church and state (May Subd Geog) — — — — — Germany — History — — 19th century — — 1933-1945 — — 1945- Heading appears in card catalog as: Church and state — Germany — History — 1945- Geographic subdivisions (1) Musical instruments (May Subd Geog) — Africa — Andes Region — Arab countries — Armenia — Asia, Central … Heading appears in card catalog as: Musical instruments — Africa Geographic subdivisions (2) Musical groups (May Subd Geog) Heading appears in card catalog as: Musical groups — Italy Geographic subdivisions (3) Construction industry (May Subd Geog) — Finance — — Law and legislation (May Subd Geog) Allowed headings: Construction industry — Italy Construction industry — Italy — Finance Geographic subdivisions (4) Construction industry (May Subd Geog) — Finance — — Law and legislation (May Subd Geog) Allowed heading: Construction industry — Finance — Law and legislation — Italy most specific part that can be subdivided geographically Building heading with geographic subdivision Construction industry (May Subd Geog) — Finance — — Law and legislation (May Subd Geog) 1) Select or construct heading without place Construction industry — Finance — Law and legislation — Italy 3) Add geog. subd. 2) Determine most specific point where heading can be subdivided Scope notes Bongo music [M146] Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for one performer playing bongos, and collections of music in several forms or types for one performer playing bongos. scope note Class references Asteroids (Not Subd Geog) [QB377-QB379 (Planetary theory)] [QB516 (Observations for solar parallax)] [QB651 (Descriptive astronomy)] class reference Subject headings in the card catalog Bahamas — Anniversaries, etc. — History Bahamas Call — Antiquities no. Cole, Octavia Jane — Description and travel A history of the Bahamas / by Octavia Jane Cole. — Pittsburgh : Gambit Press, — History 1975. 127 p. : col. Ill. ; 28 cm. Bibliography: p. 125-127 1. Bahamas — History I. Title. Subject headings: MARC format Bahamas — Anniversaries, etc. — Antiquities — Description and travel — History 651 0 Bahamas $x History. Library of Congress Subject Headings MARC subject access fields 600 - Subject Added Entry--Personal Name (R) 610 - Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name (R) 611 - Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name (R) 630 - Subject Added Entry--Uniform Title (R) 648 - Subject Added Entry--Chronological Term (R) 650 - Subject Added Entry--Topical Term (R) 651 - Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name (R) MARC record with subject headings 100 1_ |a Johnson, Whittington Bernard, |d 1931245 10 |a Race relations in the Bahamas, 17841834 : |b the nonviolent transformation from a slave to a free society / |c Whittington B. Johnson. 260 __ |a Fayetteville : |b University of Arkansas Press, |c c2000. 300 __ |a xxi, 250 p. : |b ill. ; |c 24 cm. 440 _0 |a Black community studies 504 __ |a Includes bibliographical references (p. 205-241) and index. 650 _0 |a Free Blacks |z Bahamas |x History. 651 _0 |a Bahamas |x Race relations. 651 _0 |a Bahamas |x History.