Chapter Introduction Section 1: World Population Section 2: Global Cultures Section 3: Resources, Technology, and World Trade Summary ML Sinibaldi/CORBIS Movement The human population is growing rapidly, but the world in which people live is, in many ways, becoming a smaller place. In the past, many cultures were isolated from each other. Today, individuals and countries are linked in a global economy and by forms of communication that can instantly bring them together. What factors bring about changes in cultures? Section 1: World Population Geographers study how people and physical features are distributed on Earth’s surface. Although the world’s population is increasing, people still live on only a small part of the Earth’s surface. Section 2: Global Cultures Culture influences people’s perceptions about places and regions. The world’s population is made up of different cultures, each of which is based on common beliefs, customs, and traits. Section 3: Resources, Technology, and World Trade Patterns of economic activities result in global interdependence. Because resources are unevenly distributed, the nations of the world must trade with each other. New technologies make the economies of nations more dependent on one another. Geographers study how people and physical features are distributed on Earth’s surface. Content Vocabulary • death rate • urbanization • birthrate • emigrate • famine • refugee • population density Academic Vocabulary • technology • internal Do you live in a city, a suburb, a small town, or a rural area? A. City B. Suburb C. Small town D. Rural area 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D According to the United Nations Population Fund, the world’s population has been climbing toward 7 billion people. The most remarkable aspect of this number is the percentage of young people. More than 42 percent of the world’s population is between 10 and 24 years old. Population Growth The world’s population has increased rapidly in the past two centuries, creating many new challenges. Population Growth (cont.) • The population on Earth today is more than 6 billion—up from 1 billion around 1800. • One reason the population has grown so fast in the last 200 years is that the death rate has gone down. • The death rate is the number of deaths per year for every 1,000 people. Population Growth (cont.) • Better health care and living conditions as well as more plentiful food supplies have decreased the death rate. • Another reason the population has grown is high birthrates in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. • The birthrate is the number of children born each year for every 1,000 people. Population Growth (cont.) • Advances in technology, such as improved irrigation systems and the creation of hardier plants, help increase food production for the increasing population, even though warfare and crop failures can lead to famine, or a severe lack of food. Expected Population Growth Rates, 2005–2050 Approximately how many people live on Earth today? A. 1 billion B. 3 billion C. 5 billion D. Over 6 billion 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Where People Live The Earth’s population is not evenly distributed. Where People Live (cont.) • Land covers only about 30 percent of the Earth’s surface, and only half of this amount is usable by humans. • The other half is deserts, mountains, and ice-covered lands that cannot support large numbers of people. • On the usable land, population is not distributed, or spread, evenly. Where People Live (cont.) • People naturally prefer to live in places that have fertile soil, mild climates, natural resources, and water resources. • Two-thirds of the world’s people are clustered into five regions with good resources—East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, and eastern North America. Where People Live (cont.) • In most regions, more people live in cities than in rural areas because of the jobs and resources found there. • Geographers find out how crowded a country or region is by measuring population density, or the average number of people living in a square mile or square kilometer. • This figure is calculated by dividing the total population by the total land area. What do geographers measure to determine how crowded a country or region is? A. Population distribution B. Population density C. Birthrate D. Deathrate 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Population Movement Large numbers of people migrate from one place to another. Population Movement (cont.) • Moving from place to place in the same country is known as internal migration. • An example is the movement of people from farms and villages to cities. Such migrants are often in search of jobs. • Urbanization is the growth of cities due to internal migration. Urbanization has occurred rapidly in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Population Movement (cont.) • Movement between countries is called international migration. • Some people emigrate, or leave the country where they were born and move to another. • They are emigrants in their homeland and immigrants in their new country. World Immigrant Populations Population Movement (cont.) • Immigration has increased greatly in the past 200 years, partly due to better transportation. • “Push” factors, such as a shortage of farmland or few jobs in a region, may convince, or push, residents to emigrate. • “Pull” factors, such as the lure of jobs, attract many immigrants to the United States. Population Movement (cont.) • People who are forced to flee to another country to escape wars, persecution, or natural disasters are called refugees. How might mass migrations of people impact the regions they leave? A. A decrease in population B. Loss of skilled or educated workers C. Less overcrowding D. All of the above 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Culture influences people’s perceptions about places and regions. Content Vocabulary • culture • monarchy • ethnic group • civilization • dialect • cultural diffusion • democracy • culture region • dictatorship • globalization Academic Vocabulary • widespread • unique Do you feel that many cultures are represented in your community? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure 0% A A. A B. B C.0%C B 0% C Most cultures acknowledge rites of passage. For Latinas, quinceañera is a celebration of a girl’s 15th birthday and is considered her passage into adulthood. The symbol-filled day includes a special church service followed by a reception and festive banquet—all attended by well-wishing family and friends. What Is Culture? Culture refers to the many shared characteristics that define a group of people. What Is Culture? (cont.) • Culture is the way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs. • Geographers, anthropologists, and archaeologists study culture by examining people’s daily lives, the history they share, and the art forms they have created. • They also study religion, types of government, economies, and social groups. What Is Culture? (cont.) • Most social groups have rules of behavior that group members learn. • Socialization is the process by which people adjust their behavior to meet these rules. • In all cultures, the family is the most important social group, and most of us first learn how to behave from our families. What Is Culture? (cont.) • An ethnic group shares a language, history, religion, and some physical traits. • Countries that have many ethnic groups, such as the United States, also have a national culture that all their people share. • Ethnocentrism is when people come to believe that their own culture is superior to, or better than, other cultures. What Is Culture? (cont.) • Sharing a language is one of the strongest unifying forces for a culture. • A dialect is a local form of a language that may have a distinct vocabulary and pronunciations. • Another important cultural element is religion. World Language Families What Is Culture? (cont.) • The five major religions are Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. • History shapes how a culture views itself and the world. • Stories about the challenges and successes of a culture support certain values and help people develop a cultural pride. Major World Religions What Is Culture? (cont.) • Food, clothing, and style of home also reflect one’s culture. • The music, paintings, sculptures, and other arts in a culture tell what the people think is beautiful and meaningful. • Governments can be limited, or place restrictions on leaders’ powers. What Is Culture? (cont.) • In a democracy, power is held by the people. • Most democracies today are called representative democracies because the people choose leaders to represent them and make decisions. • Governments can also be unlimited, where the leaders are all-powerful. What Is Culture? (cont.) • In a dictatorship, the leader, or dictator, rules by force. Dictators often limit citizens’ freedoms. • A monarchy is a government led by a king or queen who inherits power by being born into the ruling family. • For much of history, monarchies held unlimited power. What Is Culture? (cont.) • Today most monarchies are constitutional monarchies in which elected legislatures hold most of the power. • Geographers study economic activities to see how a culture uses its resources and trades with other places. • An economy’s success is seen in the people’s quality of life—how well they eat and what kind of health care they receive. Anthropologists analyze cultures today to learn: A. What languages exist in the world today B. About physical elements from A. A the past B. B C. How different elements of C. 0% C 0% culture are related D. D D. How people lived in the past A B 0% C 0% D Cultural Change Cultures are constantly changing and influencing each other. Cultural Change (cont.) • After 8000 B.C. humans changed from being wandering hunters and gatherers to being farmers who stayed in one place. • Historians call this change the Agricultural Revolution. • The Agricultural Revolution led people to create civilizations, or highly developed cultures. Cultural Change (cont.) • The first civilizations developed in river valleys in what is today Iraq, Egypt, India, and China. • People in these civilizations made important advancements such as building cities, forming governments, founding religions, and developing writing systems. • Around the A.D.1700s, some countries began to industrialize, or use machines to make goods. Cultural Change (cont.) • The widespread use of machines allowed industrial nations to produce more food, goods, and wealth, which caused sweeping cultural changes. • The process of spreading ideas, languages, or customs from one culture to another is called cultural diffusion. • In the past, diffusion took place through trade, migration, and conquest. Cultural Change (cont.) • In recent years, new methods of communication also have led to cultural diffusion. • Historically, trade began with the exchange of goods, often over great distances. • Soon it brought new ideas, practices, and religions to an area. Cultural Change (cont.) • The movement of people from one place to another also leads to cultural diffusion. • An example is the introduction of the horse to people of North America by the European settlers. • The conquest of one group by another is a third way culture can spread. • In turn, the conquered peoples can influence the culture of the conquerors. Cultural Change (cont.) • Today television, movies, and the Internet contribute to cultural diffusion. • Movies made in one country are seen around the world, and the Internet allows people to have contact with other cultures. How did the Agricultural Revolution impact human culture? A. It led people to create civilizations. 0% D 0% C D. It led to fewer conflicts between societies. A B C 0% D B C. It led to the widespread use of machines to make goods. A. B. C. 0% D. A B. It led to the development of better farming tools. Regional and Global Cultures As countries and regions share cultural traits, a global culture is emerging. Regional and Global Cultures (cont.) • The term region describes areas that share common physical characteristics. • A culture region is an area that includes different countries that share similar cultural traits. • The countries in a culture region also have unique traits that set them apart. World Culture Regions Regional and Global Cultures (cont.) • Recent advances in communications and technology have helped break down barriers between culture regions. • The result is globalization, or the development of a worldwide culture with an interdependent economy. Regional and Global Cultures (cont.) • With globalization, individual economies rely greatly upon one another for resources and markets. • Some people believe that as the global culture grows, local cultures will become less important. What are the cultural characteristics shared by the United States and Canada? A. Language B. History C. Ethnic groups D. All of the above 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Patterns of economic activities result in global interdependence. Content Vocabulary • natural resource • renewable resource • nonrenewable resource • economic system • developed country • developing country • newly industrialized country Content Vocabulary (cont.) • export • quota • import • free trade • tariff • interdependence Academic Vocabulary • finite • finance Do you recycle? A. Yes B. No C. Sometimes 0% C B A 0% A. A B. B C.0%C Globalization and interdependence create opportunities for small groups and individuals, but sometimes these people are treated dishonestly. Fair Trade associations strive to protect people and help them prosper. Fair Trade principles can include fair pay for the product or service, care for the workers’ environment, financial help, technical help, and making sure the workers’ cultural identity is preserved. Natural Resources Earth’s resources are not evenly distributed, nor do they all exist in endless supply. Natural Resources (cont.) • Natural resources are materials from the Earth—such as soil, trees, wind, and oil— that people use to meet their needs. • Such resources can provide food, shelter, goods, and energy. • Renewable resources are natural resources that cannot be used up or that can be replaced or grown again. Natural Resources (cont.) • Most natural resources are finite, or limited in supply. • They are called nonrenewable resources. Once humans use up these resources, the resources are gone forever. World Energy Production and Consumption Fossil fuels are examples of ____ resources. A. renewable B. nonrenewable A. A B. B 0% B A 0% Economics and Trade An economy is the way people use and manage resources. Economics and Trade (cont.) • An economic system is the method used to answer three key questions: – what goods and services to produce – how to produce them and – who will receive them Economics and Trade (cont.) • There are four kinds of economic systems. • In a traditional economy, individuals decide what to produce and how to produce it. – These choices are based on custom or habit, and people often do the same work as their parents and grandparents. – Technology is often limited. Economics and Trade (cont.) • In a command economy, the government makes the key economic decisions about resources. • It decides the costs of products and the wages workers earn, and individuals have little economic freedom. Economics and Trade (cont.) • In a market economy, individuals make their own economic decisions. • People have the right to own property or businesses. Businesses make (supply) what they think customers want. • Consumers have choices about which goods and services to buy (demand). • Prices are determined by the interaction of supply and demand. Economics and Trade (cont.) • Most nations have mixed economies. • China, for example has a mostly command economy, but the government allows some features of a market economy. • A developed country has a mix of agriculture, manufacturing, and service industries. Economics and Trade (cont.) • Developed countries also tend to rely on new technologies, and workers have relatively high incomes. • Countries with economies that are not as advanced are called developing countries. • These countries have little industry, so agriculture remains important. Incomes per person are generally low. Economics and Trade (cont.) • Newly industrialized countries are becoming more industrial and are moving toward economies like those in developed countries. • Resources are not distributed evenly around the world. Economic Divisions Economics and Trade (cont.) • Trade is important because it allows nations to export, or sell to other countries, the resources they have in abundance or the products made from those resources. • Countries also import, or buy from other countries, the resources they do not have or the products they cannot make. Economics and Trade (cont.) • Trade allows developed nations to import what they need to maintain their successful economies. • Trade also provides a means for developing nations to sell their products and resources to further industrialize and build their economies. Economics and Trade (cont.) • A tariff, or a tax added to the price of imported goods, is a trade barrier used by nations to influence their people to buy less expensive items that are made in their own country. • A quota is another trade barrier that limits how many items of a particular product can be imported from a certain nation. Economics and Trade (cont.) • The removal of trade barriers so that goods flow freely among countries is called free trade. • Growing trade among countries has resulted in the globalization of the world's economies and interdependence, or countries relying on each other for ideas, goods, services, and markets, or places to sell their goods. Economics and Trade (cont.) • Interdependence has come about in part because of new technologies, such as those in transportation and communications. The government makes the key economic decisions about resources in what kind of economy? A. market B. command C. traditional D. mixed 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D World Population • Low death rates and high birthrates have led to rapid population growth. • Some areas of the world are more densely populated than others. • Nearly half of the world’s population lives in cities. Culture • Culture is the way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs. • Cultures change over time and influence one another. • Modern technology has broken down barriers and helped create a global culture. Natural Resources • Renewable resources either cannot be used up or can be replaced. • Some resources—such as fossil fuels and minerals—are nonrenewable. World Economies • The four kinds of economic systems are traditional, command, market, and mixed. • Developed countries use advanced technology and are highly productive. • Developing countries have less advanced technology and are generally less productive. World Trade • In recent years, many countries have agreed to eliminate trade barriers. • Growing trade among countries has made the world’s people more interdependent. Answers should list four social groups—age, gender, ethnicity, student (career/ education). Comparisons to Oprah will vary. death rate number of deaths per year out of every 1,000 people birthrate number of children born each year for every 1,000 people famine severe lack of food population density average number of people living in a square mile or square kilometer urbanization growth of cities emigrate to leave a country and move to another refugee person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster technology the application of scientific discoveries to practical use internal existing or taking place within culture way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs ethnic group people with a common language, history, religion, and some physical traits dialect local form of a language that may have a distinct vocabulary and pronunciation democracy form of limited government in which power rests with the people, and all citizens share in running the government dictatorship form of government in which a leader rules by force and typically limits citizens’ freedoms monarchy government led by king or queen who inherited power by being born into ruling family civilization highly developed culture cultural diffusion process of spreading ideas, languages, and customs from one culture to another culture region area that includes different countries that share similar cultural traits globalization development of a worldwide culture with an interdependent economy widespread scattered or found in a wide area unique being the only one of its kind natural resource material from the Earth that people use to meet their needs renewable resource natural resource that can be replaced naturally or grown again nonrenewable resource natural resource such as a mineral that cannot be replaced economic system system that sets rules for deciding what goods and services to produce, how to produce them, and who will receive them developed country country with an economy that has a mix of agriculture, a great deal of manufacturing, and service industries and that is very productive and provides its people with a high standard of living developing country country that has limited industry, where agriculture remains important and incomes are generally low newly industrialized country country that is creating new manufacturing and business export to sell goods or resources to other countries import to buy resources or goods from other countries tariff tax added to the price of goods that are imported quota number limit on how many items of a particular product can be imported from a certain nation free trade removal of trade restrictions so that goods flow freely among countries interdependence condition that exists when countries rely on each other for ideas, goods, services, and markets finite limited in supply finance provide funds or capital To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu, Chapter Introduction, or Visual Summary slides to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Geography Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens. This slide is intentionally blank.