Chapter Introduction
Section 1: World
Population
Section 2: Global Cultures
Section 3: Resources,
Technology, and
World Trade
Summary
ML Sinibaldi/CORBIS
Movement The human
population is growing rapidly,
but the world in which people
live is, in many ways,
becoming a smaller place. In
the past, many cultures were
isolated from each other.
Today, individuals and
countries are linked in a
global economy and by forms
of communication that can
instantly bring them together.
What factors bring about
changes in cultures?
Section 1:
World Population
Geographers study how
people and physical
features are distributed on
Earth’s surface. Although
the world’s population is
increasing, people still live on
only a small part of the
Earth’s surface.
Section 2:
Global Cultures
Culture influences people’s
perceptions about places
and regions. The world’s
population is made up of
different cultures, each of
which is based on common
beliefs, customs, and traits.
Section 3: Resources,
Technology, and World
Trade
Patterns of economic
activities result in global
interdependence. Because
resources are unevenly
distributed, the nations of the
world must trade with each
other. New technologies make
the economies of nations more
dependent on one another.
Geographers study how people and
physical features are distributed on
Earth’s surface.
Content Vocabulary
• death rate
• urbanization
• birthrate
• emigrate
• famine
• refugee
• population
density
Academic Vocabulary
• technology
• internal
Do you live in a city, a suburb, a small
town, or a rural area?
A. City
B. Suburb
C. Small town
D. Rural area
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
According to the United Nations Population Fund,
the world’s population has been climbing toward
7 billion people. The most remarkable aspect of this
number is the percentage of young people. More
than 42 percent of the world’s population is between
10 and 24 years old.
Population Growth
The world’s population has
increased rapidly in the past
two centuries, creating many
new challenges.
Population Growth (cont.)
• The population on Earth today is more
than 6 billion—up from 1 billion
around 1800.
• One reason the population has grown so
fast in the last 200 years is that the death
rate has gone down.
• The death rate is the number of deaths
per year for every 1,000 people.
Population Growth (cont.)
• Better health care and living conditions as
well as more plentiful food supplies have
decreased the death rate.
• Another reason the population has grown
is high birthrates in Asia, Africa, and
Latin America.
• The birthrate is the number of children
born each year for every 1,000 people.
Population Growth (cont.)
• Advances in technology, such as improved
irrigation systems and the creation of
hardier plants, help increase food
production for the increasing population,
even though warfare and crop failures can
lead to famine, or a severe lack of food.
Expected Population Growth
Rates, 2005–2050
Approximately how many people live
on Earth today?
A. 1 billion
B. 3 billion
C. 5 billion
D. Over 6 billion
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Where People Live
The Earth’s population is not
evenly distributed.
Where People Live (cont.)
• Land covers only about 30 percent of the
Earth’s surface, and only half of this
amount is usable by humans.
• The other half is deserts, mountains, and
ice-covered lands that cannot support
large numbers of people.
• On the usable land, population is not
distributed, or spread, evenly.
Where People Live (cont.)
• People naturally prefer to live in places
that have fertile soil, mild climates, natural
resources, and water resources.
• Two-thirds of the world’s people are
clustered into five regions with good
resources—East Asia, South Asia,
Southeast Asia, Europe, and eastern
North America.
Where People Live (cont.)
• In most regions, more people live in cities
than in rural areas because of the jobs and
resources found there.
• Geographers find out how crowded a
country or region is by measuring
population density, or the average
number of people living in a square mile or
square kilometer.
• This figure is calculated by dividing the
total population by the total land area.
What do geographers measure to
determine how crowded a country or
region is?
A. Population distribution
B. Population density
C. Birthrate
D. Deathrate
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Population Movement
Large numbers of people
migrate from one place to
another.
Population Movement (cont.)
• Moving from place to place in the same
country is known as internal migration.
• An example is the movement of people
from farms and villages to cities. Such
migrants are often in search of jobs.
• Urbanization is the growth of cities due to
internal migration. Urbanization has
occurred rapidly in Asia, Africa, and Latin
America.
Population Movement (cont.)
• Movement between countries is called
international migration.
• Some people emigrate, or leave the
country where they were born and move
to another.
• They are emigrants in their homeland and
immigrants in their new country.
World Immigrant Populations
Population Movement (cont.)
• Immigration has increased greatly in the
past 200 years, partly due to better
transportation.
• “Push” factors, such as a shortage of
farmland or few jobs in a region, may
convince, or push, residents to emigrate.
• “Pull” factors, such as the lure of jobs,
attract many immigrants to the United
States.
Population Movement (cont.)
• People who are forced to flee to another
country to escape wars, persecution, or
natural disasters are called refugees.
How might mass migrations of people
impact the regions they leave?
A. A decrease in population
B. Loss of skilled or
educated workers
C. Less overcrowding
D. All of the above
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Culture influences people’s
perceptions about places and
regions.
Content Vocabulary
• culture
• monarchy
• ethnic group
• civilization
• dialect
• cultural diffusion
• democracy
• culture region
• dictatorship
• globalization
Academic Vocabulary
• widespread
• unique
Do you feel that many cultures are
represented in your community?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Not sure
0%
A
A. A
B. B
C.0%C
B
0%
C
Most cultures acknowledge rites of passage. For
Latinas, quinceañera is a celebration of a girl’s 15th
birthday and is considered her passage into
adulthood. The symbol-filled day includes a special
church service followed by a reception and festive
banquet—all attended by well-wishing family and
friends.
What Is Culture?
Culture refers to the many
shared characteristics that
define a group of people.
What Is Culture? (cont.)
• Culture is the way of life of a group of
people who share similar beliefs and
customs.
• Geographers, anthropologists, and
archaeologists study culture by examining
people’s daily lives, the history they share,
and the art forms they have created.
• They also study religion, types of
government, economies, and social
groups.
What Is Culture? (cont.)
• Most social groups have rules of behavior
that group members learn.
• Socialization is the process by which
people adjust their behavior to meet
these rules.
• In all cultures, the family is the most
important social group, and most of us first
learn how to behave from our families.
What Is Culture? (cont.)
• An ethnic group shares a language,
history, religion, and some physical traits.
• Countries that have many ethnic groups,
such as the United States, also have a
national culture that all their people share.
• Ethnocentrism is when people come to
believe that their own culture is superior to,
or better than, other cultures.
What Is Culture? (cont.)
• Sharing a language is one of the strongest
unifying forces for a culture.
• A dialect is a local form of a language that
may have a distinct vocabulary and
pronunciations.
• Another important cultural element
is religion.
World Language Families
What Is Culture? (cont.)
• The five major religions are Buddhism,
Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and
Judaism.
• History shapes how a culture views itself
and the world.
• Stories about the challenges and
successes of a culture support certain
values and help people develop
a cultural pride.
Major World Religions
What Is Culture? (cont.)
• Food, clothing, and style of home also
reflect one’s culture.
• The music, paintings, sculptures, and
other arts in a culture tell what the people
think is beautiful and meaningful.
• Governments can be limited, or place
restrictions on leaders’ powers.
What Is Culture? (cont.)
• In a democracy, power is held by the
people.
• Most democracies today are called
representative democracies because the
people choose leaders to represent them
and make decisions.
• Governments can also be unlimited,
where the leaders are all-powerful.
What Is Culture? (cont.)
• In a dictatorship, the leader, or dictator,
rules by force. Dictators often limit citizens’
freedoms.
• A monarchy is a government led by a king
or queen who inherits power by being born
into the ruling family.
• For much of history, monarchies held
unlimited power.
What Is Culture? (cont.)
• Today most monarchies are constitutional
monarchies in which elected legislatures
hold most of the power.
• Geographers study economic activities to
see how a culture uses its resources and
trades with other places.
• An economy’s success is seen in the
people’s quality of life—how well they eat
and what kind of health care they receive.
Anthropologists analyze cultures
today to learn:
A. What languages exist in the
world today
B. About physical elements from
A. A
the past
B. B
C. How different elements of
C. 0%
C
0%
culture are related
D. D
D. How people lived in the past
A
B
0%
C
0%
D
Cultural Change
Cultures are constantly
changing and influencing
each other.
Cultural Change (cont.)
• After 8000 B.C. humans changed from
being wandering hunters and gatherers to
being farmers who stayed in one place.
• Historians call this change the Agricultural
Revolution.
• The Agricultural Revolution led people to
create civilizations, or highly developed
cultures.
Cultural Change (cont.)
• The first civilizations developed in river
valleys in what is today Iraq, Egypt, India,
and China.
• People in these civilizations made
important advancements such as building
cities, forming governments, founding
religions, and developing writing systems.
• Around the A.D.1700s, some countries
began to industrialize, or use machines to
make goods.
Cultural Change (cont.)
• The widespread use of machines allowed
industrial nations to produce more food,
goods, and wealth, which caused
sweeping cultural changes.
• The process of spreading ideas,
languages, or customs from one culture to
another is called cultural diffusion.
• In the past, diffusion took place through
trade, migration, and conquest.
Cultural Change (cont.)
• In recent years, new methods of
communication also have led to cultural
diffusion.
• Historically, trade began with the exchange
of goods, often over great distances.
• Soon it brought new ideas, practices, and
religions to an area.
Cultural Change (cont.)
• The movement of people from one place
to another also leads to cultural diffusion.
• An example is the introduction of the horse
to people of North America by the
European settlers.
• The conquest of one group by another is a
third way culture can spread.
• In turn, the conquered peoples can
influence the culture of the conquerors.
Cultural Change (cont.)
• Today television, movies, and the Internet
contribute to cultural diffusion.
• Movies made in one country are seen
around the world, and the Internet allows
people to have contact with other cultures.
How did the Agricultural Revolution
impact human culture?
A. It led people to create civilizations.
0%
D
0%
C
D. It led to fewer conflicts
between societies.
A
B
C
0%
D
B
C. It led to the widespread use
of machines to make goods.
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
A
B. It led to the development of
better farming tools.
Regional and Global Cultures
As countries and regions
share cultural traits, a global
culture is emerging.
Regional and Global Cultures (cont.)
• The term region describes areas that
share common physical characteristics.
• A culture region is an area that includes
different countries that share similar
cultural traits.
• The countries in a culture region also have
unique traits that set them apart.
World Culture Regions
Regional and Global Cultures (cont.)
• Recent advances in communications and
technology have helped break down
barriers between culture regions.
• The result is globalization, or the
development of a worldwide culture with
an interdependent economy.
Regional and Global Cultures (cont.)
• With globalization, individual economies
rely greatly upon one another for
resources and markets.
• Some people believe that as the global
culture grows, local cultures will become
less important.
What are the cultural characteristics
shared by the United States and
Canada?
A. Language
B. History
C. Ethnic groups
D. All of the above
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Patterns of economic activities result
in global interdependence.
Content Vocabulary
• natural resource
• renewable resource
• nonrenewable resource
• economic system
• developed country
• developing country
• newly industrialized
country
Content Vocabulary (cont.)
• export
• quota
• import
• free trade
• tariff
• interdependence
Academic Vocabulary
• finite
• finance
Do you recycle?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Sometimes
0%
C
B
A
0%
A. A
B. B
C.0%C
Globalization and interdependence create
opportunities for small groups and individuals, but
sometimes these people are treated dishonestly.
Fair Trade associations strive to protect people and
help them prosper. Fair Trade principles can include
fair pay for the product or service, care for the
workers’ environment, financial help, technical help,
and making sure the workers’ cultural identity is
preserved.
Natural Resources
Earth’s resources are not
evenly distributed, nor do
they all exist in endless
supply.
Natural Resources (cont.)
• Natural resources are materials from the
Earth—such as soil, trees, wind, and oil—
that people use to meet their needs.
• Such resources can provide food, shelter,
goods, and energy.
• Renewable resources are natural
resources that cannot be used up or that
can be replaced or grown again.
Natural Resources (cont.)
• Most natural resources are finite, or limited
in supply.
• They are called nonrenewable
resources. Once humans use up these
resources, the resources are gone forever.
World Energy Production and Consumption
Fossil fuels are examples of ____
resources.
A. renewable
B. nonrenewable
A. A
B. B
0%
B
A
0%
Economics and Trade
An economy is the way
people use and manage
resources.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• An economic system is the method used
to answer three key questions:
– what goods and services to produce
– how to produce them and
– who will receive them
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• There are four kinds of economic systems.
• In a traditional economy, individuals decide
what to produce and how to produce it.
– These choices are based on custom or
habit, and people often do the same
work as their parents and grandparents.
– Technology is often limited.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• In a command economy, the government
makes the key economic decisions about
resources.
• It decides the costs of products and the
wages workers earn, and individuals have
little economic freedom.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• In a market economy, individuals make
their own economic decisions.
• People have the right to own property or
businesses. Businesses make (supply)
what they think customers want.
• Consumers have choices about which
goods and services to buy (demand).
• Prices are determined by the interaction of
supply and demand.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• Most nations have mixed economies.
• China, for example has a mostly command
economy, but the government allows some
features of a market economy.
• A developed country has a mix of
agriculture, manufacturing, and service
industries.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• Developed countries also tend to rely on
new technologies, and workers have
relatively high incomes.
• Countries with economies that are not as
advanced are called developing
countries.
• These countries have little industry, so
agriculture remains important. Incomes per
person are generally low.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• Newly industrialized countries are
becoming more industrial and are moving
toward economies like those in developed
countries.
• Resources are not distributed evenly
around the world.
Economic Divisions
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• Trade is important because it allows
nations to export, or sell to other
countries, the resources they have in
abundance or the products made from
those resources.
• Countries also import, or buy from other
countries, the resources they do not have
or the products they cannot make.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• Trade allows developed nations to import
what they need to maintain their
successful economies.
• Trade also provides a means for
developing nations to sell their products
and resources to further industrialize and
build their economies.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• A tariff, or a tax added to the price of
imported goods, is a trade barrier used by
nations to influence their people to buy
less expensive items that are made in
their own country.
• A quota is another trade barrier that limits
how many items of a particular product
can be imported from a certain nation.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• The removal of trade barriers so that
goods flow freely among countries is
called free trade.
• Growing trade among countries has
resulted in the globalization of the world's
economies and interdependence, or
countries relying on each other for ideas,
goods, services, and markets, or places to
sell their goods.
Economics and Trade (cont.)
• Interdependence has come about in part
because of new technologies, such as
those in transportation and
communications.
The government makes the key
economic decisions about resources
in what kind of economy?
A. market
B. command
C. traditional
D. mixed
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
World Population
• Low death rates and high birthrates have led
to rapid population growth.
• Some areas of the world are more densely
populated than others.
• Nearly half of the world’s population
lives in cities.
Culture
• Culture is the way of life of a group of people
who share similar beliefs and customs.
• Cultures change over time and influence one
another.
• Modern technology has broken down barriers
and helped create a global culture.
Natural Resources
• Renewable resources either cannot be used
up or can be replaced.
• Some resources—such as fossil fuels
and minerals—are nonrenewable.
World Economies
• The four kinds of economic systems are
traditional, command, market, and mixed.
• Developed countries use advanced
technology and are highly productive.
• Developing countries have less advanced
technology and are generally less productive.
World Trade
• In recent years, many countries have agreed
to eliminate trade barriers.
• Growing trade among countries has made the
world’s people more interdependent.
Answers should list four social
groups—age, gender, ethnicity,
student (career/ education).
Comparisons to Oprah will vary.
death rate
number of deaths per year out of
every 1,000 people
birthrate
number of children born each year for
every 1,000 people
famine
severe lack of food
population density
average number of people living in a
square mile or square kilometer
urbanization
growth of cities
emigrate
to leave a country and move to
another
refugee
person who flees to another country
to escape persecution or disaster
technology
the application of scientific
discoveries to practical use
internal
existing or taking place within
culture
way of life of a group of people who
share similar beliefs and customs
ethnic group
people with a common language,
history, religion, and some physical
traits
dialect
local form of a language that may
have a distinct vocabulary and
pronunciation
democracy
form of limited government in which
power rests with the people, and all
citizens share in running the
government
dictatorship
form of government in which a leader
rules by force and typically limits
citizens’ freedoms
monarchy
government led by king or queen who
inherited power by being born into
ruling family
civilization
highly developed culture
cultural diffusion
process of spreading ideas,
languages, and customs from one
culture to another
culture region
area that includes different countries
that share similar cultural traits
globalization
development of a worldwide culture
with an interdependent economy
widespread
scattered or found in a wide area
unique
being the only one of its kind
natural resource
material from the Earth that people
use to meet their needs
renewable resource
natural resource that can be replaced
naturally or grown again
nonrenewable resource
natural resource such as a mineral
that cannot be replaced
economic system
system that sets rules for deciding
what goods and services to produce,
how to produce them, and who will
receive them
developed country
country with an economy that has a
mix of agriculture, a great deal of
manufacturing, and service industries
and that is very productive and
provides its people with a high
standard of living
developing country
country that has limited industry,
where agriculture remains important
and incomes are generally low
newly industrialized country
country that is creating new
manufacturing and business
export
to sell goods or resources to other
countries
import
to buy resources or goods from other
countries
tariff
tax added to the price of goods that
are imported
quota
number limit on how many items of a
particular product can be imported
from a certain nation
free trade
removal of trade restrictions so that
goods flow freely among countries
interdependence
condition that exists when countries
rely on each other for ideas, goods,
services, and markets
finite
limited in supply
finance
provide funds or capital
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