Introduction
Section 1:
World Population
Section 2:
Global Cultures
Section 3:
Political and Economical
Systems
Section 4:
Resources, Trade, and
the Environment
Summary
The characteristics and
distribution of human
populations affect human
and physical systems.
A study of the human
world—population, culture,
political and economic
systems, and resources—
will help you understand
events in the world around
you.
Section 1:
World Population
What factors influence
population growth in a
given area or region?
Section 2:
Global Cultures
How does the spatial
interaction of cultures
affect human systems?
Section 3:
Political and Economic
Systems
What types of human
systems provide the
power for groups of
people to control Earth’s
surface?
Section 4:
Resources, Trade, and
the Environment
How does the availability
and use of natural
resources affect
economic activities and
the environment?
World Population
What factors influence population growth
in a given area or region?
World Population
• death rate
• doubling time
• birthrate
• population distribution
• natural increase
• population density
• migration
• demographic transition
World Population
• trend
• community
• negative
World Population
A. Hungary
B. Germany
C. Canada
D. Bangladesh
E. Mexico City
World Population
Which continent contains most of the
world’s people?
A. Europe
0%
C
A
C. Africa
B
A. A
B. B
0% C.0%C
B. Asia
Population Growth
Population growth varies from country to
country and is influenced by cultural ideas,
migration, and level of development.
• More than 6.8 billion people now live on Earth,
inhabiting about 30 percent of the planet’s land.
• Global population is growing rapidly and is expected
to reach 9 billion by the year 2050.
Population Growth (cont.)
• The Demographic Transition
– The demographic transition model uses
birthrates and death rates to show changes in
the population trends of a country or region.
– Most of the industrialized and technologically
developed countries have reached zero
population growth, in which the birthrate and
death rate are equal.
The Demographic Transition Model
Population Growth (cont.)
• Rapid population growth presents many
challenges to the global community:
– difficulty producing enough food to feed
everyone
– a shortage of resources
– an uneven distribution of age
Population Growth (cont.)
• Countries, such as Hungary and Germany, have
experienced negative population growth, in which
the annual death rate exceeds the annual
birthrate.
Which of the following will help with
problems due to rapid population growth?
A. Fertilizers
B. Irrigation systems
C. New varieties of crops
D. All of the above
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Population Distribution
World population distribution is uneven and
is influenced by migration and the Earth’s
physical geography.
• Almost everyone on Earth lives on a little less than
one-third of the planet’s land.
Population Distribution (cont.)
• Population Density
– To determine population density in a country,
geographers divide the total population of the
country by its total land area.
– This does not account for uneven population
distribution.
World Population Density
Population Distribution (cont.)
• Population Movement
– Many people are moving to urban areas.
– The primary cause of urbanization is the
desire of rural people to find jobs and a better
life in more prosperous urban areas.
– Population movement also occurs between
countries.
Urban Growth in Selected Cities
Which country has one
of the highest population
densities in the world?
A. Bangladesh
B. Canada
C. Sweden
D. China
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Global Cultures
How does the spatial interaction of
cultures affect human systems?
Global Cultures
• culture
• cultural diffusion
• language family
• culture hearth
• ethnic group
• culture region
• similar
• major
Global Cultures
A. Egypt
B. Iraq
C. Pakistan
D. China
E. Mexico
Global Cultures
When studying a culture,
what areas are looked at?
A. Language and religion
0%
C
A
C. All of the above
B
A. A
B. B
0%C. 0%
C
B. Daily life, history, and art
Elements of Culture
Geographers divide the Earth into culture
regions, which are defined by the presence
of common elements such as language and
religion.
• A particular culture can be understood by looking at
the following elements:
– Language
– Religion
World Language Families
Elements of Culture (cont.)
– Social Groups
– Government and Economy
– Culture Regions
World Culture Regions
Groups of people ranked according to
ancestry, wealth, education, or other
criteria fall under which term?
A. Social group
A
C. Ethnic group
B
A. A
B. B
0%C. 0%
C
0%
C
B. Social class
Cultural Change
Internal and external forces change cultures
over time.
• The Agricultural Revolution
– The shift from hunting and gathering food to
producing food is known as the Agricultural
Revolution.
– Some of the farming villages evolved into
civilizations.
Cultural Change (cont.)
– The world’s first civilizations arose in culture
hearths.
• The most influential culture hearths developed in
areas that make up the modern countries of:
– Egypt
– Iraq
– Pakistan
– China
– Mexico
World Culture Hearths
Cultural Change (cont.)
• They have certain geographic features in
common:
– Mild climate
– Fertile land
– Located near a major river or source of water
Cultural Change (cont.)
• Cultural contact among different civilizations
promoted cultural change as ideas and practices
spread through trade and travel.
Cultural Change (cont.)
• Industrial and Information Revolutions
– In the late 1700s and 1800s some countries
experienced the Industrial Revolution, which
led to social changes.
– At the end of the 1900s, the information
revolution opened doors for experiencing new
cultures.
Which of the following
“set the stage for the rise
of cities and
civilizations”?
A. Nomadic hunting
B. Housing
C. Surplus food
0%
D. Military power
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Political and Economical
Systems
What types of human systems provide the
power for groups of people to control
Earth’s surface?
Political and Economical
Systems
• unitary system
• democracy
• federal system
• traditional economy
• autocracy
• market economy
• monarchy
• mixed economy
• oligarchy
• command economy
Political and Economical
Systems
• unique
• authority
• assembly
Political and Economical
Systems
A. United States
B. Saudi Arabia
C. United
Kingdom
D. China
E. Vietnam
Political and Economic
Systems
An oligarchy is a government
ruled by what?
0%
C
C. Many individuals
B
B. A single individual
A. A
B. B
C.0% C0%
A
A. A few individuals
Features of Government
Territory, population, and sovereignty
influence levels and types of governments
in countries around the world.
• Levels of government
– Most countries have several levels of government,
ranging from the national level to the village level.
Features of Government (cont.)
• Two types of government systems are:
– Unitary—the United Kingdom and France use
this system.
– Federal—the United States, Canada and
Switzerland are three of many countries that
use this system.
Features of Government (cont.)
• All governments belong to one of three major
groups:
– Autocracy—rule by one person
– A monarchy is another form of autocratic
government.
– Oligarchy—rule by a few people
– Democracy—rule by many people
Which form of
government do you feel
works best and why?
A. Autocracy
A
0%
0%
C
C. Democracy
A. A
B. B
C.0%C
B
B. Oligarchy
Economic Systems
The three major economic systems are
traditional economy, market economy, and
command economy.
• All economic systems must make three basic
economic decisions:
– What and how many goods and services
should be produced
Economic Systems (cont.)
– How should they be produced
– Who gets the goods and services that are
produced
• These decisions are made differently in the three
major economic systems:
– Traditional—habit and custom determine the rules.
– Market—this economy is based on free enterprise,
the idea that private individuals or groups have the
right to own property or businesses and make a
profit with only limited government interference.
Economic Systems (cont.)
– Most market economies are actually mixed
economies.
– Command—the government controls the economy
is this system.
Economic Systems (cont.)
• Two types of command economies:
– Communist—strict government control of the entire
society
– Socialist—three main goals of this type of
economy:
• An equitable distribution of wealth and economic
opportunity
• Society’s control, through its government, makes
decisions about public goods.
• Public ownership of services and factories that
are essential.
Capitalism is another term
for which type of economy?
A. Traditional
B. Market
0%
C
A
0%
A. A
B. B
C.0%C
B
C. Command
Resources, Trade, and the
Environment
How does the availability and use of
natural resources affect economic
activities and the environment?
Resources, Trade, and the
Environment
• natural resource
• developing country
• industrialization
• free trade
• developed country
• pollution
• newly industrialized
country
Resources, Trade, and the
Environment
• ensure
• benefit
• conduct
Resources, Trade, and the
Environment
A. Malaysia
B. European
Union
Resources, Trade, and the
Environment
Geographers and economists
classify the world’s economic
activities into how many types?
0%
0%
C
C. Four
0%
B
B. Two
A
A. Eight
A. A
B. B
C. C
Resource Management
Natural resources must be managed to
ensure future needs.
• Because fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, and other
nonrenewable resources cannot be replaced, they
must be conserved.
Resource Management (cont.)
• Alternative energy sources:
– Hydroelectric power
– Solar energy
– Nuclear energy
The Global Economy
Which is a renewable resource?
A. Oil
B. Minerals
C. Coal
D. Sun
0%
A
A.
B.
0%
C.
D.
B
A
B
0%
C
D
C
0%
D
Economies and World Trade
Countries with varying levels of economic
development have become increasingly
interdependent through world trade.
• Geographers and economists classify all of the
world’s economic activities into four types:
– Primary economic activities—taking or using
natural resources directly from the Earth
Economies and World Trade (cont.)
– Secondary economic activities—raw materials
are used to produce something new and more
valuable.
– Tertiary economic activities—provide services
to people and businesses
– Quaternary economic activities—the
processing, management, and distribution of
information
The Global Economy
Economies and World Trade (cont.)
• Factors affecting trade:
– The unequal distribution of natural resources
– Differences in labor costs
– Differences in education levels
Economies and World Trade (cont.)
• Barriers to trade:
– Tariffs
– Embargos
– A quota on the quantity of a product that can
be imported from a country
• Many governments around the world have moved
toward free trade.
World Economic Trends
Manufacturing
automobiles would fall
under with type of
economic activity?
A. Primary
B. Secondary
C. Tertiary
0%
D. Quaternary
A
A.
B.
0%
C.
D.
B
A
B
0%
C
D
C
0%
D
People and the Environment
Economic activities have led to
environmental pollution.
• The water, land, and air have all been polluted due to
human activity.
• When humans harm natural ecosystems, they are
also hurting themselves.
What is a solution to our
pollution problems?
A. Plant more trees
B. Reduce chemical spills
C. Alternative fueled cars
D. All of the above
0%
A
A.
B.
0%
C.
D.
B
A
B
0%
C
D
C
0%
D
World Population
•
Population growth increased
rapidly, but unevenly
throughout the twentieth
century and into the twentyfirst century.
•
The world’s population is
unevenly distributed. Large
numbers of people are
migrating from rural areas to
cities for jobs or to escape
famine and war.
•
As people become more
mobile, so do goods.
Countries trade to gain access
to resources they lack.
World Culture
• Language, religion, social groups, government, and
economic activities define cultures.
• Geographers divide the Earth into specific culture
regions.
• Trade, migration, war, and technology can change
cultures.
• The world’s first civilizations arose in culture hearths
in Central America, Africa, and Asia.
Government and Economic Systems
• Governments may be organized as a unitary system,
a federal system, or a confederation.
• An autocracy, an oligarchy, and a democracy differ in
the way they exercise authority.
• The three major economic systems are traditional
economy, market economy, and command economy.
• The type of economic system helps determine how a
country will view international trade. Market
economies are more open to free trade, while
command economies are likely to put up trade
barriers.
death rate
the number of deaths per year for
every 1,000 people
birthrate
the number of births per year for
every 1,000 people
natural increase
the growth rate of a population; the
difference between birthrate and
death rate
migration
the movement of people from place to
place
demographic transition
the model that uses birthrates and
death rates to show changes in the
population trends of a country or
region
doubling time
the number of years it takes a
population to double in size
population distribution
the pattern of population in a country,
a continent, or the world
population density
the average number of people in a
square mile or square kilometer
culture
way of life of a group of people who
share beliefs and similar customs
language family
group of related languages that have
all developed from one earlier
language
ethnic group
group of people who share common
ancestry, language, religion, customs,
or combination of such characteristics
culture region
division of the Earth based on a
variety of factors, including
government, social groups, economic
systems, language, or religion
cultural diffusion
the spread of new knowledge and
skills from one culture to another
culture hearth
a center where cultures developed
and from which ideas and traditions
spread outward
unitary system
a government in which all key powers
are given to the national or central
government
federal system
form of government in which powers
are divided between the national
government and the state or
provincial government
autocracy
government in which one person
rules with unlimited power and
authority
monarchy
a form of autocracy with a hereditary
king or queen exercising supreme
power
oligarchy
system of government in which a
small group holds power
democracy
any system of government in which
leaders rule with consent of the
citizens
traditional economy
a system in which tradition and
custom control all economic activity;
exists in only a few parts of the world
today
market economy
an economic system based on free
enterprise, in which businesses are
privately owned, and production and
prices are determined by supply and
demand
mixed economy
a system of resource management in
which the government supports and
regulates enterprise through
decisions that affect the marketplace
command economy
system of resource management in
which decisions about production and
distribution of goods and services are
made by a central authority
natural resource
substance from the earth that is not
made by people but can be used by
them
industrialization
transition from an agricultural society
to one based on industry
developed country
country that has a great deal of
technology and manufacturing
newly industrialized country
a country that has begun transitioning
from primarily agricultural to primarily
manufacturing and industry activity
developing country
country in the process of becoming
industrialized
free trade
the removal of trade barriers so that
goods can flow freely between
countries
pollution
the existence of impure, unclean, or
poisonous substances in the air,
water, or land
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World Geography and Cultures