NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION
TOPICS
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Clothes and Color
Design,Movable Objects and Lighting,
Seating,
Space,
Silence and Vocal Cues,
Material,
Touch,
Time,
Differences Between Men & Women in NVC,
Cultural Differences in NVC,
NVC in Job Interviews.
CLOTHES
“Do clothes communicate?”
Clothes are important to first
impressions.
Females
Clothes (same & oppositesexed partners)
Males
Clothes (same-sexed
partners)
Figure and face
(opposite-sexed partners)
CLOTHES (cont.)
People adorn themselves with a number of
other artifacts such as;
Badges
Tattoos
Masks
Earrings
Jewelry
Colors can affect human behavior.
There is a big impact of colors on mental
growth and social relations.
The most pleasant hues
purple, yellow, red.
blue, green,
The most arousing hues
yellow, violet, blue, green.
red, orange,
COLORS & MOODS
Secure/Comfortable
Calm/Peaceful
Unhappy/Melancholy
Cheerful/Joyful
Distressed/Upset
Defiant/Hostile
COLORS & MOODS (cont.)
Exciting/Stimulating
Calm/Peaceful
Protective/Defending
Dignified/Stately
Protective/Defending
Unhappy/Melancholy
Powerful/Strong
DESIGN IN
NEGOTIATION ROOM

Fixed-feature refers to space

Semifixed-feature refers to the
organized by unmoving boundaries
(rooms of houses).
arrangement of movable objects such as
tables or chairs.
DESIGN (cont.)
Sometimes we get very definite person or
couple-related messages from home
environments.
Ugly room
Beautiful room
monotony, fatigue, headache,
discontent, sleep, irritability,
hostility.
pleasure, comfort,
enjoyment, importance,
energy.
LIGHTING IN
NEGOTIATION ROOM


Lighting helps to structure our perceptions of
an environment, and these perceptions also
may influence the type of messages we send.
The absence of light seems to be a central
problem for people who suffer from “seasonal
affective disorder” a form of depression
particularly acute in winter months.
MOVABLE OBJECTS AND
SEATING



The arrangement of certain objects in our
environment can help structure communication.
Employees often use objects to personalize
their offices.
The arrangement of other items of furniture
can facilitate or inhibit communication.
Seating Behaviors
1. Leadership: At the head or foot of the
table.
X
X
Seating Behaviors (cont.)
2. Dominance:
2
1
3
4
5
1 and
54attracted
the task-oriented
leader,
the
1,3,
2
and
and
are
5
also
anxious
were
and
considered
actually
to
stated
be
positions
they
4
and
5
are
twice
as
likely
to
talk
to
each
other
The
other
The
most
main
likely
conversations
conversation
will occur
is leadermiddle
position
attracted
a
socioemotional
wanted
of
leadership
to4.and
staybut
ofof
a the
different
discussion.
type, depending
1, 3,
5 out
are
frequent
talkers,
as
3
and
between
between
2 and
4-5
3, 3and
and1-2.
4.
one concerned
about
group
relationships.
on the
position.personalities
dominant
Seating Behaviors (cont.)
3. Task:

X
Conversion:
Sitting and chatting for a few
minutes before class.
X

Cooperation:
X X

Coaction:
X
X

Competition:
X
X
Sitting and studying together
for the same exam.
Sitting studying for different
exams.
Sitting face to face across a
table.
Seating Behaviors (cont.)
4. Sex and Acquaintance:

In the bar, corner seating for the same-sex friends
X
and casual friends of the opposite sex.
X


Intimate friends appear to desire side-by-side
seating.
X X
In a restaurant everyone choose opposite seating.
X
X
Seating Behaviors (cont.)
5. Motivation:
High-Positive
Motivation
High-Negative
Motivation
“sitting with your boy
or girlfriend.”
“sitting with someone
you do not like very
much and do not wish
to talk to.”
5. Motivation (cont.)
•As motivation increases, persons want to sit
closer or to have more eye contact.
•When the motivation is affiliative, the choice is
sit closer,
•When the motivation is competitive, the choice is
one that will allow more eye contact.
Seating Behaviors (cont.)
6. Introversion - Extraversion:
Extraverts
choose to sit opposite
(either across the table or down the length
of it).
Introverts
choose positions that
would keep them more at a distance, visually
and physically.
NEGOTIATION TABLE
It is a typical configuration for contract
negotiations. The two parties sit together to
indicate and foster unity. Each team is on a
different side of the table and the teams are
facing each other so each team member can clearly
hear what anyone on the other team has to say.
This table may tend to give one party an advantage
over the other because the arrangement suggests
only one important person, the person at the end of
the vertical extension.
This table shows a need for space between
the two parities. That space could mean
more formality or less trust.
This table may be the most conducive to
win/win negotiations because the round
shape is usually associated with equality.
SPACE
Each of you has a “personal space”, a
sort of invisible bubble around you,
which you feel is yours and which you do
not like to see intruded upon without
express permission.
SPACE (cont.)
Three major interpersonal distances are
“intimate”, “social” and “public”.
SPACE (cont.)
Interpersonal distance is one of the ways you
have to express feelings. You tend to move
closer to people you like and away from
people you do not, if you have a choice.
SILENCE
Silence is another form of communication that can
make a situation awkward if used.
Silence occurs when;
1. You are terribly angry, frustrated.
2. You are attentively listening to something.
3. You listen but are bored.
4. You cannot think of a thing to say.
5. You are thinking about a point made by speaker.
6. You do not understand what the speaker said.
7. There is no more to be said on the matter.
8. Do not need to say anything.
THE EFFECTS OF VOCAL CUES
Vocal behavior deals with how something
is said, not what is said.
Prosody is the word used to describe all
the variations in the voice that
accompany speech and help to convey its
meaning.

He’s giving this money to Herbie. (He’s the
one giving the money, nobody else.)

He’s giving this money to Herbie. (He’s
giving, not lending, the money.)



He’s giving this money to Herbie. (The
money being exchanged is not from another
fund or source; it is this money.)
He’s giving this money to Herbie. (Money is
the unit of exchange, not a chech or
wampum.)
He’s giving this money to Herbie. (This
recipient is Herbie, not Eric or Bill or Rod)
MATERIAL USAGE IN
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
giving a message that you are
making an important explanation.
threat to the person in front of you.
distracting yourself and trying to gain time.
the subject is over.
make people intellectual
openness and honesty
not respect you
Hanging it on your neck makes you serious
and charismatic.
Playing with eyeglasses means you are
bored.
Pipe makes the user
DOMINANT in his/her speech.
Blowing a cigarette upper
means you are comfortable and
powerful.
Blowing it lower means you are
bored and anxious.
Rosettes, riggings
show that you are
belonging a group.
Playing with your tie
means you are
interested in the
opposite sex.
Playing with notebook,
paper etc. means you are
bored.
TOUCH
Touching is so important in the healthy
development of human life.
TOUCH
Touching is a powerful communicative
tool and serves to express a tremendous
range of feelings, such as;
Fear
Love
Anxiety
Warmth
Coldness
Sometimes touching may elicit negative
reactions depending on the configuration of
people and circumstances.
Sometimes people get tense, anxious,
and/or uncomfortable when touched.
Who Touches Whom, Where,
and How Much?
The amount and kind of contact in adulthood
vary considerably with
•Age
•Sex
•Situation
•Relationship of the parties involved.
Easy to touch
Hard to touch
We can say that people may be more likely to
touch when;
1. The
Giving
informationisordeep
advice
rather
than
asking
5.
conversation
rather
than
casual
for it
6. At a party rather than at work
2. Giving an order rather than responding to it
7. Communicating excitement rather than
3.receiving
Asking a it
favor
than agreeing to do one
fromrather
another
4. Receiving
Trying to persuade
than
being
8.
messages rather
of worry
from
another
persuaded
rather
than sending such messages
Types of Touch














The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
Handshake.
Body-Guide.
Pat.
Arm-Link.
Shoulder Embrace.
Full Embrace.
Hand-in-Hand.
Waist Embrace.
Kiss.
Hand-to-Head.
Head-to-Head.
Caress.
Body Support.
Mock-Attack.
SELF-TOUCHING


Some of self-touching behaviors are
behavioral adaptations we make in
response to certain learning situations.
A number of studies have indicated that
self-touching is associated with
situational anxiety or stress.
SELF-TOUCHING
Another source of body-focused movements
is cognitive (information-processing) demand.

YELLOW
RED
GREEN
BLUE
TIME
At first, TIME may seem an intangible thing
but time is almost treated as a THING;
You gain time, waste it, spent it, save it,
give it and take it.
Time is precious, time speaks…
Time influences our perceptions of people;
For example;
responsible people are
boring people talk
“on time”
“too long”
We perceive time in four different types:
1. Time as Location
“I don’t like eating dinner at 10 p.m.”
2. Time as Duration
An activity can be perceived as boring and we perceive we have
been there “forever”.
3. Time as Intervals
“It’s been too long since I’ve seen you”
4. Time as Patterns of Intervals
It determines our social rhythm – the regularity/irregularity
of our lifes, our behaviors and routines.
Men&Women in Nonverbal
Communication
Are Men from Mars and Women from
Venus?
A Woman…
 speak an average of 8,000 words a day.
 2,000 vocal sounds,
 10,000 facial expressions, and other body
language signals.
This gives her a daily average of more than
20,000 communications
A Man…
 uses just 4,000 words
 1,000 vocal sounds
 makes a mere 2,000 body language signals
His daily average adds up to around 7,000
communications.
Women's nonverbal behavior is used to make
personal connections.
While men's nonverbal communication tends to
parallel behaviors associated with dominance
and power.
KINESICS - body movement
use facial expression a lot to send and
receive messages
use less and more restrained gestures
posture is more tense
attracted to those who smile more
KINESICS - body movement
(cont.)
don't send or receive facial
expressions as much
use gestures more
posture is more relaxed
more likely to interrupt speakers who
are smiling
Male and Female Postures
Males show a dominant behaviour and body
posture (staring, taking more space, legs
apart, hands on hips)
Male and Female Postures (cont.)
Females show a submissive behaviour and body
posture (lowering eyes, knees together).
OCULESICS - eye contact,gaze
Females;
rarely stare
engage in more eye contact while
conversating
generally the first to avert eyes on
initial gaze
OCULESICS - eye contact,gaze
(cont.)
Males;
stare to challenge power or status
generally don't make as much eye
contact
generally maintain initial gaze until
other party averts eyes
HAPTICS - touch and the
use of it
Females;
touched more than males
touched more gently
touched mostly by men
initiate more hugging and touching
that expresses support, affection,
comfort
HAPTICS - touch and the
use of it (cont.)
Males;
touched less than females
touched more harshly
initiate touch towards females more
use touch to direct, assert power,
express sexual interest
PROXEMICS - space and the
use of it
Females;
tend to approach others closer
 prefer side by side interaction
PROXEMICS - space and the
use of it (cont.)
Males;
use more personal space
prefer face to face conversation
Cultural Differences in Nonverbal
Communication
Nonverbal messages can create intercultural
friction and confusion because;
 the same nonverbal signal can mean
different things to different people in
different cultures,
 multiple nonverbal cues are sent in each
interaction, thereby creating interpretive
ambiguities,
Cultural value tendencies
individualism-collectivism
high-low context
power distance
Collectivist and Individulist
Cultures
U.S
Individualist cultures
emphasize personal achievement
Sweden
Netherlands
Collectivist and Individulist
Cultures (cont.)
Japan
Argentina
Mexico
Collectivist cultures
emphasize family and work group goals.
Collectivist and Individulist
Cultures (cont.)
 individualists tend to be more concerned with
expressing and repairing self-focused
emotions (e.g., personal anger, frustration, or
resentment)
 collectivists generally are more concerned
with other-focused emotions (e.g., relational
shame, hurt, or embarrassment)
High and Low Context Cultures
 Low–context cultures tend to be more sensitive to a
person's values, attitudes or dispositional characteristics,
and attribute behavior to their individuality and personality.
 High–context communication and cultures are highly
sensitive to situational and context features of
communication .
High and Low Context Cultures
(cont.)
Low–context cultures are less aware of nonverbal
cues, environment, and situation
High context cultures are all take into account
environment, situation, nonverbal messages,
gestures, mood
Large and Small Power Distance
Cultures
Small power distance cultures (e.g., Australia
and Canada) tend to use nonverbal emotional
cues to establish equal-status relationships.
Large power distance cultures (e.g., in many
Latin and Middle Eastern cultures) tend to
use nonverbal emotional cues (e.g., the proper
tone of voice) to signify asymmetrical-status
relationships
Different Nonverbal Cues in
Different Cultures
Facial Expressions
Proximity
Haptics
Silence
Kinesics
Greetings
Beckoning
Facial Expressions
Basic facial emotions that are decoding
universally:
anger,
disgust,
fear,
happiness,
sadness, and
surprise
Facial Expressions (cont.)
Eye-contact;
 In many European and American cultures, people
who are unable to maintain eye contact during a
conversation are often looked upon as
untrustworthy or rude.
 In many Asian and African cultures it is
considered disrespectful to look an elder or
authority figure in the eyes during a conversation
Facial Expressions (cont.)
Smiles;
 Within the most European culture, a smile can
mean joy or happiness
 In the Japanese culture, it can also be used to
mask embarrassment, hide displeasure, or
suppress anger.
 In Russia, it reflects relaxation and progress
in developing a good relationship.
Facial Expressions (cont.)
Voice;
 Many Southern European cultures (e.g., Greece
and Italy) and Arab cultures tend to value an
emotionally engaged, expressive tone of voice,
 Many East and Southeast Asian cultures (e.g.,
Malaysia and Thailand) tend to value a
moderating, soft tone of voice.
Proximity (space)
 For Americans, standing very
close to speak with someone is
looked at as rude and can create a
very awkward or uncomfortable
feeling for many of them.
In Asia and the Middle East, people
tend to stand or sit closer to one
another while talking, and think nothing
of their proximity to each other
Haptics (touching)
 While Chinese views opposite-sex handshakes
acceptable, Malays and Arabs view contact by
opposite-sex handshakes as taboo
 The friendly full embrace between males in
much more acceptable in many Latin American
cultures than in Britain or the United States
Haptics (touching)
(cont.)
Don’t touch
Touch
Middle Ground
Japan
Middle East Countries
France
U.S.&Canada
Latin Countries
China
England
Italy
Ireland
Scandinavia
Australia
Estonia
Greece
Spain&Portugual
Russia
India
Silence
 In many cultures, people are more
comfortable with longer pauses or
periods of silence.
 In the U.S., long pauses can become
uncomfortable or may be indicative of
that fact that someone is upset or
choosing to ignore what has been said in
the conversation.
Kinesics-hand gestures, body
postures
"Gestures are a silent language unique
to every society."
Hand Gestures
 “OK” to U.S. Americans and most of
Europeans
“money” to the Japanese
a sexual insult in Brazil and Greece
a vulgar gesture in Russia
“zero” in French.
Hand Gestures (cont.)
The "V Sign", commonly
known as "Victory"
However, in Britain the “V”
sign connotes an insult.
Hand Gestures (cont.)
 In Canada and the United States, it
signifies approval or encouragement
 It is offensive throughout the Arab
world (e.g., in Egypt and Kuwait)
 In Japan it signifies “five”
 In Germany it is the signal for “one”
Hand Gestures (cont.)
 In Italy this gesture has a
vulgar meaning
 In Brazil and Venezuela, the
same gesture is considered a
good luck sign toward off evil.
Greetings
India
“namaste”
It also means “thank you”
and “I’m sorry”.
Japan
This bow is used to communicate
respect when expressing gratitude or
an apology.
Greetins (cont.)
New Zealand
The Maori tribespeople in New Zealand
choose to greet each other with a
gesture that shows closeness and
friendship:
“They rub noses”
“abrazo”
Most North Americans, Nothern
Europeans find any such touching or
hugging very uncomfortable.
Latin America
Beckoning
 In the U.S., it is the common
gesture for getting someone’s
attention
 In Japan, pointing the finger at
anyone is considered impolite
 In Germany, the signal means
“two”
Beckoning (cont.)
 In some American countries, it
is used for beckoning
 In Yugoslavia and Malaysia,
that gesture is used only for
calling animals.
Most of Europe and Latin American
countries prefer this gesture for
signaling “come over here”
North Americans consider it
uncomfortable, effeminate, or puzzling.
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
IN JOB INTERVİEWS
Body language
55%
Paralanguage or the intonation
38%
The verbal content only
7%
Nonverbal Communication During the Interview
1. Make eye contact with the interviewer for a few
seconds at a time.
2. Smile and nod (at appropriate times) when the
interviewer is talking, but, don't overdo it. Don't
laugh unless the interviewer does first.
3. Be polite and keep an even tone to your speech.
Don't be too loud or too quiet.
4. Don't slouch.
5.Do relax and lean forward a little towards the
interviewer so you appear interested and engaged.
6. Don't lean back. You will look too casual and
relaxed.
7. Keep your feet on the floor and your back against
the lower back of the chair.
8. Pay attention, be attentive and interested.
9. Listen.
10.Don't interrupt.
11.Stay calm. Even if you had a bad experience at a
previous position or were fired, keep your emotions
to yourself and do not show anger or frown.
12.Not sure what to do with your hands? Hold a pen
and your notepad or rest an arm on the chair or on
your lap, so you look comfortable. Don't let your
arms fly around the room when you're making a
point.
How to Dress for an Interview?
Men's Interview Attire
•Suit (solid color - navy or dark grey)
•Long sleeve shirt (white or coordinated with the suit)
•Belt
•Tie
•Dark socks, conservative leather shoes
•Little or no jewelry
•Neat, professional hairstyle
•Limit the aftershave
•Neatly trimmed nails
How to Dress for an Interview?
Women's Interview Attire
•Suit (navy, black or dark grey)
•The suit skirt should be long enough so you can sit down
comfortably
•Coordinated blouse
•Conservative shoes
•Limited jewelry (no dangling earrings or arms full of
bracelets)
•Professional hairstyle
•Neutral pantyhose
•Light make-up and perfume
•Neatly manicured clean nails
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