STATE OF THE ART IN
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT..
MARI FITZDUFF,
BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY
HISTORY OF CONFLICT
RESOLUTION
1940's:
1945:
1944/50
1959:
As applied behavioural science - Kurt Lewin.
Peace Research Laboratory, Missouri.
Game theory - maths applied to conflict. Prisoners dilemma.
Centre for Research on CR Kenneth and Elise Boulding.
(Journal of Conflict Resolution)
1960:
Oslo centre, which became PRIO. Johann Galtung
1963:
Conflict Research Society, London. John Burton.
1966:
Stockholm (SIPRI)
1970's : Interest in Non-Violent Theorists: Ghandi, Quakers and Mennonites.
Gene Sharp (1973)
1970's: "ADR" Alternative Dispute Resolution. (Negotiation/Mediation)
1970's: Problem Solving Workshops - Harvard.
1973:
Bradford UK - degree programmes.
1973:
Centre for the Study of Conflict (UNU/INCORE 1994)
1980's: ICAR - first post-grad US course, Harvard negotiation project, etc,.
1980-2001: Proliferation.
Multidisciplinary: Law, Economics, Social Psychology, International Relations, Sociology,
Mathematics,Education, Public Policy (Kennedy School) Diplomacy, Politics, Anthropology,etc.
Undergraduate/Masters programs
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80 in USA
15 in UK/Ireland
6 in Europe
14 in Japan
3 in Australia
4 in Latin America
7 in Israel
1 in Africa
1 starting in Peshawar,Pakistan(Coex alum!)
PhD programs
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1. George Mason University
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2. Notre Dame
4. Nova Southeastern
5. University of Manitoba
6. University of Sydney
7. University of Bradford
8. American University
9. Lancaster University
10 Bar Ilan University
11. University of Gotheborg
12. Uppsala University
13. Kings College London
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Titles of courses…
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PhD Conflict analysis and resolution (ICAR, Nova)
PhD Peace studies (ND)
PhD Peace and Conflict studies (Man)
D.Phil, (Syd and Lan, Brad) ) D.Soc Sci (Syd) PhD
(Israel)
PhD Peace and Development (Goth)
PhD Peace and Development (Upp)
PhD War Studies (KCU)
PhD IR with Concentration Peace and Conflict
Resolution (AU)
Language variations..
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Conflict Resolution
Dispute Resolution
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Negotiation
Mediation
Peace Studies/Science
Conflict Management
Conflict Transformation
Conflict Prevention
Peacebuilding
Coexistence Work
Social Integration
Social Inclusion
Coexistence as goal..rather than method.
Coex Masters: Intercommunal work - unique.
Coexistence is used to describe societies where:
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Diversity is valued for its positive potential,
Equality is actively pursued,
Interdependence between different groups is recognized, and
The use of weapons to address conflicts is increasingly obsolete
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http://www.brandeis.edu/coexistence/work/coexist.html
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JOURNALS IN THE FIELD
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Journal of Conflict Resolution .http://jcr.sagepub.com/ This is now ranked 2/51 in the
International Relations and 5/93 in Political Science!
The Journal of Peace Research which ranked at 9th in
IR http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/52/2/175
Conflict Management and Peace Science which ranked 10th in
IR. http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/07388942.asp
The American Psychological Association Journal: Peace and Conflict: The Journal of Peace
Psychology (quarterly) http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t775653690l
Peace and Conflict studies http://shss.nova.edu/pcs/ brought out by NSU.
Berkeley brings out a Journal called Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public
Policy, http://www.bepress.com/peps/
Defense and Peace Economics http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/10242694.html
The International Journal of Peace Studies
at http://www.gmu.edu/academic/ijps/vol11_2/cover11_2.htm
Negotiation Journal at http://www.pon.harvard.edu/publications/journal.php
Journal of Religion, Conflict and Peace, at http://www.plowsharesproject.org/journal/
Two development and conflict journals i.e. the Development and Conflict journal http://www.journalpeacedev.org/ at American University and Peace, Conflict and
Development http://www.peacestudiesjournal.org.uk/index.asp)
Used in other disciplinary journals..
But work cited in the following publications:
Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Personality Social Psychology Bulletin, Community
Development Journal, International Journal of Social Welfare, Journal Of Community
Practice, International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Sector, The British Journal of
Politics & International Relations, Political Studies, Canadian Journal of
Communication, Journal of Adult and Continuing Education, Journal of International
Development, International Journal on Multicultural Societies, International Journal of
Cultural Policy, Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, International Journal
of Heritage Studies, International Journal of Behavioral Development, Journal of
Adolescent Research, Negotiation Journal, International Journal on World Peace, Ethnic
and Racial Studies, Development in Practice, Journal of International Affairs,
Comparative Education, Security Journal, Development and Change, British Journal of
Social Psychology, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Journal of Peace Education ,
Irish Studies Review, European Journal of Education, European Review of Social
Psychology, Journal of Peace Research, Social Movement Studies, International Journal
of Conflict and Violence, International Journal of Behavioral Development, Journal of
Social Issues, Negotiation Journal, Harvard Human Rights Journal. British Journal of
Developmental Psychology,
Debates in the field…
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Mainstreaming coexistence work into e.g
Democracy, Development, Environmental
work, Security, Human Rights, Political work,
etc
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Meta- work, Integrated Work.
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Adapted by State Department, Petraeus
guidelines, Jifcoms.
Meta Conflict Resolution Contextual Variables e.g.
Equality work
Reconciliation
work
Socio Political
Activity
Security Work
JUST &
SUSTAINABLE
SOLUTION
Demobilization,
disarmament and
decommissioning
Socio - Economic
Development
Community
Development
& Leadership
META CONFLICT RESOLUTION
CR worker assists contact/dialogue on the above from a CR perspective (Fitzduff 2002)
Conflict work is Multi Level
Level1:
Level 2:
Level 3:
Levels
Main Power Brokers
Governments (British & Irish)
Politicians
Paramilitaries
Security Leaders
Power Holders
Statutory Bodies
Security Forces
Public Bodies
Educational Institutions
Trade Unions
Business Sectors
Cultural Institutions
Community Power
Community Groups
Women’s Groups
Reconciliation Workers
Prisoners
Interface Workers
Methods
e.g. Political Agreements
Parameters setting for
Socio Economic, Political,
Governance and
Reconciliation work.
e.g. Planning and training for
Demobilization,
Disarmament,
Decommissioning work
Economic and Equality Work
Pluralism and Diversity work
Conflict prevention work
Mainstreaming of work
Methods:
Incorporation of demobilized soldiers,
Contact and Cooperation work
Shared networks development
Victims and healing work
Human rights discussions etc.
Post -Conflict work based on Leaderach 1993
Debates…
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What kinds of contexts facilitate
positive coexistence ?
CLUB OF MADRID
Shared Society committments
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Locating responsibility of social cohesion within government structures
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Create opportunities for minorities to be consulted
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Monitor structures and policies to ensure they are supportive of social cohesion
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Ensure the legal framework protects the rights of the individual
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Deal with economic disadvantages faced by those discriminated against
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Ensure that physical environments create opportunities for social interaction
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An education system that demonstrates a commitment to a shared society
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Initiate a process to encourage the creation of a shared vision of society
Promote respect, understanding and appreciation of diversity
Take steps to reduce tensions and hostility between communities
1. Locating responsibility to ensure the promotion
of social cohesion clearly within government
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Create a government department with a minister
within the government.
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Create a unit within a central government department
such as the presidents or prime ministers office
reporting directly to the president or prime minister.
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Create an independent body such as a community
relations council to act as link between government
and the people and to encourage civil society
involvement in enhancing community relations.
VI. Ensure that physical environments create
opportunities for, rather than discourage social
interaction
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Work with planners, architects and academics to identify how
our physical environment impacts on social cohesion and raise
awareness of this knowledge.
Require local authorities and planning bodies to review the
existing environment, identifying obstacles to social cohesion
and take steps to remove those obstacles or minimise their
negative impact.
Establish a system to review all future planning decisions to
ensure that they include features to encourage social cohesion
and remove proposals whose execution would be harmful to
social cohesion.
Establish housing policies that encourage mixed communities,
including equitable policies in respect to obtaining housing.ハ
VII. Ensure an education system that offers equal opportunity for
developing the knowledge, skills, capacities and networks necessary
for children to become productive, engaged members of society and
that demonstrates a commitment to a shared society and educates
children to understand and respect others
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Evaluate educational establishments to assess to what extent
they give a message of respect for difference and diversity and
to what extent they encourage division and prejudice.
Where schools do not reflect the range of identities in the
community, create programmes of exchange between schools to
create opportunities for young people to meet and learn about
each other.
Introduce a curriculum on pluralism, diversity and mutual
understanding to be implemented in all schools as a full subject,
including assessment. This would include developing an
understanding of the benefits of social cohesion as a national
vision and how individual behaviour can promote or damage
good community relations
X. Take steps to reduce tensions and hostility between
communities and ensure members of all communities are
protected from abuse, intimidation and violence
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Promote public awareness of the damage to individuals and the whole society as a result of
intercommunity conflict and encourage the community to be vigilant in identifying and
challenging situations that might lead to tension.
Establish mechanisms at local community levels to improve communication among leaders
from each community and equip them with the resources and skills to be able to neutralize
and resolve critical situations before they escalate.
Ensure the police service is equipped with the necessary powers to deal with those who
promote, exacerbate or manipulate racial or ethnic tensions.
Ensure officers of the police service are trained to police divided communities sensitively
taking account of the customs and values of minority groups, and to recognise the value of
working with local community leaders.
Develop early warning systems to monitor inter-community relations and identify where
preventive action is required.
DEBATES….mediation..
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‘IMPARTIALITY’ ‘NEUTRALITY’
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‘CO-PARTIAL’ ‘INCLUSIVE’
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ASYMMETRICAL CONFLICTS
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‘ADVOCACY’ VERSUS ‘CR/ADR’
Peace versus Conflict : Tactics
‘Peace”
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Change Persons
Mindfulness
Inner Peace/Meditation
‘Be the Change’, ‘Walk the Talk’
Demonstrations
Pacifism
Peace Education
Civil disobedience
Want a ‘Peace’ ministry
Often will not work with military
Opposition to power/government
‘Conflict’
Change Contexts/Institutions
Applied /comparative studies
Analysis. Strategic plans
Law, Politics, Mediation.
Evaluation.
Change behavior
Policy, Graduate studies
Skeptical about its remit.
Practical/pragmatic strategies
Will work with military
Work with power as insider
‘Peace’ work
v
‘Conflict’ work
Below are caricatures – both terminology and activities often overlap
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Values:
Emphasizes Personal values.
Ideological approach
Non-violence as principle
Values Important
Emphasizes Effectiveness
Evidence based Approach
Uses non-violence as tactic.
Research/skills important
Vocabulary
Culture of peace, love
spirit, children, doves
compassionate listening
vision, spirit, prayer
Strategy, leverage, power
Context analysis, structural
conflict dynamics, policy
Leverage, tools/skill set
Career Relationship
Personal/Social Activism
Professional
DEBATES..
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Transactional versus transformational political leadership - how to develop
it ?
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‘Post Conflict’ - Peace versus Justice
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Cultural differences in dealing with conflict.
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How do we evaluate our work ?
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3 D’s Defense, Diplomacy, Development - the balance.
Organizations now mainstreaming Coex
work within their institutions.
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United States State Department: Office of the Coordinator for
Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS).
USAID Office of Conflict Management /Mitigation (CMM) within
Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance
UNDESA: Capacity building in conflict management
UNDP : Crisis Prevention & Recovery
UNDPA: 150 new staff.
United Nations Peace-building Commission /Peacebuilding Fund
UK Government Post Conflict Stabilisation Unit) MOD
U.K. Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit
Conflict Humanitarian and Development Unit.(DFID)
UK Global Conflict Prevention Pools. (FCA)
UN Compact: Business and Conflict.
Contd.
Aid/Development Oxfam, CARE, Mercy Corps, World Vision,
Action Aid, CAFOD,etc.
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OAS Program for Promotion of Dialogue and Conflict Resolution
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The African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI)
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EU: Crisis Management and Conflict Prevention Unit. (100
Mediators)
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World Bank Fragile and Conflict affected Countries.
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OSCE: Conflict Prevention Centre (CPC)
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Swedish Min Foreign Affairs, Secretariat for Conflict Prevention
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Swiss Government unit for mediation.
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Internal units within national governments dealing with issues of
equality diversity and interdependence – 44.
AND…..
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UNDESA - MDG for Coexistence work ?
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WHAT OUR GRADUATE STUDENTS ARE DOING
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CAFOD Conflict Program Manager for East Africa
Director Civic Education for National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (NURC) in
Rwanda
Protection Officer for the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, Pristina Kosovo
Conflict Program Manager, United States Agency for International Development, West
Africa
Research Associate at ICRD International Center for Religion & Diplomacy
Operations Officer of the Situation Center , European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo
(EULEX)
International Organization for Migration
Mediation Training Officer Massachusetts Office of Dispute Resolution and Public
Collaboration
Second Secretary of the Security Policy Department, Latvia
Arms Decommissioning Consultant
Founder of a non-profit company Leaders of Tomorrow, with Ministry of Trade & Industry in
Jordan
Completed PhD Harvard, Doctor of Design Post Doctoral work at Cornell
University Faculty at the College of William and Mary
Project Manager for Creators of Peace
Assistant Director for the Detroit Chapter of the American Jewish Committee.
Policy Analyst with the Reut Institute Conflict Management Consultant for the Jerusalem
WHAT OUR GRADUATE STUDENTS ARE DOING
contd.
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Facilitator at Soliya
Manager for New Program Development, National Council on Economic Education
Deputy Team Leader at Internews Europe
Senior Media Specialist at AED
The Chief of Party (COP) for the a USAID-funded Darfur Community Strengthening Project
(DCSP)
Program Director of EastWest Institute/Institute for Stability and Development, Serbia
Strategy Desk for the Israeli Government
Women's Program Coordinator at the Wome’s Violence Center, Kazakhstan
Executive Director Nashville Peace & Justice Center
International Development Enterprises, Winrock International (WI) Team Leader for the
USAID - ACDI/VOCA funded case study exploring value chain development for conflictaffected environments.
Independent advisor to e.g. : PACT-Sudan, Impact assessment of the USAID-funded UJYALO
Project CARE UK/International
The World Conference of Religions for Peace Consultant to the Cohen Centre in France
Consultant with Turkish - Armenian Dialogues, a joint initiative of The Harvard
WHAT OUR GRADUATE STUDENTS ARE DOING
contd.
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Program Officer, Search for Common Ground in Israel
Adjunct lecturer at Tufts
Director of Training and Technical Assistance, Institute for Responsive Education
Consultant/Field Associate, CDA Collaborative Learning Project,
Civic Education Officer at the Office of the Ombudsman, Malawai Government
Senior Program Officer working with GTZ Forum for Dialogue and Peace
Chief Executive of Samerth Trust
Advisor for the West India Program of the Paul Hamlyn Foundation, UK
Director of Delegation Leaders Program for Israel Jerusalem, Seeds for Peace in
Jerusalem
Program Officer at the Eurasia Foundation of Central Asia.
Lecturer in Coexistence work, Peshwar.
SID Hon COEX alumni ie. SID students who have taken Coex core courses.
Conflict Program Analyst, UNDP Gaza
Conflict Program Manager, Oxfam, Sudan region
Head of UNDP Threat and Risk Mapping and Analysis Unit for Darfur
Program officer for WANEP (West African Network for Peacebuilding.)
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