A RAFT is a tool that helps you organize a writing piece. A RAFT
has 4 parts: ROLE, AUDIENCE, FORMAT, and TOPIC. Each
piece tells you what and how to write. When you get a writing
prompt a RAFT can help you organize your thoughts.
ROLE= WHO are you writing as? Yourself? A historical person?
AUDIENCE= who are you writing TO? A classmate? A teacher?
FORMAT= what TYPE of writing are you doing? Is it a letter? An
TOPIC: what are you writing ABOUT?
To help you become familiar with a RAFT, as you go through this
history advisory, you will be asked to write a RAFT for each
piece of historical literature that you read.
State the key differences
between Athenian,
or direct democracy,
and representative democracy
Background on Pericles, from Discovering Our Past: Ancient
Civilizations, pg 361
Pericles (c. 495-429 BC) was born just outside
Athens to a wealthy and powerful family. He
received his education from philosophers. As a
young man, he was known for his skill with
words. Later, when he became a political
leader, he strongly supported democracy.
Although he was from a wealthy family himself, he believed
that citizenship should not be limited to the wealthy and
powerful. He made changes to take power from the few
and give it to the many. However, in describing Pericles’
rule over Athens, Greek Historian Thucydides wrote “In the
name of democracy, but in the rule of one man.
The “Age of Pericles” was Athen’s Golden Age, and the city
blossomed under his leadership. Pericles wanted Athens to be a
model for the world. He made it a centerpiece of art, philosophy
and democracy.
Pericles’ goal was to make
Athens a city the Greeks
could be proud of. He hired
hundreds of workers to
construct public buildings in
Athens. The most well known
is the Parthenon. Based on
the value of money today,
it cost about $3 billion to build. Workers hauled
20,000 tons of marble from a nearby mountain and
spent almost 15 years completing it.
Excerpt from Pericles’ Funeral Oration as recorded by Thucydides, given
during the Peloponnesian War between Athens & Sparta. In it, Pericles
describes democracy, the importance of the individual and citizenship.
“Our constitution is called a democracy
because power is in the hands not of a
minority, but of the whole people. When
it is a question of settling disputes,
everyone is equal before the law; when
it is a question of putting one person
before another in positions of public
responsibility, what counts is not
membership of a particular class, but the
actual ability which the man possesses.
No one… is kept [out of the government]
because of poverty. And, just as our
political life is free and open, so is our
day-to-day life in our relations with each
Athenian Democracy
Type of Democracy
Right to vote
Citizen Involvement
Direct: people gather at
mass meetings to
decide government
ONLY adult males born
in Athens
Proposed by the council,
must be approved by a
majority in the assembly
Citizens with voting
rights can vote for or
against any law
ROLE: Athenian Citizen
AUDIENCE: Pericles’ family
FORMAT: Sympathy Card
TOPIC: Your appreciation for
Pericles’ leadership of Athens. Tell
his family what you, as a citizen of
Athens, will do to actively
contribute to the Athenian lifestyle
he established(i.e. art, public
service, etc.)
Describe the origins and
significance of Judaism as
the first monotheistic
religion based on the
concept of one God who
sets down moral laws for
What are the Ten Commandments?
Discovering Our Past: Ancient Civilizations, Pg: 202-203
On their way back to Canaan, the
Israelites had to travel through the
Sinai desert. The Bible says that
during this journey, Moses went to
the top of Mount Sinai. There he
received laws from God. These laws
were known as the Torah. They
later became a part of the Hebrew
Bible. The Torah described a
covenant, or agreement, with God.
In the agreement, God promised to
return the Israelites to Canaan if
they followed his laws.
The Torah explained what God considered to be right and
wrong. The most important part of the Torah is the Ten
Commandments… [They] told the Israelites to be loyal only to
God, whose name was never to be misused. They must never
worship any other gods or images. The belief that there
should be only one God became the foundation of both
Christianity and Islam.
The Ten Commandments helped
shape the basic moral laws of many
nations. The Tem Commandments
told people not to steal, murder, or
tell lies about others. They told
people to avoid jealousy and to
honor their parents. The Ten
Commandments also helped
develop a belief that laws should
apply to everyone equally.
The Ten Commandments
According to the Bible, Moses received the Ten Commandments and other laws from
God on Mount Sinai. Moses and the other Israelites promised to follow these laws:
1. Do not worship any God except me.
2. Do not…bow down and worship idols.
3. Do not misuse my name.
4. Remember that the Sabbath Day belongs to me.
5. Respect your father and your mother.
6. Do not murder.
7. Be faithful in marriage.
8. Do not steal.
9. Do not tell lies about others.
10. Do not want anything that belongs to someone else
-From Exodus Chapter 20, Verses 3-17
ROLE: FMS Students
AUDIENCE: Incoming 6th Graders
FORMAT: Top Ten Commandments
TOPIC: How to make a contribution
to FMS (i.e. avoid referrals, help
others, make friends, be a role
model, etc.)
Discuss the geographic
borders of the Roman Empire
at its height, and the factors
that threatened its territorial
Rome Expands
While Rome developed its
government, it also faced challenges
abroad. The Romans had completed
their conquest of Italy. However, they
now faced a powerful rival in
Mediterranean area. The enemy was
the state of Carthage on the coast of
North Africa. It had been founded
around 800 BC by the Phoenicians. As
you learned earlier, the Phoenicians
were sea traders from the middle east.
Carthage ruled a great trading empire that included parts of
northern Africa and southern Europe. By controlling the
movements of goods in this region, Carthage made itself
the largest and richest city in the Mediterranean.
The First Punic War
Both Carthage and Rome wanted to control the island of Sicily. In 264
BC the dispute led to war. The war that began in 263 BC is called the
First Punic War. Punicus is the Latin word for “Phoenician.” The war
started when the Romans sent an army to Sicily to prevent a
Carthaginian takeover. The Carthaginians who already had colonies on
the island, were determined to stop this invasion.
Up until then, the Romans had
fought their wars on land. They
soon realized they could not
defeat a sea power like
Carthage without a navy. They
quickly built a large fleet of
ships and confronted their
enemy at sea. The war
dragged on for more than
twenty years. Finally in 241 BC, Rome crushed Carthage’s navy off the
coast of Sicily. Carthage was forced to leave Sicily and pay a huge fine
to the Romans. The island then came under Roman rule.
The Second Punic War
To make up for its loss of Sicily Carthage expanded its
empire into southern Spain. Roman leaders were not
happy about Carthage gaining land near Rome’s
northern border. They helped the people living in
Spain rebel against Carthage. Of course, Carthaginians
were angry. To punish Rome, Carthage sent its greatest general,
Hannibal to attack Rome in 218 BC. This started the Second Punic
Hannibal’s strategy was to take the fighting into Italy itself. To
do this, Hannibal gathered an army of about 46,000 men, many
horses and 37 elephants. He landed his forces in Spain and
then marched east to attack Italy. Even before reaching Italy,
Hannibal’s forces suffered severe losses crossing the steep, snowy
Alps into Italy. The brutal cold, gnawing hunger, and attack by mountain
tribes killed almost half of the soldiers and most of elephants. The
remaining army, however, was still a powerful fighting force when it
reached Italy.
The Romans suffered at severe loss in 216 BC at the Battle of
Cannae in southern Italy. Even though Hannibal’s army was
outnumbered, it overpowered the Roman force and began
raiding much of Italy.
The Romans, however, raised another arm. In
202 BC, a Roman force led by a general named
Scipio invaded Carthage. Almost all of
Carthage’s troops were with Hannibal. Scipio’s
invasion forced Hannibal to head home to
defend his city.
At the Battle of Zama, Scipio’s troops defeated the
Carthaginians. Carthage gave up Spain to Rome. It also had
to give up its navy and pay a large fine. Rome now ruled the
western Mediterranean.
The Punic Wars, 264-146 BC
• ROLE: Tour coordinator
• AUDIENCE: Wealthy Romans
celebrating the victory over Carthage
• FORMAT: Cruise itinerary
• TOPIC: Plan a 4 day cruise with stops
in the newly acquired lands from
Carthage, with specific activities to do
in each of the locations. Suggested
stops: Sicily, North Africa, Southern
Spain, Sardinia, Corsica, Rome
Describe the values,
social customs, and traditions
prescribed by the lord-vassal
system consisting of shogun,
daimyo and samurai and the
lasting influence of the warrior
code in the twentieth century
Who Were the Samurai?
To protect their lands and enforce the law,
nobles formed private armies. To create their
armies, they gave land to the warriors
agreed to fight for them. These warriors
became known as samurai.
In battle, samurai fought on horseback with swords, daggers,
and bows and arrows. They wore armor made of leather or
steel scales laced together with silk cords. Their helmets had
horns or crests, and they wore masks designed to be terrifying.
The word samurai means “to serve.” The samurai lived by a
strict code of conduct. It was called Bushido, or “the way of the
warrior.” This code demanded that a samurai be devoted to his
master as well as courageous, loyal and honorable. Samurai
were not supposed to care for wealth. They regarded
merchants as lacking in honor.
Pledged to these principles, a samurai would
rather die in battle than betray his lord. He also
did not want to suffer the dishonor of being
captured in battle. The district sense of loyalty
that set apart the samurai continued into modern
times. During World War II, many Japanese
soldiers fought to the death rather than accept
defeat or capture. Since that conflict, the Japanese have turned
away from the military beliefs of the samurai.
Bushido Code This passage describes the samurai’s bushido
“It is further good fortune if…[a servant] had wisdom and talent
and can use them appropriately. But even a person who is good
for nothing…will be a reliable retainer only if he has the
determination to think earnestly of [respect and admire] his
master. Having only wisdom and talent is the lowest tier of
usefulness.” –from Yamamoto Tsunetomo,
Hagakure: The Book of the Samurai
ROLE: Japanese nobles & landowners
AUDIENCE: young, patriotic Japanese
FORMAT: My Space Bulletin
TOPIC: Create a recruitment
announcement for Samurai for your
estate. Include specific expectations for
conduct and character traits.
Study the locations, landforms
and climates of Mexico, Central
America and South America and
their effects on Mayan, Aztec,
and Incan economies, trade and
development of urban societies
1.Which civilization occupied
the Yucatan Peninsula?
2. Which cities developed
near Lake Texcoco? What
do these cities suggest
about the area?
Lake Texcoco
1.Describe the
location of the
2.Estimate in km
the length of the
Inca Empire
ROLE: European Explorer
AUDIENCE: European rulers
FORMAT: Letter of advice
TOPIC: Give the ruler your
recommendation on which
Meso American civilization has the
best location to build a summer
Describe how democratic thought
and institutions were influenced by
enlightenment thinkers (e.g. John
Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu,
Founding Fathers)
John Locke (1632-1704)
John Locke was born in Somerset, England. His
father was a lawyer but also served as a cavalry
soldier. Using his military connections, he
arranged for this son John to get a good
education. Locke studied classical languages,
grammar, philosophy and geometry at Oxford
University. To Locke, the courses were not
exciting- so he turned to his true interestsscience and medicine.
After graduating, Locke went to work for governments in
Europe. He continued to study science and philosophy. He
particularly liked the work of Descartes. In 1671 Locke began
recording his own ideas about how people know things.
Nineteen years later, he published his ideas in An Essay
Concerning Human Understanding. In this book, Locke argued that
people’s minds are blank when they are born and that society
shapes what people think and believe. This idea meant that if
people could make society better, it would also make people better.
Locke used natural law to affirm basic democratic ideas such as
citizens’ rights and the need for governments to be answerable to
the people.
In 1683 Locke fled to Holland after the
English government began to think that his
political ideas were dangerous. During that
time, he was declared a traitor and was not
able to return until after the Glorious
Revolution of 1688. It was at that time that he
wrote his famous Two Treatises of
Government, which states, “Law is not to abolish or restrain, but
to preserve and enlarge freedom.”
–John Locke, Two Treatises of Government
Locke argues against the absolute rule of one person. He
stated that government should be based on natural law. This
law, said Locke, gave all people from their birth certain natural
rights. Among them were the [right to life, liberty and to own
property.] Locke believed that the purpose of government is to
protect these rights. All governments, he said, were based on
a social contract, or an agreement between rulers and the
people. If a ruler took away the people’s rights, the people had
the right to revolt and set up a new government.
ROLE: Teen living in a democracy
AUDIENCE: Teen living under a
FORMAT: Friendly letter
TOPIC: Tell your friend why living in a
democracy is better than living
in a dictatorship.
STANDARD 8.3.4: Understand how
the conflict between Thomas
Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton
resulted in the emergence of two
political parties (e.g. view of foreign
policy, Alien & Sedition Acts,
economic policy, National Bank,
funding and assumption of the
revolutionary debt.)
Like Hamilton and Jefferson, Congress and the nation at
large also had differences. By the mid-1790’s, two distinct
political parties had taken shape. The name Federalist had
first described someone who supported and ratified the
Constitution. By the 1790’s, the word was applied to the
group of people who supported the policies of the
Washington administration.
The followers of Jefferson and Madison called their party the Republicans, or
the Democratic-Republicans. The Republicans wanted to limit government.
They feared that a strong government would endanger people’s
liberties…Republican policies appealed to farmers and urban workers,
especially in the Middle Atlantic states and the South.
One difference between Federalists and Republicans concerned the basis of
government power. In the [Federalist] view, the federal government had
implied powers, powers that were not directly stated in the Constitution.
Hamilton used the idea of implied powers to justify a national bank. He
argued that the Constitution gave Congress the power to issue money and
regulate trade, and a national bank would clearly help the government carry
out those responsibilities. Therefore, he believed that creating a bank was
within the constitutional power of Congress.
Jefferson and Madison, however, believed in a strict
interpretation of the Constitution. They accepted the idea of
implied powers, but in a much more limited sense than
Hamilton did. They believed that implied powers are those
powers that are “absolutely necessary” for Congress to
exercise its stated powers.
The differences between the parties, however, went even deeper. Both
parties had sharply differing views on the role ordinary people should play in
government. Federalists supported representative government, in which
elected officials ruled in the people’s name. They did not believe that it was
wise to let the public become too involved in politics. Public office, Federalists
thought, should be held by honest and educated men who own property and
would protect everyone’s rights. Hamilton said, “The people are turbulent and
changing…They seldom judge or determine right.”
– Alexander Hamilton, Speech on the Constitutional Convention
In contrast, the Republicans feared a strong central government controlled by
a few people. The Republicans believed that liberty would be safe only if
ordinary people participated in government. As Jefferson explained, “I am not
among those who fear the people. They, and not the rich, are our
dependence [what we depend on] for continued freedom.”
– Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Samuel Kercheval
Leader: Hamilton
Leader: Jefferson
•Rule by the wealthy class
•Rule by the people
•Strong Federal government
•Strong state government
•Emphasis on manufacturing
•Emphasis on agriculture
•Loose interpretation of the
•Strict interpretation of the
•British alliance
•French alliance
•National Bank
•State banks
•Protective tariffs
•Free trade
ROLE: farmer
AUDIENCE: Other small farmers, who
share your concerns
FORMAT: Persuasive email listing at
least two reasons
TOPIC: Tell your fellow farmers who
they should vote for in the
upcoming election between
Hamilton & Jefferson.
STANDARD 8.4.2: Explain the
policy significance of famous
speeches (e.g. Washington’s
Farewell Address, Jefferson’s
1801 Inaugural Address, John
Q. Adams Fourth of July 1821
In September 1796, after serving two four-year terms as
president, Washington announced he would not seek a
third term. By choosing to serve only two terms,
Washington had set a precedent that later presidents
would follow. Plagued with a variety of ailments, the 64year old president looked forward to retirement. He also
felt troubled over the divisions that had developed in
American politics and with what he considered a grace
danger to the new nation- the growth of political parties.
Washington’s “Farewell Address” was published in a Philadelphia
newspaper. In it he attacked the evils of political parties and
entanglement in foreign affairs. Washington’s “Farewell Address”
included his explanation for not seeking a third term as president. Even
more important, he gave the young republic his best advice on the
conduct of politics and foreign affairs. He urged citizens to:
“Observe good faith and justice toward all nations…Tis our policy to
steer clear of permanent alliances.” –George Washington
Excerpt from Washington’s “Farewell Address”
…In contemplating the causes which may disturb our
Union it occurs as a matter of serious concern that any
ground should have been furnished for characterizing
parties by geographical discriminations… No alliances,
however strict between the parts, can be an adequate
substitute. They must inevitably
experience the infractions and
interruptions which all alliances
in all times have experienced…
The great rule of conduct for us,
in regard to foreign nations is, in
extending our commercial relations
to have as little political connection
as possible…
ROLE: News Anchor
AUDIENCE: American citizens
FORMAT: “Breaking News” report
TOPIC: Pretend you are a news reporter on
the evening news and write a summary
of the keys points of Washington’s
“Farewell Address” that begins with
the sentence starter, “We interrupt
this program to bring you the
highlights from Washington’s
Farewell Address.” Include at least 2
points from Washington’s speech.
STANDARD 8.8.2: Describe the
purpose, challenges, and
economic incentives associated
with westward expansion,
including the concept of Manifest
Destiny and the territorial
acquisitions that spanned
numerous decades.
What is Manifest Destiny?
Many Americans thought their nation
had a special role to fulfill. In the
1800’s, many believed that the
United State’s mission was to occupy
the entire continent. In 1819, John
Quincy Adams expressed what many
Americans were thinking when he said
expansion to the Pacific was as
inevitable “as that the Mississippi should flow to the sea.”
In the 1800’s, newspaper editor John O’Sullivan
put the idea of a national mission in more specific
words. O’Sullivan declared it was America’s …
“Manifest Destiny to overspread and possess the
whole of the Continent which Providence has given us.” O’Sullivan
meant that the United States was clearly set apart for a special
purpose- to extend its boundaries all the way to the Pacific.
ROLE: Student
FORMAT: Acrostic poem to remember
key ideas
TOPIC: Manifest Destiny
On December 2, 1823
Needed to state our position
Realizing the U.S. ambition
Overruling European interests
Right to Rule
Europe warned to stay out!
In the Western Hemisphere

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