Today's Agenda Bellwork Announcements Questions Bellwork Review US Citizenship Test Group Assignments Lecture US Citizenship Test Lets Take Our First Test (No pressure, this is not for a grade, but merely for 'preassessment') :-) Principles of United States Government Students explain the fundamental principles and moral values of the American government as expressed in the Constitution and other essential documents of American democracy. Our Standards Today Standard 1.0: Culture 1.1 understand the influence of natural rights on American culture. Standard 5.0: History 5.1 understand historical and modern examples of the concepts of limited and unlimited governance. 5.2 understand specific historical documents and institutions which shaped the principles of the United States Constitution. 5.6 understand the balance between the protection of individual rights and the general welfare of all citizens. Group Assignment Time :-) We will choose our groups via a draft. We will draw for four group captains and they will take turns choosing their group. Standards Standard 1.0: Culture 1.1 understand the influence of natural rights on American culture. Standard 5.0: History 5.1 understand historical and modern examples of the concepts of limited and unlimited governance. 5.2 understand specific historical documents and institutions which shaped the principles of the United States Constitution. Leading European Political Thinkers John Locke (Group 1) Charles-Louis Montesquieu (Group 2) Niccolo Machiavelli (Group 3) Jean Jacques Rousseau (Group 4) William Blackstone (Group 1) Alexis de Tocqueville (Group 2) John Locke (Group 1) John Locke FRS, widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Wikipedia http://www.iep.utm.edu/locke/ http://www.johnlocke.org/ Charles-Louis Montesquieu (Group 2) Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Age of Enlightenment http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/montesquieu/ Niccolò Machiavelli (Group 3) Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/machiavelli.html Jean Jacques Rousseau (Group 4) Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th-century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought. http://www.iep.utm.edu/rousseau/ William Blackstone (Group 1) Sir William Blackstone KC SL was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century. He is most noted for writing the Commentaries on the Laws of England. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/blackstone.asp Alexis de Tocqueville (Group 2) Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville was a French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America and The Old Regime and the Revolution. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/DETOC/toc_indx.html Preamble of the Constitution (Group 3) We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html Standard 5.6 understand the balance between the protection of individual rights and the general welfare of all citizens. Balance of Public Good and Protection of Individual Rights As all the world now knows, Judge Shira Scheindlin has ruled that the New York City Police Department’s stop-and-frisk policy amounts to “a policy of indirect racial profiling” that violates the U.S. Constitution. But how did the she reach this conclusion? The answer turns out to be pretty interesting. It involves a number of statistical studies presented to the court by expert witnesses for the plaintiffs (a number of New Yorkers who claimed to have been stopped and frisked without cause) and the defense (the city of New York). August 13, 2013 “The Statistical Debate Behind the Stop-and-Frisk Verdict” Posted by John Cassidy, New Yorker http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/johncassidy/2013/08/scheindlinstop-and-frisk-verdict-new-york-statistical-debate.html What is “Stop and Frisk”? The situation in which a police officer who is suspicious of an individual detains the person and runs his hands lightly over the suspect's outer garments to determine if the person is carrying a concealed weapon. One of the most controversial police procedures is the stop and frisk search. This type of limited search occurs when police confront a suspicious person in an effort to prevent a crime from taking place. The police frisk (pat down) the person for weapons and question the person. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Stop+and+Frisk Is It Fair? David Floyd v City of New York “NYPD stops are significantly more frequent for Black and Hispanic citizens than for white citizens, after adjusting stop rates for the precinct crime rates, the racial composition and other social and economic factors predictive of police activity. These disparities are consistent across a set of alternate tests and assumptions. Blacks and Latinos are more likely to be stopped than Whites even in areas where there are low crime rates and where residential populations are racially heterogeneous or predominantly White.” http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/sto p_and_frisk/index.html http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/sto p_and_frisk/index.html Stop-and-Frisk Data In 2012, New Yorkers were stopped by the police 532,911 times 473,644 were totally innocent (89 percent). 284,229 were black (55 percent). 165,140 were Latino (32 percent). 50,366 were white (10 percent). http://www.nyclu.org/content/stop-and-frisk-data Pop Quiz!!!! A police precinct has 20 officers in its precinct, how many are assigned to a... a) Jimmy Buffett Concert? b) Ludracis Concert? c) Justin Bieber Concert? d) A Thomas the Fire Engine Show? e) The Ice Capades? Imagine This.... People complain about flying today, being searched at the airport. Imagine Living Like That Every Day of Your Life..... Influence of Ancient Greece and Rome In the year 507 B.C., the Athenian leader Cleisthenes introduced a system of political reforms that he called demokratia, or “rule by the people.” Although this Athenian democracy would survive for only two centuries, Cleisthenes’ invention was one of ancient Greece’s most enduring contributions to the modern worl http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece-democracy At about the same time that popular government was introduced in Greece, it also appeared on the Italian Peninsula in the city of Rome. The Romans called their system a rēspūblica, or republic, from the Latin rēs, meaning thing or affair, and pūblicus or pūblica, meaning public—thus, a republic was the thing that belonged to the Roman people, the populus romanus. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/157129/democracy/233830/T he-Roman-Republic Founding Fathers (Group 4) George Washington James Madison Thomas Jefferson John Adams Benjamin Franklin Alexander Hamilton George Mason Gouverneur Morris Roger Sherman James Wilson Edmund Randolph http://www.constitutionfacts.com/us-founding-fathers/aboutthe-founding-fathers/ Other Readings “The Social Contract” by Jean Jacques Rousseau (Group 1) “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”, Martin Luther King, Jr. (Group 2) “The Ballot or the Bullet” speech, Malcolm X (Group 3) Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom, 1786 (Group 4) Primary Readings Magna Carta (Group 1) Mayflower Compact (Group 2) English Bill of Rights (Group 3) Two Treatises of Civil Government, John Locke (Group 4) Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson (Group 1) The Federalist Papers – 1, 9, 10, 39, 51, 78 (Group 2) U.S. Constitution (Group 3) Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville (Group 4) “The Social Contract” Of The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right (Du contrat social ou Principes du droit politique) (1762) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way in which to set up a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754). http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/RouSoci.html Magna Carta Magna Carta, also called Magna Carta Libertatum or The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, is an Angevin charter originally issued in Latin in the year 1215 http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/magna_carta/ Mayflower Compact The "Mayflower Compact" was signed on 11 November 1620 onboard the Mayflower shortly after she came to anchor off Provincetown Harbor. The Pilgrims had obtained permission from English authorities to settle in Virginia, whose northern border at the time extended up to what is now New York. http://mayflowerhistory.com/mayflower-compact/ English Bill of Rights The English Bill of Rights is an English precursor of the Constitution, along with the Magna Carta and the Petition of Right. The English Bill of Rights limited the power of the English sovereign, and was written as an act of Parliament. As part of what is called the “Glorious Revolution,” the King and Queen William and Mary of Orange accepted the English Bill of Rights as a condition of their rule. http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educatorresources/americapedia/americapedia-documents/english-bill-ofrights/ Two Treatises of Civil Government The Two Treatises of Government is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/7370/old/trgov10h.htm Declaration of Independence On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia in the Pennsylvania State House (now Independence Hall), approved the Declaration of Independence, severing the colonies' ties to the British Crown. http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/DeclarInd.html Federalist Papers Beginning on October 27, 1787 the Federalist Papers were first published in the New York press under the signature of "Publius". These papers are generally considered to be one of the most important contributions to political thought made in America. The essays appeared in bookform in 1788, with an introduction by Hamilton. Subsequently they were printed in many editions and translated to several languages. The pseudonym "Publius" was used by three man: Jay, Madison and Hamilton. Jay was responsible for only a few of the 85 articles. The papers were meant to be influential in the campaign for the adoption of the Constitution by New York State. But the authors not only discussed the issues of the constitution, but also many general problems of politics. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1786-1800/the-federalist-papers/ Constitution We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html Democracy In America De la démocratie en Amérique is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville. Its title translates as On Democracy in America, but English translations are usually entitled simply Democracy in America http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/toqueville/dem-in-america1.pdf “Letter from Birmingham Jail” The Letter from Birmingham Jail is an open letter written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther King, Jr. The letter defends the strategy of nonviolent resistance to racism, arguing that people have a moral responsibility to break unjust laws. http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2013/04/martinluther-kings-letter-from-birmingham-jail/274668/ “The Ballot or the Bullet” “Mr. Moderator, Brother Lomax, brothers and sisters, friends and enemies: I just can't believe everyone in here is a friend, and I don't want to leave anybody out. The question tonight, as I understand it, is "The Negro Revolt, and Where Do We Go From Here?" or What Next?" In my little humble way of understanding it, it points toward either the ballot or the bullet.” … Malcolm X http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/speeches/malcolm_x_ballot.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0TKB3IYgEOg Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom “... Jefferson wanted to be remembered for, besides writing the Declaration of Independence, was writing the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom and founding the University of Virginia, …” http://www.vahistorical.org/collections-andresources/virginia-history-explorer/thomasjefferson?legacy=true Our Standards Today Standard 1.0: Culture 1.1 understand the influence of natural rights on American culture. Standard 5.0: History 5.1 understand historical and modern examples of the concepts of limited and unlimited governance. 5.2 understand specific historical documents and institutions which shaped the principles of the United States Constitution. 5.6 understand the balance between the protection of individual rights and the general welfare of all citizens. Assessment Who was John Locke? What is a Social Contract? Name three (3) of our country's founding fathers. Go to Your Groups We will now go to our groups and define assignments for each member of the group.