7th Grade History Review
Glory/Fall of Rome
Medieval Islam
Medieval West Africa
Medieval China
Medieval Japan
Medieval Europe
Renaissance
Reformation
Scientific Revolution
Mesoamerican Civilization
The Enlightenment
Achievements of Rome
to Fall of Rome
Aqueducts
coins
Concrete
Roads
Architecture
City Planning
Latin Language
Military Structure
Christianity spread
Fall of Rome
Internal Cause
Vast size and Widespread corruption
•
Lack of fixed Succession
•
Under Diocletian, divided into Tetrarchy (rule by
4)-this hurt western half-lacked strong leadership
Other Causes and External Influence




Economical-Heavy taxes; German
invasions hurt tax collection.
Inflation-trade or commerce declined
and money became worthless.
Agriculture- land could not support
civilization.
Social-Civic pride decayed lack of
loyalty to Rome; mixed cultures
because of barbarian immigration
Theodosius-Divides Empire-395
Byzantium renamed by Constantine in
A.D. 330-Constantinople;now
Istanbul,Turkey
became center of Byzantine Empire
Rome Fall to Odacer &
Ostrogoths in 476 A. D.
Justinian
Byzantine Empire Develops
Theodora
New Legal SystemJustinian Code
(4652 Laws)
Rebuilt Hagia
Sophia
Mosaics
Regained lost land
from Persians
Trade Thrives
Byzantine Empire
1453 conquered by
Seljuk Turks
Nika Revolt
Confucianism
Daoism
Buddhism
Medieval China’s Dynasties
Dynasty
Sui
People
Wen Di
581-618
Tang
Li Shi Min
618-907
Song
960-1279
Taizu
Achievements
Grand Canal
Rebuilding
of
Great Wall
Literature
Poetry
Paper
Largest extent of
area ruled by any
empire
Poetry
Porcelain
Technology
Rice strain doubles
output
Government
Bureaucracy
appointed
official head depts..
Civil Service
Exams
Scholar Class
Equal- field system
Silk Road
Meritocracy
Money Economy
Merchant Class &
Farmers improve
status
Dynasty
Founding
Yuan Kublai Khan
Mongols
1271-1368
Ming
Brilliant
1368-1644
Hong Wu(Tai Zu)
Peasant general
Achievements
Government
Link to World
Civil Service by
Trade
Foreigners
Marco Polo
Foreign Dynasty Tax-Free Mongols
Gun Powder
Wealth depleted
Chinese rebelled
Public Works
renewalextensive
rebuilding
Civil Service Exam
Reestablish
Disposed of Prime
Minister
Zheng He-made
7 voyages
Despotic Rule
All exploration
stopped
Heavy tax =
Peasant Rebellion
Medieval Japan
Hein Period 794-1185-First
Novel-Fujiwara
Kamakura 1192-1333-Rise of
the Shoguns and Feudalism
Ashikaga Shogunate 1338-1573
Azuchi-Momoyama 1573-1603
Edo (Tokugawa Shogunate)
1603-1868-Isolation
Prince Shotoku
Japan
3000 islands-600 inhabited
4 Main Islands:
Honshu, Kyushu,
Shikoku, and Hokkaido
Mountain terrain creates
political and natural
barriers, and makes it
difficult to grow food
Shinto Religion
Kabuki Theater
Murasaki
Shikibu
Prince Shikoku
Tea Ceremony
Zen Buddhism
Kabuki Theater
Tea Ceremony
Murasaki Shikibu's
Tale of Genji-1st
novel (ca. 1002)
Imperial Court
Haiku
Samurai
Shoguns
Fashion
Bushido
Isolation
Zen Garden
•Daimyo/Shogun/Samurai
•The Samurai Warrior
follows Bushido=“Way of
Warrior”
•Sword-symbolic and prized
weapon
Medieval Africa
Masks/Dances
Griots-Oral Storytelling
Arab historians-Ibn Battuta
Gold and Salt equal commodities
Sundiata-”The Lion King”
Mansa Musa
Islam spreads
Slave trade prevalent
Mosques Built
Timbuktu
Niger and Senegal Rivers
Sahel and Sahara Deserts
Ghana,
Mali, and
Songhai
Medieval Islam
Ka’bah
Quraysh
Oasis
Monotheism
Muhammad-founder
Mecca-birthplace
Medina
Five Pillars of Islam
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Qur’an-sacred book
Muslims-followers
Arabian Peninsula
Four Rightly Guided Caliphs
Shiites and Sunnis
Abbasids and Umayyads
Charlemagne
European
Feudal Society
William the
Conqueror
The Battle of Hastings-1066
Bayeaux Tapestry
THE DOMESDAY BOOK
Carolingian Dynasty
King of Franks
Holy Roman Emperor800
Medieval Government
Henry II
&
Thomas
Becket
Habeas Corpus
Feudalism-William I
Magna Carta-King John
Parliament-Edward I
Independent JudiciaryHenry II
Edward I
Magna Carta
Medieval Society: Manors/Towns
Catholic Church
Political, Intellectual, and Aesthetic Institution
Founding of
Universities
Religious Orders
Patrons of Art &
Architecture
Preservation of Latin
Scribes and
Illuminations
Monasteries
Thomas Aquinas, Theologian – “Natural Law”
The Church’s Power
Papacy vs. Monarchy
Gregory VII
Henry IV
“Henry, king not through usurpation but through the holy
ordination of God, to Hildebrand, at present not pope but false
monk. Such greeting as this hast thou merited through thy
disturbances, inasmuch as there is no grade in the church which
thou has omitted to make a partaker not of honor but of
confusion, not of benediction but of malediction.”
1095-Pope Urban II calls
Pope’s motives-reunite Western and
Eastern Christian under his rule; control of
European knight who were fighting with
each other
Knight’s motives-granted land they
conquered (only first-born could inherit
feudal lands)
Peasant’s motives-Promise of
immediate salvation; free from bonds of
feudal lord; adventure
1096-1099 1st Crusade- (People’s
Crusade )Crusader States or outpost
kingdoms, established with the capture of
Jerusalem, Nicaea, Edessa, Acre
1147-1149 2nd Crusade- (Louis VII of
France and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Conrad III
of Germany)-Turks recapture Edessa
1189-1192 3rd Crusade (Crusade of
Kings)- Richard the Lion-heart, Emperor
Frederick I of Germany, Philip II of France
1202-1204 4th Crusade- “Sack of
Constantinople”
The Crusades
The Black Plague
The Renaissance, Scientific
Revolution, and the Reformation
Humanism and Printing Press
Copernicus
Printing Press
“Rebirth”
Humanism
Information Spreads
Advances in:
Literature, Art, Science,
Cartography, Anatomy,
Engineering, Mathematics
Church Reforms and Great
Schism
Inquisition
Reformation
Counter-Reformation
The Northern
Renaissance
William Shakespeare
Christopher Marlowe
Dante Alighieri
Ulrich Zwingli
John Wycliffe
Desiderius Erasmus
Martin Luther
John Calvin
William Tyndale
Sir Thomas MoreUtopia
Kepler
Isaac Newton
Johannes Gutenberg
Printing Press
Protestantism
Catholicism
Jesuits/Ignatius Loyola
Humanism
Individualism
Sir Francis Bacon
Scientific Method
Descartes
Scientific Rationalism
Elizabeth I
Henry VIII
Martin Behaim
Nicholas Copernicus
Heliocentric vs
Geocentric
Petrarch
Italian Renaissance
Republics
City-States
Patricians
Medici Family
Bankers
Merchants
Sforza
Leonardo da
Vinci
Michelangelo
Realism
Humanism
Louise Labe
Machiavelli
The Prince
Great Schism
Pope Leo X
Indulgences
Heretics
Ptolemy
Galileo Galilei
Petrarch
Boccaccio
Cervantes
Brunelleschi
Mercenaries
The Reformation
Political, Economic, Theological
Erasmus
Luther
Calvin
Pope Leo X
Questioning Church Authority
The Age of Exploration
Bartholomew Dias
Caravel, Astrolabe, Magnetic
Prince Henry the
Compass
Navigator
Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus
Marco Polo
Ferdinand Magellan
The Conquistadors
Hunt for Knowledge
Spice Trade in Asia
Spread Religion
New Ships less Danger
Jesuits to China
Bullion and Caravel
“…governments derive their power from the consent of the governed.”
Enlightenment and Age of Reason
John Locke
(govt. agreement
between people and
rule-govern fairly
Natural Rights-life,
liberty, and protection of
Property
Charles-Louis
Montesquieu
(limited power of
Monarch)
Jean Jacques
Rousseau
(contract between
govt. and people
could be cancelled
if not meeting
needs)
Principles of Magna Carta
embodied in English Bill of
Rights and Declaration of
Independence: Thomas
Jefferson influenced
Mesoamerican and Andean Civilization
Mexico, Central America, South America:
Mayan, Aztec, and Incan Civilization
Mayans
Aztecs
Incas
Spanish Conquest of Mesoamerica
Cortez conquers Aztecs
Reason for Conquests:
Disease brought disaster people
Took advantage of civil rebellion
Spanish weapons-superior
Different Beliefs and Cultural Rules
increased tensions and agreements
Pizarro conquers Incas
Mayas
Built highly developed
civilization of
farming-corn, squash,
and cotton
Noble class rule
Two calendars and
time calculation;1solar calendar with
365 days
Math system included
zero
Knowledge of
astronomy
Complex Writing
system of symbols, or
glyphs
Incas
Vertical Economy,
Terrace Farming
Developed the Quechua
language; no real writing
system
Developed a method of
counting and keeping
records using knots in
strings-census and taxes
Aztecs
Chinampas,”Floating
Gardens”-allowed
swampy ground to be
farmed; irrigation
channels
Calpullis-Settlements
Built Tenochtitlan
Class Structure: nobles
(hereditary) ,
Produced beautiful art- commoners, serfs( 1/3
weaving and metal
pop.), and slaves (war
works
captives, criminals)
Builders using stone and Temples, Pyramids, &
mortar; network of roads Codices: historical
Pizarro invaded during a accounts
time of civil war and
Beliefs: Fighting gods:
took Atahuallpa, the
Huitzilopochtli-sun/war
ruler, prisoner and killed god; Tlaloc-god of rain;
200-ft high pyramids
and elaborate temples; him; Spanish took over Tezcatlipoca-fate god
carved jade and pottery empire
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