Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)
What is PPAP?
•Production Part Approval Process
•Standard used to formally reduce risks prior
to product or service release, in a team oriented
manner using well established tools and techniques
•Initially developed by AIAG (Auto Industry Action
Group) in 1993 with input from the Big 3 - Ford,
Chrysler, and GM
•AIAG’s 4th edition effective June 1, 2006 is the most
recent version
•PPAP has now spread to many different industries
beyond automotive
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Purpose of PPAP
•Provide evidence that all customer engineering design
record and specification requirements are properly
understood by the organization
•To demonstrate that the manufacturing process has the
potential to produce product that consistently meets all
requirements during an actual production run at the
quoted production rate
PPAP manages change and ensures
product conformance!
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When is PPAP Required?
New part
Engineering change(s)
Tooling: transfer, replacement, refurbishment, or
additional
Correction of discrepancy
Tooling inactive > one year
Change to optional construction or material
Sub-supplier or material source change
Change in part processing
Parts produced at a new or additional location
PPAP is required with any significant
change to product or process!
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Benefits of PPAP Submissions
•Helps to maintain design integrity
•Identifies issues early for resolution
•Reduces warranty charges and prevents cost of poor
quality
•Assists with managing supplier changes
•Prevents use of unapproved and nonconforming parts
•Identifies suppliers that need more development
•Improves the overall quality of the product & customer
satisfaction
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Production Run
•PPAP data must be submitted from a production run
using:
Production equipment and tooling
Production employees
Production rate
Production process
All data reflects the actual production
process to be used at start-up!
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Run @ Rate
•The purpose of a Run @ Rate is to verify the supplier’s
manufacturing process is capable of producing
components that meet NCR’s quality requirements, at
quoted tooling capacity, for a specified period of time
•Verification of the Run @ Rate will be at the Supplier
Quality Engineer’s (SQE) discretion. The supplier will
be notified of the need to perform a Run @ Rate as
early in the process as possible.
•The number of components to be produced during the
Run @ Rate should be sufficient to demonstrate process
capability and will be predetermined by the SQE and
the supplier.
Factors such as product complexity, shelf life, storage, cost and
single shift vs. multiple shift operations will be taken into
consideration
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Official PPAP Requirements
1.
Design Records
2.
Authorized Engineering Change Documents
3.
Customer Engineering Approval, if required
4.
Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) applied in special situations
5.
Process Flow Diagram
6.
Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA)
7.
Control Plan
8.
Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)
9.
Dimensional Results
10. Records of Material / Performance Test Results
11. Initial Process Studies
12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
13. Appearance Approval Report (AAR)
14. Sample Production Parts
15. Master Sample
Now, let’s take a closer look
at NCR’s requirements
16. Checking Aids
17. Customer-Specific Requirements
18. Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
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NCR’s PPAP Requirements
1.
Design Records
2.
Authorized Engineering Change Documents
3.
Customer Engineering Approval, if required
4.
Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) applied in special situations
5.
Process Flow Diagram
6.
Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA)
7.
Control Plan
8.
Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)
9.
Dimensional Results
10. Records of Material / Performance Test Results
11. Initial Process Studies
12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
13. Appearance Approval Report (AAR)
14. Sample Production Parts
15. Master Sample
Supplier shall submit
these 12 items and
retain a copy of records
at appropriate locations
16. Checking Aids
17. Customer-Specific Requirements
18. Part Submission Warrant (PSW) – NCR calls this the “Production Warrant”
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NCR’s PPAP Requirements
1.
Design Records
2.
Authorized Engineering Change Documents
3.
Customer Engineering Approval, if required
4.
Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) applied in special situations
5.
Process Flow Diagram
6.
Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA)
7.
Control Plan
8.
Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)
9.
Dimensional Results
10. Records of Material / Performance Test Results
11. Initial Process Studies
12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
13. Appearance Approval Report (AAR)
14. Sample Production Parts
15. Master Sample
16. Checking Aids
Supplier shall retain
these 6 items at
appropriate locations,
and make readily
available upon request
17. Customer-Specific Requirements
18. Part Submission Warrant (PSW) – NCR calls this the “Production Warrant”
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PPAP Submission Levels
Level 1
Production Warrant and Appearance Approval
Report (if applicable) submitted to NCR
Level 2
Production Warrant, product samples, and
dimensional results submitted to NCR
Level 3
Production Warrant, product samples, and
complete supporting data submitted to NCR
Level 4
Production Warrant and other requirements
as defined by NCR
Level 5
Production Warrant, product samples and
complete supporting data (a review will be
conducted at the supplier's manufacturing
location)
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PPAP Submission Level Table
PPAP Levels for Submission & Retention
Submission Level
Requirement
1. Design Records of Saleable Product
a. For proprietary components/details
b. For all other components/details
2. Engineering Change Documents, if any
3. Customer Engineering approval, if required
4. Design FMEA
5. Process Flow Diagrams
6. Process FMEA
7. Dimensional Results
8. Material, Performance, Test Results
9. Initial Process Study
10. Measurement System Analysis Studies
11. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
12. Control Plan
13. Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
14. Appearance Approval Report, (AAR) if applicable
15. Bulk Material Requirements Checklist (for bulk
material only)
16. Sample Product
17. Master Sample
18. Checking Aids
19. Records of compliance with Customer-Specific
Requirements (DVP&R)
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
S
R
R
R
R
R
S
S
R
R
R
S
S
R
R
R
S
S
R
R
R
R
S
S
R
R
R
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
S
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
R
R
R
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
S
R
R
R
R
R
S
R
R
R
S
R
R
*
*
*
*
R
S
R
R
R
R
R
*
R
* = Supplier shall retain
at appropriate locations,
and submit to NCR upon
S = Supplier
request.
NCRshall
will
submit
to
NCR
&
retain
identify what is needed
a copy
of records or
for submission.
documentation items at
appropriate locations
R = Supplier shall retain
at appropriate locations
and make readily
available to NCR upon
request
S = The supplier shall submit to NCR and retain a copy of records or documentation items at appropriate locations.
R = The supplier shall retain at appropriate locations and make readily available to NCR upon request.
* = The supplier shall retain at appropriate locations, and submit to NCR upon request. NCR will identify what is
needed for submission.
PLEASE CONTACT YOUR SUPPLIER QUALITY ENGINEER WITH ANY QUESTIONS .
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Definition of Risk
•High Risk
Parts associated with multiple critical features, complex
design, or high end technology that is not yet established in
the general manufacturing environment
Supplier’s quality system and/or quality performance is not to
NCR satisfaction
•Medium Risk
Parts that have at least one critical feature
•Low Risk
Parts that have no critical features and can be manufactured
by any manufacturer in the commodity category
Supplier’s quality system and quality performance are
acceptable
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Submission Level Requirements
•New Parts
Level 2 is required for Low Risk Parts
Level 3 is required for Medium and High Risk Parts
•Part Changes
Level 3 is required for Parts produced at a new or
additional location
Supplier Quality Excellence will define the level required
for all other changes
NCR reserves the right to redefine the
submission level required
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PPAP Status
•Approved
The part meets all NCR requirements
Supplier is authorized to ship production quantities of the part
•Interim Approval
Permits shipment of part on a limited time or piece quantity basis
•Rejected
The part does not meet NCR requirements, based on the
production lot from which it was taken and/or accompanying
documentation
Production quantities may not be
shipped before NCR Approval
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Electronic Submission Requirements
•NCR requires that all PPAPs be submitted electronically
•Use of paper submission must have prior approval by the SQE
•Submission must be received on or prior to the PPAP due
date
•Review and Approval Process:
NCR will attempt to review and provide feedback within 2
business days
NCR requires all submissions to be
electronic
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NCR PPAP Playbook
•What is the NCR PPAP Playbook?
An Excel spreadsheet containing templates of the
documents suppliers are required to submit to NCR
•Why use the PPAP Playbook?
Simplifies the process for suppliers by serving as a
“checklist” of what needs to be submitted to NCR
Reduces the number of files to manage
Enables the SQE to quickly see if anything is missing
Show PPAP Playbook
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PRODUCTION WARRANT
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Production Warrant
What is It?
Production Warrant
Part Name
NCR Part Number
Shown on Drawing no.
Supplier Part Number
Engineering Drawing Change Level
Dated
Additional Engineering Changes
Dated
Safety and/or Government Regulation
Yes
No
Checking Aid No.
Purchase order No.
Weight (kg)
Engineering Change Level
Dated
SUPPLIER MANUFACTURING INFORMATION
NCR SUBMITTAL INFORMATION
Supplier Name
NCR Location
Supplier Code
Street Address
City
Buyer
Region
Note:
Postal Code
Country
Buyer Code
Model Name / Number
Does this part contain any restricted or reportable substances?
Yes
No
Are parts identified with appropriate UL/CE/ISO marking codes if applicable?
Yes
No
REASON FOR SUBMISSION
Initial Submission
Change to Optional Construction or Material
Engineering Change(s)
Sub-Supplier or Material Source Change
Tooling: Transfer, Replacement, Refurbishment, or additional
Change in Part processing
Correction of Discrepancy
Tooling Inactive > than 1 year
Parts Produced at New or Additional Location
Other - please specify
REQUESTED SUBMISSION LEVEL (Check one based on NCR requirements)
Level 1
-
Production Warrant and Appearance Approval Report (if applicable) submitted to NCR
Level 2
-
Production Warrant, product samples, and dimensional results submitted to NCR
Level 3
-
Production Warrant, product samples, and complete supporting data submitted to NCR
Level 4
-
Production Warrant and other requirements as defined by NCR
Level 5
-
Production Warrant, product samples, and complete supporting data reviewed at supplier's manufacturing location
SUBMISSION RESULTS
The results for
dimensional measurements
material and functional tests
These results meet all drawing and specification requirements:
Yes
No
appearance criteria
statistical process package
(If "No" - Explanation Required)
• Document required for all newly
tooled or revised products in which
the supplier confirms that
inspections and tests on production
parts show conformance to NCR
requirements
Objective or Purpose
Used to :
• document part approval
• provide key information
• declare that the parts meet
specification
When to Use It
Mold / Cavity / Production Process:
DECLARATION
I affirm that the samples represented by this warrant are representative of our parts, which were made by a process that meets all of NCR's
Production Part Approval Process requirements. I further affirm that these samples were produced at the production rate of
_____ pieces / _____ hours. I also certify that documented evidence of such compliance is on file and available for review. I have noted
any deviations from this declaration below.
• Prior to shipping production parts
EXPLANATION/COMMENTS:
Supplier Authorized Signature
Date
Print Name
Title
Email
Phone No.
Now, let’s take a closer look
FOR CUSTOMER USE ONLY (IF APPLICABLE)
PPAP Warrant Disposition:
NCR Signature
Print Name
Approved
Rejected
Other
____________________________________________________
_____
Date
NCR Tracking Number (optional)
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Production Warrant
Production Warrant
NCR Part Number
Part Name
Supplier Part Number
Shown on Drawing no.
Dated
Engineering Drawing Change Level
Part Name / NCR Part Number
Weight (kg)
Purchase order No.
No
Yes
Regulation
Safety and/or GovernmentEngineering
released
finished
Shown on Drawing Number
Supplier
Part
Number
Engineering
Change
Level & Date
end
part name and
number
Dated
Change Level
Engineering
No.
Checking Aid record
The design
thatitem
specifies
Part
number
defined
Show the change level and date
of by
the customer part number being
the supplier,
if any INFORMATION
NCR SUBMITTAL
SUPPLIER MANUFACTURING INFORMATION
the Design Record
submitted
Additional Engineering Changes
NCR Location
Supplier Code
Supplier Name
Safety
Government
Regulation
List alland/or
authorized
Engineering
Purchase Order Number
“Yes”
if sonot
indicated
by the Design
Record,
changes
yet incorporated
inEnter
this number as
found on
Buyer
Street Address
otherwise
“No”
Buyer Code
the design record but which are
the contract / purchase order
Checking Aid Number, Change Level, & Date
incorporated
in the part
Model Name / Number
Country
Postal Code
Region
City
Enter if requested
by the customer
Dated
Additional Engineering Changes
Note:
Does this part contain any restricted or reportable substances?
Yes
No
Are parts identified with appropriate UL/CE/ISO marking codes if applicable?
Yes
No
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Production Warrant
Production Warrant
Part Name
NCR Part Number
Supplier
Manufacturing
Information
Shown on
Drawing no.
Show the name and code assigned to
Engineering Drawing Change Level
the manufacturing site on the
Additional order
Engineering/Changes
purchase
contract
Safety and/or Government Regulation
Yes
No
Supplier Part Number
Dated
Dated
Purchase order No.
Weight (kg)
Parts Identified with Appropriate Marking Codes
Checking
No.
Engineering
Change Level
Dated
UL = Aid
Underwriters
Laboratories safety
standards
CE = Conformite Europeenne (European Conformity)
–
SUPPLIER MANUFACTURING INFORMATION
NCR SUBMITTAL INFORMATION
Certifies that
a product
has met European consumer
NCR
Location
Restricted
Substances
Safety,
health,
or
environmental
requirements NCR Location
Supplier Name
Supplier Code
Showorthe
location
where
Enter “Yes”
“No”
ISO = International
for Standardization
Buyer
/Organization
Buyer
Code to
parts
will
be shipped
Enter
“Yes” orEnter
“No”the buyer’s name
Street
Address
Buyer
Model Name / Number
and code
the
name
City
Region Enter
Postal
Codemodel
Country
Model Name / Number
and number
Note:
Does this part contain any restricted or reportable substances?
Yes
No
Are parts identified with appropriate UL/CE/ISO marking codes if applicable?
Yes
No
NCR Confidential
Buyer Code
21
Production Warrant
REASON FOR SUBMISSION
Reason For Submission
Check the appropriate box(es)
Initial Submission
Change to Optional Construction or Material
Engineering Change(s)
Sub-Supplier or Material Source Change
Tooling: Transfer, Replacement, Refurbishment, or additional
Change in Part processing
Correction of Discrepancy
Tooling Inactive > than 1 year
Parts Produced at New or Additional Location
Other - please specify
Requested Submission Level
Identify the submission level
REQUESTED SUBMISSION LEVEL (Check one based on NCR requirements)
Mold / Cavity / Production Process
requested by NCR
Level 1
- parts
Production
Warrant
andproduced
Appearance Approval
Report (if applicable) submitted to NCR
If production
will
be
from
Level 2 one
- Production
product
samples,
and dimensional results submitted to NCR
more than
mold,Warrant,
cavity,
tool,
die,
pattern,
or
process,
the and
supplier
Level
3 production
- Production Warrant,
product
samples,
complete
supporting data submitted to NCR
Submission
Results
shall complete
a
dimensional
evaluation
on
Check
the appropriate
Level 4
- Production Warrant and
other requirements
as defined by NCR boxes
one part
from
each.
The
specific
molds,
Level 5
- Production Warrant, product samples, and complete supporting data reviewed at supplier's manufacturing location
lines, etc. shall then be identified here.
SUBMISSION RESULTS
The results for
dimensional measurements
material and functional tests
These results meet all drawing and specification requirements:
Yes
No
appearance criteria
statistical process package
(If "No" - Explanation Required)
Mold / Cavity / Production Process:
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Production Warrant
Declaration
Declaration
Explanation / Comments
Affirmation
that
the samples represented
Entercomments
the
number
pieces
Provide any explanatory
onof
the
by the during
warrant
are representative and
manufactured
the
submission results or
any deviations
Supplier Authorized
Signature
were
made by run
a process that meets NCR’s
significant
production
from the Declaration.
Attach
additional
A DECLARATION
responsible supplier
official,
after
verifying
requirements
and the PPAP
time (in
hours) taken
information as appropriate.
that the results show
conformance
all NCR
for the significantto
production
run
I affirm that the samples represented by this warrant are representative of our parts, which were made by a process that meets all of NCR's
requirements
and
that
all
required
documentation
Production Part Approval Process requirements. I further affirm that these samples were produced at the production rate of
is _____
available,
shall
declaration
pieces / _____
hours. Iapprove
also certify that the
documented
evidence of such compliance is on file and available for review. I have noted
any deviations from this declaration below.
For NCR Use Only
To be completed by appropriate
PPAP Warrant Disposition
NCR Supplier Quality Engineer
NCR
Signature
Approved,
Rejected,
Other
Supplier Authorized
Signature
Signed by NCR Supplier
Print Name
Title
Quality Engineer
EXPLANATION/COMMENTS:
Email
Date
Phone No.
FOR NCR USE ONLY
PPAP Warrant Disposition:
NCR Signature
Print Name
Approved
Rejected
Other
____________________________________________________
_____
Date
NCR Tracking Number (optional)
The approved Production Warrant officially
warrants the parts ready for production
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Production Warrant
Reviewers Checklist
Must be completely filled out
Must be signed by the supplier
P/N must match the PO
Submitted at the correct revision level
Submitted at the correct submission level
Specify the reason for submission
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AUTHORIZED ENGINEERING
CHANGE DOCUMENTS
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Authorized Engineering Change Documents
The supplier shall provide authorized change
documents for those changes not yet recorded in the
design record, but incorporated in the product, part or
tooling, such as:
ECNs
(must be approved, not pending)
Specifications
Feasibility
Supplier
studies
change requests
Sub-assembly
Life
drawings
or reliability testing requirements
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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
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27
Process Flow Diagram
What is It?
Operator
Separate Cutting
Tags
(31)
Evaluate for
Corrective Action
Yes
Operator
Get Traveler and
Nest from Holding
Shelf
(26)
Operator
Prints Cut Tags
(27)
Operator
Load Machine with
Blanket
(28)
Operator
Download Cutting
Infomation
(2s to 2m)
(29)
Operator
Program
Command
"Ready to Cut"
(30)
Operator
Observe Cutting
Operation for
Errors
(32)
Cutting Error?
(33)
No
Operator
Remove Small
Plies from the
Cutting Table
(36)
Operator
Move to Kitting
Table
(37)
Objective or Purpose
Operator
Tag Small Plies
(38)
No
Small Plies
Operator
Large
Tag while Laying
Large or Small Plies Piies
on the Cutting
or Test Coupons?
Table
And
(35)
(39)
Coupons
Operator
Cutting Operation
Complete
(34)
Operator
Remove Plies
from the Cutting
Table
(40)
Operator
Move Plies to
Kitting Table
(41)
Traveler
Complete?
(42)
Yes
Operator
Stamp Traveler
(43)
Department/Group Project
High Level Process Map
Project Idea
6 Sigma Project
High Level Process Map
Fill Out Master
Form
with Initial
Information
Get WO Assigned
Begin/Work
Project
Follow DMAIC or
DFSS process
6 Sigma Assigns
Project Number
Monitor Progress
through Power
Steering and
Monthly
Financial
Reviews
Other Required
Signatures:
Segment CEO
Champion
Process Owner
BB or GB
No
Finance Approval
and Signature
Finance Approval
and Signature
Master Form Will
Generate
Contract
Complete Project
(Has to be fully
Documented
Do you
have BB/GB to
Assist/Work the
project?
Monitor Progress
through BiWeekly Updates
and Monthly
Reviews
6 Sigma
Project
Final Project
Review
Yes
Department
or Group
Project
Enter Remaining
Information on
Master Form
Finance Approval
and Signature
No
Does the
Project Involve
>2 Groups in
Eng?
Other Required
Signatures:
Champion: Dir T&E
Process Owner
Project Owner
Dept BB or MBB
Other Required
Signatures:
Champion: Dir T&E
Process Owner
Project Owner
Dept BB or MBB
No
Yes
Close
Project
Yes
Follow DMAIC or
DFSS process
Is Hard
Savings > $???
No
Finance Approval
and Signature
Get DLN
Assigned
Begin/Work
Project
Does the
Project Involve
>3 Depts.
outside Eng?
No
To help people “see” the real process.
Process maps can be used to
understand the following
characteristics of a process:
• Set-by-step process linkage
• Offline activities (measurement,
inspection, handling)
• Rework, scrap
Complete Project
(Has to be fully
Documented)
Master Form Will
Generate
Contract
Does the
Project Involve
Only Your
Group?
Complete all
Documentation
including a
(1) Page Closeout Sheet
Group Assigns
Project Number
Yes
Yes
Enter Remaining
Information on
Master Form
Final Project
Review
Other Required
Signatures:
Champion:
Process Owner
Project Owner
Dept GB/BB/MBB
Prefer to work
this project
within your
area?
Yes
No
• A visual diagram of the entire
process from receiving through
shipping, including outside
processes and services
Close
Project
Complete all
Documentation
including a
(1) Page Closeout Sheet
When to Use It
• To understand how a process is
done
• Prior to completing the PFMEA
NCR Confidential
28
Process Flow Diagrams
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
Part Number:
Operation
Description
Item #
Store
Inspect
Move
STEP
Fabrication
Part Description:
Product and
Process
Characteristics
Item #
Date:
ECL:
Prepared By:
Control Methods
The process flow
diagram utilizes these
symbols to clearly
identify each step in
the process
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
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29
Process Flow Diagram - Example
LEO
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
Part No.
: 484 -0100264
Shaft Pressure
:
Paddle
Part Name :
Incoming
Inspection
**RM receiving
Insp. report
Pre shipment
audit
Despatch
70
: NCR
Doc. No.
: PFD/NCR/0264
Page
: 1 of 1
Rev. No. / Date
: O / 10.08.09
CNC Sliding
Machining
Deburring & Cleaning
20
Patrol Insp.
report
Oiling, Packing &
Preservation
Pre shipment
audit report
Final Inspection
register
Pre delivery
Inspection
Layout
Inspection
50
60
Final Isnpection
15
10
05
F/QA/05/0
Customer Name
30
40
Layout Inspection
Report
Self Inspection
Report
Not ok , Rejected
**
Inspection as
per RIQP
Inspection as per
Opertion layout
If Rejected
Not ok , Rejected
Note :
Tags to be provided
for OK, Rework, Inspection
& Rejection
Return to
supplier
- MOVEMENT
- SUPPLIER END OPERATION
If rework
possible
- PATROL INSPECTION
- PROCESS
- STORAGE
- INSPECTION
NCR Confidential
Rework
Not ok
100%
Re-inspection
Ok
Next
operation
Scrap
PREPARED BY & DATE
T T Arul
APPROVED BY &
DATE
V Raja
30
Star Exercise
•Divide into teams
•Distribute supplies
−Paper for Stars
−Instructions for making Stars
−Scissors
•Using the instructions handed out in class, make 10
Shuriken Stars
•This exercise will prepare your team to complete future
exercises
45 Minutes
NCR Confidential
31
Process Flow Diagram – Star Exercise
Incoming
Inspection
05
Paper
Folding
Cutting
Star
Folding
Tucking
Final
Inspection
10
15
20
25
30
Shipping
Packing
40
35
Patrol Insp
Report
Inspection as per
Operation layout
If rework
possible
Rework
100%
Inspection
OK
Not OK
Scrap
NCR Confidential
Next Operation
32
Process Flow Diagrams
Reviewers Checklist
Process Flow must identify each step in the process
Should include abnormal handling processes
 Scrap
 Rework
Process Flow must include all phases of the process
 Receiving of raw material
 Part manufacturing
 Offline inspections and checks
 Assembly
 Shipping
NCR Confidential
33
PROCESS FMEA
NCR Confidential
34
Process FMEA (PFMEA)
What is It?
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
(Design FMEA)
S ys t e m / C o m po ne nt :
F M E A N um be r:
P a ge
P re pa re d by:
F M E A D a t e ( O rig.)
D e s ign R e s po ns ibilit y:
of
( R e v .)
C o re T e a m :
Item /
Process
Potential Failure
Mode
Function
Potential Effect(s)
of Failure
S
e
v
Potential Cause(s)/
Mechanism (s) of
Failure
O
c
c
u
r
Current Design
Controls
Prevention
Current Design
Controls Detection
D
e
t
e
c
R.
P.
N.
Recom m ended
Action(s)
Responsibility &
Target Com pletion
Date
Action Results
O
S
c
e
c
v
u
r
ActionsTaken
D
e
t
e
c
R.
P.
N.
• A tool used to identify and
prioritize risk areas
and their mitigation plans.
Objective or Purpose
• Identifies potential failure modes,
causes, and effects. Inputs come
from the process flow diagram.
• Identifies key inputs which
positively or negatively affect
quality, reliability and safety of a
product or process.
When to Use It
• After completion of the process
flow diagram.
• Prior to tooling for production
IMPORTANT!
The PFMEA should be completed
using a cross-functional team!
NCR Confidential
35
FMEA Origin
•Created by NASA following Apollo 1 mission failure
•Allows us to take a proactive approach to what can go
wrong in a process and manage our risks better
NCR Confidential
36
Process FMEA (PFMEA)
POTENTIAL
FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS
(PROCESS FMEA)
Print #
Item:
Model Year(s)/Vehicle(s)
Team:
FMEA Number
Prepared by:
Date (Orig.)
Date (Rev.)
Action Results
Det
R.P.N.
Actions
Taken
Sev
Recommended Responsibility
Actions
& Target Date
Occ
R.P.N.
Current Process
Controls
Detec
Potential
Cause(s)/
Mechanism(s)
of Failure
Occur
Sev
Potential
Effect(s) of
Failure
Class
Process Step
Potential Failure
Mode
Rev.
Process Responsibility:
Key Date
This is included in the
PPAP Playbook!
NCR Confidential
37
PFMEA - Step 1
R.P.N.
Current Process
Controls
8
Variables check
for film
thickness; Visual
check for
coverage
5 280
5 Variables check
for film
thickness; Visual
check for
coverage; Test
spray at start-up
and after idle
periods and
preventative
maintenance
program to clean
heads
5 175
Detec
Occur
Class
Potential Failure
Mode
Sev
Process Step
Potential
Potential
Failure
Modes Cause(s)/
Effect(s)
of
Mechanism(s)
For each Process
Input,
Failure
of Failure
determine the ways in
Op 70: Manual Insufficient wax Allows integrity
7 inputManually
which the
can go
application of
coverage over breach wrong.
of inner
inserted spray
wax inside door specified surface
door panel
head not
panel
inserter far
Corroded interior
enough
lower door
panels
Using the completed
Process Flow Diagram,
enter the process step.
Deteriorated life
of door leading
to:
- Unsatisfactory
appearance due
to rust through
paint over time
- Impaired
function of
interior door
hardware
Spray head
clogged:
- Viscosity too
high
- Temp too low
- Pressure too
low
TIPS
• There should be at least one failure mode for each input.
NCR Confidential
38
PFMEA - Step 2
R.P.N.
Current Process
Controls
Detec
TIPS
Deteriorated life
of door leading
to:
- Unsatisfactory
appearance due
to rust through
paint over time
- Impaired
function of
interior door
hardware
7
Occur
Op 70: Manual Insufficient wax Allows integrity
application of
coverage over breach of inner
wax inside door specified surface
door panel
panel
Corroded interior
lower door
panels
Potential
Cause(s)/
Mechanism(s)
of Failure
Class
Potential
Effect(s) of
Failure
Sev
Process Step
Potential Failure
Mode
Manually
8 Variables check 5 280
inserted spray
for film
head not
thickness; Visual
inserter far
check for
Potential Failure
Effects
enough
coverage
For each Failure Mode,
determine what effect
the specific failure
Spray head
5 Variables check
5 175
could
have
on
the
clogged:
for film
process
output.
- Viscosity
too
thickness; Visual
high
- Temp too low
- Pressure too
low
check for
coverage; Test
spray at start-up
and after idle
periods and
preventative
maintenance
program to clean
heads
• There should be at least one failure effect for each failure mode.
• Effects should be specific, clear, and leave no doubt to the uninformed
reviewer.
NCR Confidential
39
PFMEA - Step 3
Spray head
clogged:
- Viscosity too
high
- Temp too low
- Pressure too
low
R.P.N.
of door leading
to:
- Unsatisfactory
appearance due
to rust through
paint over time
- Impaired
function of
interior door
hardware
Manually
inserted spray
head not
inserted far
enough
Current Process
Controls
8
Variables check
for film
thickness; Visual
check for
coverage
5 280
5 Variables check
for film
thickness; Visual
check for
coverage; Test
spray at start-up
and after idle
periods and
preventative
maintenance
program to clean
heads
5 175
Detec
determine the possible
cause of the failure.Deteriorated life
7
Occur
Op 70: Manual Insufficient wax Allows integrity
application of
coverage over breach of inner
wax inside door specified surface
door panel
panel
Corroded interior
Potential Causes
lower door
For each Failure Mode,panels
Potential
Cause(s)/
Mechanism(s)
of Failure
Class
Potential Failure
Mode
Sev
Process Step
Potential
Effect(s) of
Failure
TIPS
• There should be at least one potential cause for each failure mode.
NCR Confidential
40
PFMEA - Step 4
8
Variables check
for film
thickness; Visual
check for
coverage
R.P.N.
Op 70: Manual Insufficient wax Allows integrity 7
Manually
application of
coverage over breach of inner
inserted spray
wax inside door specified surface
door panel
head not
Current Controls
panel
inserter far
For
each
potential
Corroded
interior
enough
lower door
cause,
list the current
panelsused for
method
Current Process
Controls
Detec
Potential
Cause(s)/
Mechanism(s)
of Failure
Occur
Class
Potential
Effect(s) of
Failure
Sev
Process Step
Potential Failure
Mode
5 280
Spray head
preventing or detecting
Deteriorated
life
clogged:
failure.
TIPS
• This step in the FMEA
current control plan.
• If a procedure exists,
5 Variables check
5 175
for film
of door leading
- Viscosity too
thickness; Visual
to:
high
check for
- Unsatisfactory
- Temp too low
coverage; Test
appearance due
- Pressure too
spray at start-up
to rust through
low
and after idle
paint over time
periods and
- Impaired
preventativeor gaps in
begins
to identify initial shortcomings
function of
maintenance
interior door
program to clean
hardware
heads
enter the document number.
the
• If no current control exists, list as “none.”
NCR Confidential
41
PFMEA - Step 5
Assign Severity, Occurrence, and Detection ratings
Manually
8 Variables check
inserted spray
for film
headDetection
not
thickness; Visual
Assign
inserter
far can the
check for
(How
easily
enough
coverage
cause or failure
R.P.N.
7
Current Process
Controls
Detec
Assign Severity
Op 70: Manual
Insufficient
waxis the
Allows integrity
(How
serious
application effect
of
coverage
over breach of inner
if it fails?)
wax inside door specified surface
door panel
panel
Corroded interior
lower door
panels
Potential
Cause(s)/
Mechanism(s)
of Failure
Occur
Class
Potential Failure
Mode
Sev
Process Step
Potential
Effect(s) of
Failure
5 280
mode be detected?)
Spray head
Deteriorated
life
Assign Occurrence
clogged:
of
door
leading
(How likely is the - Viscosity too
to:
cause
to occur?) high
- Unsatisfactory
- Temp too low
appearance due
- Pressure too
to rust through
low
paint over time
- Impaired
function of
interior door
hardware
5 Variables check
for film
thickness; Visual
check for
coverage; Test
spray at start-up
and after idle
periods and
preventative
maintenance
program to clean
heads
5 175
Severity, Occurrence and Detection rating details on next slide
NCR Confidential
42
PFMEA - Definition of Terms
Severity (of Effect) - severity of the effect on the
Customer and other stakeholders (Higher Value = Higher
Severity)
Occurrence (of Cause) - frequency with which a given
Cause occurs and creates Failure Mode. (Higher Value =
Higher Probability of Occurrence)
Detection (Capability of Current Controls) - ability of
current control scheme to detect the cause before
creating the failure mode and/or the failure mode before
suffering the effect (Higher Value = Lower Ability to
Detect)
Caution: Notice the scale difference for
Detection!
NCR Confidential
43
An Example of Rating Definitions
Rating
High
Low
10
1
Severity
Occurrence
Detection*
Hazardous
without
warning
Very high and
almost
inevitable
Cannot detect
or detection
with very low
probability
Loss of primary
function
High repeated
failures
Remote or low
chance of
detection
Loss of
secondary
function
Moderate
failures
Low detection
probability
Minor defect
Occasional
failures
Moderate
detection
probability
No effect
Failure unlikely
Almost certain
detection
*If No Controls Exist, Detection = 10
Create a rating system that makes sense for the
defects you are trying to prevent.
NCR Confidential
44
PFMEA - Step 6
Op 70: Manual Insufficient wax Allows integrity 7
Manually
8 Variables check
application of
coverage over breach of inner
inserted spray
for film
wax inside door specified surface
door panel
head not
thickness; Visual
panel
inserter far
check for
Corroded
enough
Calculate
theinterior
Risk Priority
Number coverage
lower door
RPN = Severity
x Occurrence x Detection
panels
TIPS
• The RPN is used to
of the FMEA.
• High RPNs (125 or
risk.
Deteriorated life
of door leading
to:
- Unsatisfactory
appearance due
to rust
through
prioritize
the
most
paint over time
- Impaired
function of
above) are
interiorflags
door to
hardware
R.P.N.
Current Process
Controls
Detec
Potential
Cause(s)/
Mechanism(s)
of Failure
Occur
Class
Potential Failure
Mode
Sev
Process Step
Potential
Effect(s) of
Failure
5 280
Spray head
clogged:
- Viscosity too
high
- Temp too low
- Pressure too
critical
risks
low
take effort
5 Variables check
5 175
for film
thickness; Visual
check for
coverage; Test
spray at start-up
identified
and after idlein the first half
periods and
preventative
maintenance
to reduce
the
program to
cleancalculated
heads
• Regardless of RPN, high Severity scores (9 or 10) should be given special
attention.
NCR Confidential
45
Analyzing the PFMEA
• Once the RPN Numbers are
determined, they can be used to
prioritize the most significant
failure modes.
Sort by RPN to determine
the most significant
failure modes
• Sort the FMEA by the RPN
numbers. Graphical and statistical
tools can help the team select a
“cut-off” RPN for the next steps.
?
How many items should be
the focus of the next steps?
RPN Thresholds
• When using an RPN threshold, DO
NOT forget to address high Severity
scores
NCR Confidential
Pareto Chart
46
PFMEA – Remediation Guidelines
Severity – can only be improved by a design change to
the product or process
Occurrence – can only be reduced by a change which
removes or controls a cause. Examples are redundancy,
substituting a more reliable component or function or
mistake-proofing.
Detection – can be reduced by improving detection.
Examples are mistake-proofing, simplification and
statistically sound monitoring.
In general, reducing the Occurrence
is preferable to improving the Detection
NCR Confidential
47
FMEA – Step 7
• Determine Actions Recommended to reduce High RPNs
Action Results
175 Use DOE on
viscosity vs.
temp vs.
pressure
Mfg. Eng. By
5/31/10
recommended actions.
Deteriorated life
of door leading
to:
- Unsatisfactory
appearance due
to rust through
paint over time
- Impaired
function of
interior door
hardware
NCR Confidential
Mfg. Eng. By
5/25/10
R.P.N.
Mfg. Eng. By
5/10/10
Det
Op 70: Manual Insufficient wax Allows integrity 280 Add positive
application of
coverage over breach of inner
depth stop to
wax inside door specified surface
door panel
sprayer
panel
Automate
Corroded interior
spraying
For the high RPN numbers,
lower door
determine the
panels
Actions Taken
Occ
Recommended Responsibility &
Actions
Target Date
Sev
Potential Failure
Mode
R.P.N.
Process Step
Potential
Effect(s) of
Failure
Stop added,
7 2 5 70
sprayer checked
on-line
Rejected due to
complexity of
different doors on
the same line
Temp and press
7 1 5 35
limits were
determined and
limit controls
have been
installed - Control
charts show
process is in
control Cpk =
1.85
48
FMEA – Steps 8 and 9
Action Results
R.P.N.
Op 70: Manual
application of
wax inside door specified surface
panel
Det
Assign a specific person
who will
responsible
Insufficient
wax be
Allows
integrity 280 Add positive
coverage
over breach of inner
depth stop to
for recommended
actions.
Actions Taken
Occ
Recommended Responsibility &
Actions
Target Date
Sev
Potential
Potential Failure
Effect(s) of
Mode (responsibility)
Resp
Failure
R.P.N.
Process Step
Mfg. Eng. By
5/10/10
Stop added,
7 2 5 70
sprayer checked
door panel
sprayer
on-line
Automate
Mfg. Eng. By
Rejected due to
Corroded interior
spraying
5/25/10
complexity of
Actions
lower
door Taken
different doors on
panels
As
actions are identified
the same line
175 Use document
DOE on
Mfg. Eng. By
Temp and press
7 1 5 35
and completed,
Deteriorated life
viscosity vs.
5/31/10
limits were
“Actions
Taken”
of in
doorthe
leading
temp vs.
determined and
to:
column.
pressure
limit controls
- Unsatisfactory
have been
appearance due
installed - Control
to rust through
show
SEV, OCC, DET,charts
RPN
paint over time
process is in
- Impaired
As actions are control
complete
Cpk =
function of
1.85
reassess Severity,
interior door
Occurrence, and Detection
hardware
• Now recalculate your RPNs
based on mitigation plans.
TIPS:
and recalculate RPN.
Continue updating the actions taken and
resulting RPNs until all risks are at an acceptable level (below 125).
NCR Confidential
49
Summary Steps To Complete a FMEA
1.
For each Process Input, determine the ways in which the Process
Step can go wrong (these are Failure Modes).
2.
For each Failure Mode associated with the inputs, determine
Effects on the outputs.
3.
Identify potential Causes of each Failure Mode.
4.
List the Current Controls for each Cause.
5.
Assign Severity, Occurrence and Detection ratings after creating a
ratings key appropriate for your project.
6.
Calculate RPN.
7.
Determine Recommended Actions to reduce High RPNs.
8.
Take appropriate Actions and Document.
9.
Recalculate RPNs.
10. Revisit steps 7 and 8 until all the significant RPNs have been
addressed.
NCR Confidential
50
PFMEA Exercise
Instructions
•Open the PPAP Training Templates.xls file, then select
the PFMEA worksheet.
•Using process steps 20 and 25 from the completed Star
Process Flow Diagram handout, complete 2 rows of the
PFMEA.
30 Minutes
Use the file PPAP Training Templates.xls
NCR Confidential
51
Process FMEA (PFMEA)
Tips and Lessons Learned
• Collaborative Effort: Do not try alone, use a group
• Very laborious: Time consuming process. Take
necessary breaks.
• Action items are required for completion
• Train team ahead of time by explaining scoring criteria
• Proper preparation is needed for meetings
• Summarize often: FMEA is a living document
NCR Confidential
52
Process FMEA (PFMEA)
Reviewers Checklist
Verify there is a system for prioritizing risk of failure
such as RPN numbers of 125 or above
Make sure that high RPN process concerns are carried
over into the control plan
Make sure that all critical failure modes are addressed
 Safety
 Form, fit, function
 Material concerns
NCR Confidential
53
CONTROL PLAN
NCR Confidential
54
Control Plan
What is It?
A document that describes how to
control the critical inputs to
continue to meet customer
expectations of the output.
Objective or Purpose
• Primary reference source for
minimizing process and product
variation.
• Description of how teams should
react to out-of-control situations.
NOTE
Since processes are expected to be continuously
updated and improved, the control plan
is a living document!
When to Use It
• Implementation of new process
• Following a process change
NCR Confidential
55
Control Plan
Tool Interaction
K ey
Department/Group Project
High Level Process Map
Project Idea
6 Sigma Project
High Level Process Map
Pr o ces s S tep
P ro c ess
In p u t
Fill Out Master
Form
with Initial
Information
Get WO Assigned
Begin/Work
Project
Follow DMAIC or
DFSS process
6 Sigma Assigns
Project Number
Other Required
Signatures:
Segment CEO
Champion
Process Owner
BB or GB
Monitor Progress
through Power
Steering and
Monthly
Financial
Reviews
Finance Approval
and Signature
No
Finance Approval
and Signature
Do you
have BB/GB to
Assist/Work the
project?
Monitor Progress
through BiWeekly Updates
and Monthly
Reviews
6 Sigma
Project
Does the
Project Involve
Only Your
Group?
Does the
Project Involve
>2 Groups in
Eng?
Yes
Department
or Group
Project
W ir e
T r an sfe r
r efer enc e
De lay inter nal
AR bala nc e do es
m a il
not go do wn
S
O
E
P o t en t ial C au s es C
V
C
Ina deq uate
s taffin g in m ail
7 r oom
Infor m ation n ot AR bala nc e is
s upp lie d
pas t d ue
a cc ou nt in fo o n
w ir e tran s fe r
D
Cu rr en t C o n t ro ls
R
E
E
P
O
T
N
C
N one
7
C us tom e r or b ank
d id n ot in clu de
n am e a nd/or
10
line
Does the
Project Involve
>3 Depts.
outside Eng?
Ide ntify Inv oic e
Finance Approval
and Signature
Other Required
Signatures:
Champion: Dir T&E
Process Owner
Project Owner
Dept BB or MBB
No
No
C hec k s
Enter Remaining
Information on
Master Form
Yes
Yes
Ide ntify
C us tom e r
Follow DMAIC or
DFSS process
Final Project
Review
No
Close
Project
Process Steps
C hec k s
Po ten tial
F ailu re E ff ec ts
10 4 90
A c ct id en tifies pro blem
wh en try in g to app ly
pa ym e nt
5
Act io n s
R eco m m e n d ed
Inv es tiga te m ail ro om
5
R esp .
G . Lee
Ac tio n s
Ad ded a no th
s ta ffin g and a ss o ciate d
pr oc es s es
cle rk . A djus
sc he dule .
P ok a- Yo k e wire tr ans er N. P ear t
pr oc es s
Co ntac te d b
es ta blis hed w
tr ans fer pro c
2 50
211 2)
Is Hard
Savings > $???
No
Other Required
Signatures:
Champion: Dir T&E
Process Owner
Project Owner
Dept BB or MBB
Get DLN
Assigned
Begin/Work
Project
R ec eiv e
P ay m en t
Complete Project
(Has to be fully
Documented)
Master Form Will
Generate
Contract
Finance Approval
and Signature
Complete all
Documentation
including a
(1) Page Closeout Sheet
Group Assigns
Project Number
Yes
Yes
Enter Remaining
Information on
Master Form
Final Project
Review
Prefer to work
this project
within your
area?
Yes
No
Master Form Will
Generate
Contract
Complete Project
(Has to be fully
Documented
Other Required
Signatures:
Champion:
Process Owner
Project Owner
Dept GB/BB/MBB
P o t en t ia l
F a ilu re M o d e
Close
Project
Complete all
Documentation
including a
(1) Page Closeout Sheet
New/Revised Process
Steps
Process Flowchart
Ide ntify Inv oic e
C hec k s
Inc orr ec t
In vo ic e s ho ws
inv oic e
s upp lie d
outs ta nd in g (A R
bala nc e doe s g o
dow n)
Invo ice n um ber In vo ic e s ho ws
no t s upp lied
outs ta nd in g (A R
bala nc e doe s g o
C us tom e r er ror
5
C us tom e r er ror
5
C us to m er m igh t c atch
it w hen r ev iewin g th e
5 ne xt s ta te m en t
A c ct id en tifies pro blem
wh en try in g to app ly
10 pa ym e nt
P ro vide p aym ent stu b
10 2 50
5
2 50
dow n)
Process FMEA
Control Plan
NCR Confidential
56
A . Lifes o n
Re vis ed s ta t
with s ta te m en t for eac h
inv oic e
in c lu de p aym
with eac h inv
P ro vide p aym ent stu b S . H aga r
with s ta te m en t for eac h
inv oic e
Re vis ed s ta t
in c lu de p aym
with eac h inv
NCR’s Control Plan
CONTROL PLAN
Prototype
Pre-Launch
Production
Control Plan Number
Key Contact/Phone
Date:(Org.)
Part Number/Latest Change Level
Core Team
Customer Engineering Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Part Name/Description
Supplier/Plant Approval/Date
Customer Quality Approval/Date(If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Supplier/Plant
Supplier Code
Machine,
Process
Part/Process
Device,
Name/Operation
Number
Jig, Tools,
Description
for MFG.
Characteristics
No.
Product
Process
Special
Char.
Class
Methods
Sample
Evaluation
Product/Process
/Measure
Specification/
ment
Size
Freq.
Tolerance
Technique
Date (Rev.)
Control
Method
Reaction
Plan
This is included in the
PPAP Playbook!
NCR Confidential
57
Control Plan
3 Distinct Phases
CONTROL PLAN
Prototype
Pre-Launch
Production
Control Plan Number
Key Contact/Phone
Date:(Org.)
Part Number/Latest Change Level
Core Team
Customer Engineering Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Part Name/Description
Supplier/Plant Approval/Date
Customer Quality Approval/Date(If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Supplier/Plant
Supplier Code
Machine,
Process
Part/Process
Device,
Name/Operation
Number
Jig, Tools,
Description
for MFG.
Characteristics
No.
Product
Process
Special
Char.
Class
Methods
Sample
Evaluation
Product/Process
/Measure
Specification/
ment
Size
Freq.
Tolerance
Technique
Date (Rev.)
Control
Method
Reaction
Plan
3 Distinct Phases
3 Distinct Phases
3 Distinct Phases
Pre-Launch
3. the
–Production
a description
– aofcomprehensive
the
1. Prototype – a2.description
of
dimensionaland
measurements
documentationand
of product/process
dimensional measurements
material and
performance
characteristics,
tests
process
that controls,
material and performance
tests
that
occur after
tests,
Prototype
and measurement
and before systems that
will occur duringwill
Prototype
build.
full Production.
will occur during mass production
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Control Plan
Administrative Section
CONTROL PLAN
Prototype
Pre-Launch
Production
Control Plan Number
Key Contact/Phone
Date:(Org.)
Part Number/Latest Change Level
Core Team
Customer Engineering Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Part Name/Description
Supplier/Plant Approval/Date
Customer Quality Approval/Date(If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Supplier/Plant
Supplier Code
Machine,
Process
Part/Process
Device,
Name/Operation
Number
Jig, Tools,
Description
for MFG.
Characteristics
No.
Product
Process
Special
Char.
Class
Methods
Sample
Evaluation
Product/Process
/Measure
Specification/
ment
Size
Freq.
Tolerance
Technique
Date (Rev.)
Control
Method
Reaction
Plan
Administrative Section
Identifies part number and description,
supplier, required approval signatures,
and dates.
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Control Plan
Process, Machine/Tools, Characteristics
CONTROL PLAN
Characteristics
Part/Process
Define
Production
the characteristics
of the product or process
Prototype
Pre-Launch
Use
this area to define
Controlpart/process
Plan Number
number and
description.
Key Contact/Phone
Date:(Org.)
Part Number/Latest Change Level
Core Team
Customer Engineering Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Part Name/Description
Supplier/Plant Approval/Date
Customer Quality Approval/Date(If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Supplier/Plant
Supplier Code
Machine,
Process
Part/Process
Device,
Name/Operation
Number
Jig, Tools,
Description
for MFG.
Characteristics
No.
Product
Process
Special
Char.
Class
Methods
Sample
Evaluation
Product/Process
/Measure
Specification/
ment
Size
Freq.
Tolerance
Technique
Date (Rev.)
Control
Method
Reaction
Plan
Machine/Tools
List the machine, device, jig, or tools
that will be used in the
manufacturing process
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Control Plan
Specifications, Measurement, Sample Size & Frequency
Sample Size
CONTROL PLAN
Prototype
Pre-Launch
Part Number/Latest Change Level
Use this area to define upper/lower
spec limits for
each
Core
Teamcontrol element.
Part Name/Description
Supplier/Plant
Production
Specifications/Tolerance
Key Contact/Phone
Control Plan Number
Supplier Code
Machine,
Process
Part/Process
Device,
Name/Operation
Number
Jig, Tools,
Description
for MFG.
Date:(Org.)
Date (Rev.)
Customer Engineering Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Supplier/Plant Approval/Date
Customer Quality Approval/Date(If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Characteristics
No.
What is the size of the
sample you should gather
data from?
Product
Process
Special
Char.
Class
Methods
Sample
Evaluation
Product/Process
/Measure
Specification/
ment
Size
Freq.
Tolerance
Technique
Control
Method
Reaction
Plan
Measurement Technique
For each line in the control plan, list the
measurement procedure that will be
used (may list R&R Gage Plan or PokaYoke).
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Frequency
Define the frequency for
which the measurement
will be taken.
61
Control Plan
Control Method, Reaction Plan
Control Method
CONTROL PLAN
Prototype
Pre-Launch
Method that will be used
to control the process
Production
Control Plan Number
Key Contact/Phone
Date:(Org.)
Part Number/Latest Change Level
Core Team
Customer Engineering Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Part Name/Description
Supplier/Plant Approval/Date
Customer Quality Approval/Date(If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Supplier/Plant
Supplier Code
Machine,
Process
Part/Process
Device,
Name/Operation
Number
Jig, Tools,
Description
for MFG.
Characteristics
No.
Product
Process
Special
Char.
Class
Methods
Sample
Evaluation
Product/Process
/Measure
Specification/
ment
Size
Freq.
Tolerance
Technique
Date (Rev.)
Reaction
Plan
Control
Method
Reaction Plan
Actions to be taken if
controls fail
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Control Plan
Audit Plans
•Audit plans should be included in the control plan as a
separate line.
•Auditing is an important tool for control.
•Process auditing should be a key element of the quality
system of a business.
•Audits generally cover:
Effectiveness of controls
Control plan (say) vs. what is actually done (do)
•Audits should be objective (done by internal or external third
parties if possible).
•Audit frequencies should be based on balancing level of risk
(FMEA) and cost.
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Control Plan – Example
A supplier manufactures a circuit board with electronic components soldered on the
board. Properly soldered connections are the major product characteristics. Two major
process characteristics for the wave solder machine are solder level and flux
concentration. An automated feeder controls the solder level by sensing the level of
solder and feeding in additional solder as the level is reduced. This characteristic is
measured 100% by checking electrically for continuity. The flux must be sampled and
Control
Sample
SizeMethod
tested for the concentration level.
Frequency
CONTROL PLAN
Characteristics
Product = Wave solder height
Pre-Launch
Production
Machine/Tools
Part/Process
Process = Flux concentration
Specifications/Tolerance
Control Plan
Number
Key
Contact/Phone
Soldering
Connections
Wave
solder machine Smith /mc
002 Product = 2.0 +/-T.0.25
313-555-5555
Prototype
Part Number/Latest Change Level
Process
54321231 / D
Part Name/Description
Electronic Circuit Board
Supplier/Plant
Supplier Code
ACR Control
439412
Part /
Process
Number
2
Machine,
Process Name
Device,
/ Operation
Jig, Tools,
Description
for MFG.
Soldering
Connections
Wave
solder
machine
Core Team
= Standard
#302B
Product
==Automated
inspection
Product
100%
Product
= Continuous
Process
=
x-MR
chart
Process
= 1 pc= 4 hours
Process
Erin Hope, Alan Burt, Ken Light
Supplier/Plant Approval/Date
Customer Quality Approval/Date(If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Other Approval/Date (If Req'd.)
Characteristics
No.
Reaction Plan
Date:(Org.)
Date retest
(Rev.)
Product
= Adjust and
11/29/2009
2/20/2010
Process
= Segregate
and retest
Customer
Engineering Approval/Date
(If Req'd.)
Product
Process
Wave
solder
height
Methods
Special
Char.
Class
3 Distinct Phases
Production
Measurement Technique
Flux
Product = Sensor continuity check
concen Process = Test sampling lab environment
tration
Product/Process Evaluation /
Specification/ Measurement
Tolerance
Technique
2.0 +/- .25 mc
Standard #302B
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Sensor
continuity
check
Test sampling
lab
environment
Sample
Size
100%
1 pc
Freq.
Automated
inspection
(error
Continuous proofing)
4 hours
Reaction
Plan
Control
Method
Adjust and
retest
Segregate
x-MR chart and retest
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Control Plan Exercise
Instructions
• Open the PPAP Training Templates.xls file, then select
the Control Plan worksheet.
• Using the completed Star Process Flow Diagram
(process steps 20 and 25) and the completed PFMEA,
complete 2 rows of the Control Plan.
• Document potential problems that might be
encountered and potential solutions with your teams.
20 Minutes
Use the file PPAP Training Templates.xls
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Control Plan
Reviewer’s Checklist
Use process flow diagram and PFMEA to build the control
plan; keep them aligned
Controls must be used to be effective.
Keep it simple.
Ensure that the control plan is in the document control
system of the business
Good control plans address:
All testing requirements - dimensional, material, and performance
All product and process characteristics at every step throughout the process
The control method should be based on an effective analysis
of the process
Such as SPC, Error Proofing, Inspection, Sampling Plan
Control plans should reference other documentation
Specifications, tooling, etc.
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MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
ANALYSIS (MSA)
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Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
What is It?
An MSA is a statistical tool used to
determine if a measurement system
is capable of precise measurement.
Objective or Purpose
When to Use It
• On the critical inputs and outputs
prior to collecting data for analysis.
• For any new or modified process in
order to ensure the quality of the
data.
Who Should be Involved
Everyone that measures and makes
decisions about these measurements
should be involved in the MSA.
• To determine how much error is in
the measurement due to the
measurement process itself.
• Quantifies the variability added by
the measurement system.
• Applicable to attribute data and
variable data.
IMPORTANT!
Measurement System Analysis is
an analysis of the measurement
process, not an analysis of the
people!!
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Attribute and Variable MSA
– Attribute Data Examples:
 Count, Pass/fail, yes/no, red/green/yellow,
timekeeping buckets
– Variable Data Examples:
 Physical measurement (length, width, area, …)
 Physical conditions (temperature, pressure…)
 Physical properties (strength, load, strain…)
 Continuous or non-ending
Unless approved by an NCR SQE, attribute data
is not acceptable for PPAP submission
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Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
The observed variation in
process output
measurements is not
simply the variation in the
process itself; it is the
variation in the process
plus the variation in
measurement that results
from an inadequate
measurement system.
Measurement
System
Variation
Observed
Variation
Process
Variation
Conducting an MSA reduces the likelihood of
passing a bad part or rejecting a good part
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Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Observed Variation
Measurement
System
Variation
Observed
Variation
The output of the process
measured by:
• Cycle time
• Dimensional data
• Number of defects
and others
Process
Variation
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Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Observed Variation
Resolution
Precision
(Variability)
Repeatability
Reproducibility
Measurement
System
Variation
Linearity
Accuracy
Observed
Variation
(Central
Location)
Bias
Stability
Process
Variation
Calibration addresses accuracy
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Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Observed Variation
Resolution
Precision
(Variability)
Repeatability
Reproducibility
Measurement
System
Variation
Linearity
Accuracy
Observed
Variation
(Central
Location)
Bias
Stability
Process
Variation
Calibration Addresses Accuracy
Let’s take a closer look at
Precision
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Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Resolution
Error in Resolution
The inability to detect small
changes.
Possible Cause
Wrong measurement device
selected - divisions on scale
not fine enough to detect
changes.
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Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Repeatability
Error in Repeatability
The inability to get the same
answer from repeated
measurements made of the
same item under absolutely
identical conditions.
Possible Cause
Lack of standard operating
procedures (SOP), lack of
training, measuring system
variablilty.
Equipment Variation
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Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Reproducibility
Error in Reproducibility
The inability to get the same
answer from repeated
measurements made under
various conditions from
different inspectors.
Possible Cause
Lack of SOP, lack of training.
Appraiser Variation
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Variable MSA – Gage R&R Study
•Gage R&R is the combined estimate of measurement
system Repeatability and Reproducibility
•Typically, a 3-person study is performed
Each person randomly measures 10 marked parts per trial
Each person can perform up to 3 trials
•There are 3 key indicators
EV or Equipment Variation
AV or Appraiser Variation
Overall % GRR
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Variable MSA – NCR’s Gage R&R Form
Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility
This spreadsheet is designed for up to three operators, three trials, and ten samples. Enter data ONLY in gray shaded cells.
Number of operators
Number of trials
Number of samples
Upper specification limit
Lower specification limit
Data
Sample #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Range average
Sample average
Average range
X-bar range
1
0.000
#DIV/0!
Operator 1
Trial
2
3
Range
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
#DIV/0!
1
Operator 2
Trial
2
3
Range
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
#DIV/0!
1
Operator 3
Trial
2
3
Range
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
#DIV/0!
Automatically calculates
EV, AV, and % GRR!
Repeatability (EV)
Reproducibility (AV)
Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R)
Control limit for individual ranges
#N/A
#DIV/0!
#N/A
#N/A
Tolerance analysis
#N/A
#DIV/0!
#N/A
Note: any ranges beyond this limit may be the result
of assignable causes. Identify and correct. Discard
values and recompute statistics.
Do not modify this table
Trials
D4
K1
K2
2
3.27
4.56
3.65
3
2.58
3.05
2.7
Included in PPAP Playbook!
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Variable MSA – Gage R&R Steps
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9 Step 10
1.
Select 10 items that represent the full range of long-term process variation.
2.
Identify the appraisers.
3.
If appropriate, calibrate the gage or verify that the last calibration date is
valid.
4.
Open the Gage R&R worksheet in the PPAP Playbook to record data.
5.
Have each appraiser assess each part 3 times (trials – first in order, second
in reverse order, third random).
6.
Input data into the Gage R&R worksheet.
7.
Enter the number of operators, trials, samples and specification limits
8.
Analyze data in the Gage R&R worksheet.
9.
Assess MSA trust level.
10. Take actions for improvement if necessary.
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Steps 1 and 2: Variable MSA - Gage R&R
Select 10 items that represent
Step 1
the full range of long-term process
variation.
Step 2
Identify the appraisers.
– Should use individuals that actually do the
process being tested.
– Can also include other appraisers
(supervisors, etc.).
– Should have a minimum of 3 appraisers.
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Steps 3 and 4: Variable MSA – Gage R&R
If appropriate, calibrate the gage
Step 3
or verify that the last calibration
date is valid.
Step 4
Open the Gage R&R worksheet in the
PPAP Playbook to record the data
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Step 5: Variable MSA – Gage R&R
Step 5
Have each appraiser assess each item 3
times.
– Each appraiser has to work
independently.
– Items should be evaluated in random
order.
– After each appraiser completes the first
evaluation of all items – repeat the
process at least 2 more times.
– Do not let the appraisers see any of the
data during the test !!
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Steps 6 and 7: Variable MSA – Gage R&R
Step 6
Input data into the Gage R&R
worksheet
Step 7
Enter the number of operators, trials,
samples and specification limits
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Steps 8 and 9: Variable MSA – Gage R&R
Step 8
Analyze data in the Gage R&R worksheet
Step 9
Assess MSA Trust Level.
% Tolerance*
– Red: > 30% (fail)
– Yellow: 10-30% (marginal)
– Green: < 10% (pass)
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30%
10%
84
Step 10: Variable MSA – Gage R&R
Step 10
If the Measurement System needs
improvement:
– Brainstorm with the team for improvement
solutions.
– Determine best “practical solution” (may
require some experimentation).
– Pilot the best solution (PDSA)
– Implement best solution – train employees.
– Re-run the study to verify the improvement.
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Variable MSA – Gage R&R Example
Problem Statement
• The sulfuric acid concentration in process tank 8 is measured at least
once per day
• Additions/deletions of chemicals and decisions to shut down the
process are dependent on these results.
• Based on current data, we need to do an MSA.
MSA Process
A Gage R&R was conducted in order to validate
the process.
MSA Parameters
» (3) Operators
» (3) Trials
» (10) Samples
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Variable MSA – Gage R&R Example
Entered the number
of operators, trials,
and samples
Entered upper and
lower specification
limits
Chose
3
to
Gage Repeatability and operators
Reproducibility
be appraisers
This spreadsheet is designed for up to three operators, three trials, and ten samples. Enter data ONLY in gray shaded cells.
Number of operators
Number of trials
Number of samples
3
3
10
Data
Sample #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Range average
Sample average
1
25.250
25.420
22.370
24.960
25.540
24.610
24.440
26.100
25.390
25.680
Selected 10 samples
to be measured
Average range
X-bar range
0.483
0.205
Upper specification limit
Lower specification limit
27
22
Operator 1
Operator 2
Operator 3
Trial
Trial
Trial
2
3
Range
1
2
3
Range
1
2
3
Range
25.540 25.390 0.290 25.390 25.390 25.390 0.000 25.680 26.330 26.520 0.840
25.540 24.960 0.580 25.540 25.520 25.470 0.070 26.380 26.130 25.960 0.420
22.370 22.670 0.300 22.220 22.180 22.220 0.040 22.670 22.810 22.670 0.140
25.250 25.110 0.290 25.110 25.680 25.920 0.810 25.680 26.200 25.540 0.660
25.540 25.820 0.280 25.540 25.680 25.680 0.140 25.730 25.960 25.890 0.230
25.110 24.820 0.500 24.960 26.700 25.110 1.740 25.390 25.540 25.960 0.570
24.260 24.110 0.330 25.250 25.540 25.420 0.290 25.250 25.830 25.390 0.580
26.800 26.100 0.700 25.540 25.540 25.820 0.280 25.110 25.680 25.920 0.810
25.390 25.390 0.000 26.380 26.660 26.220 0.440 25.250 25.540 25.390 0.290
25.820 25.540 0.280 23.900 25.250 25.110 1.350 24.200 23.870 22.960 1.240
0.355
0.516
0.578
25.043
25.211
25.248
Had each appraiser
measure each
sample 3 times
Results calculated
automatically
Repeatability (EV)
Reproducibility (AV)
Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R)
Control limit for individual ranges
1.4732
0.4827
1.5502
1.2461
Tolerance analysis
29.46%
9.65%
31.00%
Note: any ranges beyond this limit may be the result
of assignable causes. Identify and correct. Discard
values and recompute statistics.
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Variable MSA – Gage R&R Example
Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility
This spreadsheet is designed for up to three operators, three trials, and ten samples. Enter data ONLY in gray shaded cells.
Number of operators
Number of trials
Number of samples
Data
Sample #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Range average
Sample average
1
25.250
25.420
22.370
24.960
25.540
24.610
24.440
26.100
25.390
25.680
3
3
10
Upper specification limit
Lower specification limit
27
22
Operator 1
Operator 2
Operator 3
Trial
Trial
Trial
2
3
Range
1
2
3
Range
1
2
3
Range
25.540 25.390 0.290 25.390 25.390 25.390 0.000 25.680 26.330 26.520 0.840
25.540 24.960 0.580 25.540 25.520 25.470 0.070 26.380 26.130 25.960 0.420
22.370 22.670 0.300 22.220 22.180 22.220 0.040 22.670 22.810 22.670 0.140
25.250 25.110 0.290 25.110 25.680 25.920 0.810 25.680 26.200 25.540 0.660
25.540 25.820 0.280 25.540 25.680 25.680 0.140 25.730 25.960 25.890 0.230
25.110 24.820 0.500 24.960 26.700 25.110 1.740 25.390 25.540 25.960 0.570
24.260 24.110 0.330 25.250 25.540 25.420 0.290 25.250 25.830 25.390 0.580
26.800 26.100 0.700 25.540 25.540 25.820 0.280 25.110 25.680 25.920 0.810
25.390 25.390 0.000 26.380 26.660 26.220 0.440 25.250 25.540 25.390 0.290
25.820 25.540 0.280 23.900 25.250 25.110 1.350 24.200 23.870 22.960 1.240
0.355
0.516
0.578
25.043
25.211
25.248
Average range = 0.483
Repeatability (EV)
1.4732
Repeatability
(EV)
Reproducibility
=0.205
(AV)
X-bar range
Reproducibility (AV)
0.4827
Equipment Variation
Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R)
1.5502
Repeatability
&
Appraiser Variation
Control limit for individual ranges
1.2461
Reproducibility = R&R Note: any ranges beyond this limit may be the result
Tolerance analysis
29.46%
9.65%
31.00%
% Tolerance is > 30%
MSA fails!
of assignable causes. Identify and correct. Discard
values and recompute statistics.
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% Tolerance*
30%
10%
88
Gage R&R Exercise - Setup Instructions
•Divide into teams
•Distribute stars (10 per team), measurement devices (1
per team), and markers (1 per team).
•Number the stars from 1-10.
•Mark the 2 points to be measured on each star (see
diagram on next page)
•Determine and document the measurement process.
•Be sure everyone has a clear understanding of the
process.
•Determine roles.
−(3) inspectors, (1) data recorder, (1) customer
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Gage R&R Exercise - Dimensional Information
Each star will be measured as shown.
Mark the 2 points
to be measured
Dimension
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Gage R&R Exercise – Inspection Instructions
1. All inspectors need to wait outside the room when it is not
their turn to evaluate the stars.
2. Open the PPAP Training Templates.xls file, then select the
Gage R&R worksheet to record the data.
3. Round 1
Have the 1st inspector come in the room and measure all 10
stars in order. Data collector record the data in the Gage R&R
worksheet.
»
Do not give any additional information to the inspector
4. Repeat Step 3 with the 2nd inspector
5. Repeat Step 3 with the 3rd inspector
6. Round 2
Change the inspection to reverse order and repeat.
7. Round 3
Change the inspection to random order and repeat.
Use the file PPAP Training Templates.xls
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Gage R&R Exercise - Analysis Instructions
1. Complete the top section of the Gage R&R worksheet
− Enter the number of operators, trials, and samples
− Enter the upper and lower specification limit
2. Assess MSA Trust Level.
– Red: > 30% (fail)
– Yellow: 10-30% (marginal)
– Green: < 10% (pass)
% Tolerance*
30%
10%
3. Interpret results - are improvements required?
45 Minutes
Use the file PPAP Training Templates.xls
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Tips and Lessons Learned
Important: An MSA is an analysis of the process, not an
analysis of the people. If an MSA fails, the process failed.
A Variable MSA provides more analysis capability than an
Attribute MSA. For this and other reasons, always use variable
data if possible.
The involvement of people is the key to success.
Involve the people that actually work the process
Involve the supervision
Involve the suppliers and customers of the process
An MSA primarily addresses precision with limited accuracy
information.
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MSA
Reviewer’s Checklist
If the gage/inspection affects quality, then conduct a
Gage R&R
Make sure the study is recent - less than 1 year
Compare the control plan gages against the Gage R&Rs
If you question that gage, then
−Question the technique and part sampling
−Ask for additional studies
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DIMENSIONAL RESULTS
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Dimensional Results
What is It?
FAI Non-Critical Dimensions
Date:
Supplier Name:
Date Code:
Part Number:
Facility Location:
Inspected By:
Revision:
Supplier Code:
Verified By:
The number of non-critical data points required for part qualification is 5. The non-critical data points
must be taken from the same 35-piece sample as the critical data points. Five parts from a production
run must be shipped to NCR for verification of form, fit, and function. The same 5 parts will be used to
verify both critical and non-critical dimensions. The supplier must clearly identify which of the 35 parts
are being shipped. Non-critical dimensional results for the 5 parts being shipped must be entered
below. Critical dimensional results must be entered into the "FAI Critical Dimensions" worksheet. The
supplier should make every effort to ship 5 parts that represent both the low and high ends of the
specifications for the non-critical dimensions.
Cpk less than 1.33 will require action for improvement
Print zone or
spec note
Nominal
Value
List Gage R&R value:
Tol +
Tol -
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5
Cp
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
Name and ID of gage(s) used for measurement:
Cpk
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
Evidence that dimensional
verifications have been completed
and results indicate compliance with
specified requirements.
Pass/Fail
Objective or Purpose
• To show conformance to the
customer part print on dimensions
and all other noted requirements.
When to Use It
• For each unique manufacturing
process (e.g., cells or production
lines and all molds, patters, or
dies
NCR Confidential
96
NCR Dimensional Report (Critical)
FAI Critical Dimensions
Date:
Supplier Name:
Date Code:
Part Number:
Facility Location:
Inspected By:
Revision:
Supplier Code:
Verified By:
The number of critical data points required for part qualification is 35. These data points must be taken from a 35-piece sample. Five parts from a
production run must be shipped to NCR for verification of form, fit, and function. The same 5 parts will be used to verify both critical and non-critical
dimensions. The supplier must clearly identify which of the 35 parts are being shipped. Critical dimensional results for the 5 parts being shipped must
be entered below. Non-critical dimensional results must be entered into the "FAI Non-Critical Dimensions" worksheet. The supplier should make every
effort to ship 5 parts that represent both the low and high ends of the specifications for the non-critical dimensions.
Cpk less than 1.67 will
require action for
improvement
Automatically
These data points must be taken from a 35-piece
sample. Five
parts from a
Calculates
Cpk!
Sample
Print zone or
spec note
Nominal
Value
Tol +
Tol -
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Cp
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
Cpk
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
Pass/Fail
The number of critical data points required for part qualification is 35.
production run must be shipped to NCR for verification of form, fit, and function. The same 5 parts will be used to verify both critical and non-critical
dimensions. The supplier must clearly identify which of the 35 parts are being shipped. Critical dimensional results for the 5 parts being shipped must
be entered below. Non-critical dimensional results must be entered into the "FAI Non-Critical Dimensions" worksheet. The supplier should make every
effort to ship 5 parts that represent both the low and high ends of the specifications for the non-critical dimensions.
List Gage R&R value:
Name and ID of gage(s) used for measurement:
Requires 35 data points
Cpk must be greater
than or equal to 1.67
This is included in the
PPAP Playbook!
NCR Confidential
97
NCR Dimensional Report (Non-Critical)
FAI Non-Critical Dimensions
Date:
Supplier Name:
Date Code:
Part Number:
Facility Location:
Inspected By:
Revision:
Supplier Code:
Verified By:
The number of non-critical data points required for part qualification is 5. The non-critical data points
The number
non-critical
data
points
required
for
qualification
is 5. The non-critical data points
must be of
taken
from the same 35-piece
sample
as the critical
data points.
Fivepart
parts from
a production
run must be shipped to NCR for verification of form, fit, and function. The same 5 parts will be used to
must beverify
taken
fromandthe
same
35-piece
sample
as the
both critical
non-critical
dimensions.
The supplier
must clearly
identifycritical
which of thedata
35 partspoints. Five parts from a production
are being shipped. Non-critical dimensional results for the 5 parts being shipped must be entered
run must
be shipped to NCR for verification of form, fit, and function. The same 5 parts will be used to
below. Critical dimensional results must be entered into the "FAI Critical Dimensions" worksheet. The
supplier
should make
everynon-critical
effort to ship 5 partsdimensions.
that represent both theThe
low andsupplier
high ends of the
verify both
critical
and
must clearly identify which of the 35 parts
specifications for the non-critical dimensions.
are being shipped. Non-critical
Cpk less than 1.33dimensional
will require action for results
improvement for the 5 parts being shipped must be entered
Automatically
Nominal
Tol +
Tol - Sample
1 Sample 2must
Sample 3 be
Sample
4 Sample 5
Cp
Cpk "FAI
Pass/Fail
below. CriticalValue
dimensional
results
entered
into
the
Critical Dimensions" worksheet. The
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
Calculates
Cpk!
#DIV/0!
supplier should make every effort to ship 5 parts that#DIV/0!
represent
both the
low and high
ends of the
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
Requires
5
data
points
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
specifications for the non-critical dimensions.
Print zone or
spec note
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
Cpk must be greater
than or equal to 1.33
This is included in the
PPAP Playbook!
List Gage R&R value:
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
Name and ID of gage(s) used for measurement:
NCR Confidential
98
Acceptance Criteria
Acceptance criteria for critical vs. non-critical characteristics
Red (Bad)
Yellow (OK)
Green (Good)
Critical
Non-Critical
<1.33
<1.00
1.33-1.67
1.00-1.33
>1.67
Decision
>1.33
Cpk must be greater than or equal to
1.67 for critical processes
Cpk must be greater than or equal to
1.33 for non-critical processes
NCR Confidential
99
NCR Dimensional Report Example
FAI Non-Critical Dimensions
Date:
Supplier Name:
Date Code:
Part Number:
Facility Location:
Inspected By:
Revision:
Supplier Code:
Verified By:
The number of non-critical data points required for part qualification is 5. The non-critical data points
must be taken from the same 35-piece sample as the critical data points. Five parts from a production
run must be shipped to NCR for verification of form, fit, and function. The same 5 parts will be used to
verify both critical and non-critical dimensions. The supplier must clearly identify which of the 35 parts
& be
Cpk
areNominal
being shipped.
Non-critical dimensional results for the 5 parts being shippedCp
must
entered
Value
Tolerance
Sample
Data
Pass / Fail
below. Critical dimensional results must be entered into the "FAI Critical Dimensions"
worksheet. The
Calculations
supplier should make every effort to ship 5 parts that represent both the low and high ends of the
specifications for the non-critical dimensions.
Cpk less than 1.33 will require action for improvement
Print zone or
spec note
Nominal
Value
35
76
3
3
3
3
Tol +
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
Tol - Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5
0.50
34.86
34.78
34.88
34.86
34.82
0.50
75.96
76.08
75.92
75.93
76.09
0.50
3.175
3.18
3.156
3.168
3.178
0.50
3.18
3.156
3.178
3.175
3.18
0.50
3.18
3.175
3.174
3.18
3.156
0.50
3.156
3.18
3.173
3.175
3.18
Cp
4.167
2.017
17.118
16.406
16.836
16.862
Cpk
Pass/Fail
2.833 Pass
2.001
Pass
11.250
Pass
10.703
Pass
11.011
Pass
11.034
Pass
Cpk > 1.33 for all non-critical
dimensions = Pass!
NCR Confidential
100
Dimensional Results
Reviewer’s Checklist
Thirty-five critical data points & 5 non-critical data points are
required for part qualification
Critical and non-critical data points must be taken from the same 35piece sample
Five parts from a production run must be shipped to NCR for
verification of form, fit, and function
The same 5 parts will be used to verify both critical and non-critical
dimensions
Supplier must clearly identify which of the 35 parts are being shipped
Supplier should make every effort to ship 5 parts that represent both
the low and high ends of the specifications for non-critical dimensions
Capability must be greater than 1.67 for critical dimensions and
greater than 1.33 for non-critical dimensions
NCR Confidential
101
RECORDS OF MATERIAL
/ PERFORMANCE TEST
RESULTS
NCR Confidential
102
Records of Material/Performance Test Results
Material Test Results
The supplier shall perform tests for all parts and
product materials when chemical, physical, or
metallurgical requirements are specified by the design
record or Control Plan

For products with NCR-developed material specifications and/or
an NCR-approved supplier list, the supplier shall procure
materials and/or services from suppliers on that list
Performance Test Results
The supplier shall perform tests for all parts or product
materials when performance or functional
requirements are specified by the design record or
Control Plan
NCR Confidential
103
Material Results
Production Part Approval - Material Results
Supplier
Laboratory
Part Number
Outside laboratory
Name of Laboratory
Revision Level
Part Name
In-house testing
Type of
Test
Material Spec. No./Date/Specification
Supplier Test Results
OK
Not OK
Material Results shall include:
 The name of the laboratory that conducted the test
 The type of test that was conducted
 The number, date, and specification to which the part was tested
 The actual test results
Signature
Title
NCR Confidential
Date
104
Module Test Results
Production Part Approval - Module Test Results
Supplier
Part Number
Laboratory
Outside laboratory
Name of Laboratory
Revision Level
Part Name
In-house testing
Type of Test
Test description
Supplier Test Results
Parameters Tested
OK
Not OK
Module Test Results shall include:
 The name of the laboratory that conducted the test
 The type of test that was conducted
 A description of the test
 The parameters tested
 The actual test results
Signature
Title
NCR Confidential
Date
105
INITIAL PROCESS STUDY
NCR Confidential
106
Initial Process Study
PPAP Levels for Submission & Retention
Submission Level
Requirement
1. Design Records of Saleable Product
a. For proprietary components/details
b. For all other components/details
2. Engineering Change Documents, if any
3. Customer Engineering approval, if required
4. Design FMEA
5. Process Flow Diagrams
6. Process FMEA
7. Dimensional Results
8. Material, Performance, Test Results
9. Initial Process Study
10. Measurement System Analysis Studies
11. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
12. Control Plan
13. Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
14. Appearance Approval Report, (AAR) if applicable
15. Bulk Material Requirements Checklist (for bulk
material only)
16. Sample Product
17. Master Sample
18. Checking Aids
19. Records of compliance with Customer-Specific
Requirements (DVP&R)
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
S
R
R
R
R
R
S
S
R
R
R
S
S
R
R
R
S
S
R
R
R
R
S
S
R
R
R
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
S
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
R
R
R
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
S
R
R
R
R
R
S
R
R
R
S
R
R
*
*
*
*
R
S
R
R
R
R
R
*
R
S = The supplier shall submit to designated customer product approval activities and retain a copy of records or
documentation items at appropriate locations, including manufacturing
R = The supplier shall retain at appropriate locations, including manufacturing, and make readily available to the
customer representative upon request
Even though Initial
Process Study is coded
as an “R” on the PPAP
Submission Level Table,
we felt it was important
to provide a brief
overview during
training
R = Supplier shall retain at
appropriate locations, including
manufacturing and make readily
available to the customer
representative upon request
* = The supplier shall retain at appropriate locations, and submit to customer upon request. The customer will identify
what is needed for submission base on changes and conditions
PLEASE CONTACT YOUR SUPPLIER QUALITY ENGINEER WITH ANY QUESTIONS .
NCR Confidential
107
Initial Process Study
Capability Analysis
P r o c e s s C a pa bility o f L e ngth
LS L
USL
P ro ce ss D a ta
W ith in
LS L
2 4 .5
T a rg e t
*
USL
2 5 .5
S a m p le M e a n
2 5 .1 8 7 7
S a m p le N
100
S tD e v (W ith in )
0 .2 6 1 0 8
S tD e v (O v e ra ll)
0 .2 6 6 0 3 5
O v er all
What is It?
P o te n tia l (W ith in ) C a p a b ility
Cp
0 .6 4
C PL
0 .8 8
C PU
0 .4 0
C pk
0 .4 0
A set of tools used to understand
process capability.
O v e ra ll C a p a b ility
Pp
0 .6 3
PPL
0 .8 6
PPU
0 .3 9
P pk
0 .3 9
C pm
*
Objective or Purpose
2 4 .6
O b se rv e d P e rfo rm a n ce
P P M < LS L
0 .0 0
2 4 .8
2 5 .0
2 5 .2
2 5 .4
2 5 .6
E xp . W ith in P e rfo rm a n ce
E xp . O v e ra ll P e rfo rm a n ce
P P M < LS L
P P M < LS L
4 2 1 6 .6 8
2 5 .8
4 8 6 6 .9 1
PPM > USL
1 1 0 0 0 0 .0 0
PPM > USL
1 1 5 8 4 0 .6 3
PPM > USL
1 2 0 2 4 5 .1 9
P P M T o ta l
1 1 0 0 0 0 .0 0
P P M T o ta l
1 2 0 0 5 7 .3 0
P P M T o ta l
1 2 5 1 1 2 .1 0
P r o c e s s C a pa bility S ix pa c k o f L e ngth
S a m p le M e a n
X bar C har t
C a p a b ilit y H is t o g r a m
25.50
UC L = 25.5380
25.25
_
_
X = 25.1877
L SL
U SL
S p e cifica tio n s
LS L
2 4 .5
USL
2 5 .5
25.00
L C L = 24.8375
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
24.6
24.8
25.0 25.2
R C har t
S a m p le R a n g e
UC L = 1.284
25.6
25.8
1.0
When to Use It
_
R = 0.607
0.5
0.0
LC L= 0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
24.5
L a st 2 0 Subgr oups
25.0
25.5
26.0
C a p a b ilit y P lo t
W ith in
25.5
Va lu e s
25.4
N o r m a l P r o b P lo t
A D : 0 .1 5 1 , P : 0 .9 6 1
25.0
24.5
• To evaluate the performance of
your process as compared to
specification limits.
• To determine if the production
process is likely to produce product
that will meet customer
requirements
W ith in
O v e ra ll
S tD e v
0 .2 6 1 0 8
S tD e v
0 .2 6 6 0 3 5
Cp
0 .6 4
Pp
0 .6 3
C pk
0 .4
P pk
0 .3 9
C pm
*
O v e ra ll
1. To establish baseline capability.
2. To validate process
improvements.
S p e cs
5
10
15
20
S a m p le
NCR Confidential
108
Steps for Determining Process Capability
Step 1
Step 2 Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
1. Decide on the product or process characteristic to be
assessed
2. Validate the specification limits
3. Validate the measurement system
4. Collect data
5. Assess data characteristics
6. Assess process stability
7. Calculate process capability
NCR Confidential
109
Step 1: Which Characteristic
Step 1
Decide on the product or process
characteristic to be assessed.
 Required for all critical characteristics
 If no critical characteristics exist, NCR reserves
the right to require demonstration of initial
process capability on other characteristics
NCR Confidential
110
Step 2: Specification Limits
Step 2
Validate the specification limits by
talking to:
– Customers, suppliers, controlling agencies
Why is validation of the specification
limits important?
– They may not represent what the customer truly
desires/needs.
– May contain “guard banding” as a result of past
problems or measurement error.
– They may be based on previous designs and no
longer be valid.
NCR Confidential
111
Step 3: Measurement System
Step 3
Validate the measurement
system through the appropriate
MSA
Why is validation of the
Measurement System important?
– If there is significant error in your
measurement system, then decisions are
influenced by the error not just the
measurements themselves.
NCR Confidential
112
Step 4: Data Collection
Step 4
When collecting data, consider the
following:
– Short term data
» Free of special causes
» Collected across a narrow inference space i.e.
one shift, one machine, one operator, etc..
– Long term data
» Subjected to the effects of both random and
special cause variation
» Collected across a broad inference space i.e.
multiple shifts, machines, operators, etc.
NCR Confidential
113
Step 4: Data Collection
Step 4
When collecting data, consider the following:
– Rational sub-grouping
» A group of units produced under the same set of
conditions
» Mean to represent a “snapshot” of the process
Example:
» Must be taken close together in time, but still be
independent of each other
A die cut machine
produces
100 plastic
parts
per
» Use subgroups
to separate
the 2 types
of variation
in a
process:
hour. The quality
engineer measures 5 randomly
selected parts at
thesubgroup:
beginning
everyamong
hour.measurements
Each
Within
Theof
variation
within
subgroups;
also known as common cause
sample of 5 parts
is a
subgroup.
variation
 Between subgroup: variation between subgroups that
may be caused by specific identifiable factors, or
special causes
» To improve process quality, every effort should be made
to eliminate between subgroup variation and reduce
within subgroup variation
NCR Confidential
114
Step 5: Data Characteristics
Step 5
Assess data characteristics
H i s tog r a m o f M f g H o ur s
20
Examine the shape of your data.
M ean
14.87
S tD ev
3.088
N
100
Fr e qu e n c y
15
– Is it what you would expect?
If not, investigate.
10
5
0
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
M fg Ho u r s
Bimodal Data
H i s tog r a m o f M f g H o ur s
Hi s to gr am o f M fg Ho ur s
25
19.98
S tD ev
1.713
N
20
100
15
Fr e q ue ncy
15
10
10
5
5
0
16
18
20
M fg Ho u r s
22
Normal Data
NCR Confidential
24
M ean
20.19
S tD ev
18.87
N
20
Fr e q ue nc y
The shape of your data is
important for determining
which type of Capability
Analysis applies.
M ean
0
-1 5
0
15
30
45
60
75
Mfg Hou rs
Skewed Data
115
100
Step 6: Process Stability
Step 6
Assess process stability in order to understand
how your process behaves over time. Control
charts are the recommended tool.
Control Chart Examples
Process is stable and in
control
Process is not stable and
therefore not in control
Capability is only valid
when the process being
studied is stable!
NCR Confidential
116
Step 7: Process Capability
Step 7
Calculate the appropriate statistical metrics in
order to determine how the “Voice of the
Process” compares to the “Voice of the
Customer.”
Capability Metrics: PPM, DPMO, Cp, Cpk, Pp,
& Ppk ; Sigma Levels (Z Scores)
Specification Limits
Process is capable
Specification Limits
Process is not capable
If you were driving a truck, and the dotted lines were the
construction barriers, what would be happening in each situation?
NCR Confidential
117
Focus on Variable Data
The initial process study should be focused on variable,
not attribute data
Assembly errors, test failures, and surface defects are examples of
attribute data, which is important to understand, but is not
covered in this initial study
To understand the performance of characteristics monitored by
attribute data will require more data collected over time
Unless approved by an authorized NCR representative, attribute
data are not acceptable for PPAP submission
Focus on variable data
NCR Confidential
118
Capability Indices
Capability
Index
Cp
Formula
(USL – LSL)
What it shows
Relates short term (within subgroup) standard
deviation to tolerance
Sometimes called “Entitlement,” meaning it is the
6*s
Cp/Cpk
short-term are used to
best the current process can do, if centered
Cpk
estimate potential
Relates short term mean & short term (within
process
capability
Min{(USL – X), (X – LSL)}
subgroup) standard deviation to tolerance
3*sshort-term
(USL – LSL)
PP
Ppk
6*slong-term
Only tells you about the nearest spec limit; doesn’t
tell anything about the other side
Relates long term (overall) standard deviation to
tolerance
Pp/Ppk are used to
measure actual
Relates mean & long term (overall) standard
Min{(USL
– X), (X performance
– LSL)}
process
deviation to tolerance
3*slong-term
Only tells you about the nearest spec limit; doesn’t
tell anything about the other side
NCR Confidential
119
Capability Indices - Cpk
Cpk predicts capability
Based on short term within subgroup variation
Does not include the effect of process variability between
subgroups
Cpk should be used when:
−Developing new parts
−Revising specifications on a part
−Materials, processes, manufacturing location, or equipment
have significantly changed
−Material suppliers have changed (include certificate of
analysis)
NCR Confidential
120
Capability Indices - Ppk
Ppk indicates past performance
Based on long term total variation
Unlike Cpk, Ppk is not limited to variation within subgroups
However, Ppk cannot isolate within subgroup variation
from between subgroup variation
When calculated from the same data set, Cpk and Ppk can
be compared to analyze the sources of process variation
Ppk should be used when:
– The supplier is new to NCR, but has already been
manufacturing a part
– The supplier is existing, but has produced a number of
nonconforming parts
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Difference between Cp & Cpk
Cp – determines capability of producing to specification
Cpk – same as Cp, but also measures how centered the process is
It is important to look at both!
LSL
Cp > 1.67
Cpk > 1.67
Cp > 1.67
Cpk < 1.00
Capable,
Centered
Capable,
Not Centered
USL
LSL
USL
Cp < 1.00
Cpk < 1.00
Cp < 1.00
Cpk < 0
Not Capable,
Not Centered
Not Capable,
Centered
LSL
USL
LSL
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122
Acceptance Criteria
Acceptance criteria for critical vs. non-critical characteristics
Red (Bad)
Yellow (OK)
Green (Good)
Critical
Non-Critical
<1.33
<1.00
1.33-1.67
1.00-1.33
>1.67
Decision
>1.33
Cpk must be greater than or equal to
1.67 for critical processes
Cpk must be greater than or equal to
1.33 for non-critical processes
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Initial Process Study
Reviewer’s Checklist
Ensure that the results are acceptable, and that the
process is stable and capable of producing a quality
part
PPAPs should only be approved if the capability is
greater than 1.67 for critical dimensions and greater
than 1.33 for non-critical dimensions
More information about capability is available in the
Appendix at the end of this presentation
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QUALIFIED LABORATORY
DOCUMENTATION
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Qualified Laboratory Documentation
•Inspection and testing for PPAP shall be performed by
a qualified laboratory as defined by NCR requirements
(e.g., an accredited laboratory).
•The qualified laboratory (internal or external to the
supplier) shall have a laboratory scope and
documentation showing that the laboratory is qualified
for the type of measurements or tests conducted
When
an external laboratory is used, the supplier shall submit
the test results on the laboratory letterhead or the normal
laboratory report format
The
name of the laboratory that performed the tests, the date(s)
of the tests, and the standards used to run the tests shall be
identified.
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APPEARANCE APPROVAL
REPORT
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Appearance Approval Report
What is It?
Appearance Approval Report
Part Number
Drawing Number
Part Name
Buyer
Supplier Name
Reason for
Submission
Application
E/C Level
Date
Manufacturing Location
Part Submission Warrant
Special Sample
Pre Texture
First Production Shipment
Supplier Code
Other
Re-Submission
Engineering Change
• A report completed by the supplier
containing appearance and color
criteria
Appearance Evaluation
Pre-Texture
Evaluation
Supplier Sourcing and Texture Information
Customer Representative
signature and Date
Correct and Proceed
Correct and Resubmit
Approved to Texture
Color Evaluation
Color
Suffix
Tristimulus Data
Master Master Material Material
Number Date
Type
Source
DL* Da* Db* DE CMC
Hue
Red Yel
Grn Blu
Value
Chroma
Gloss
Color
Metallic
Part
Shipping
Brilliance
Disposition
Suffix
Light Dark Gray CleanHigh Low High Low
Objective or Purpose
• To demonstrate that the part has
met the appearance requirements
on the design record
When to Use It
• Prior to tooling for production
Comments:
Supplier Signature
Phone No.
Date
Customer Representative Signature
Date
IMPORTANT!
Typically only applies for parts with color, grain,
or surface appearance requirements
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Appearance Approval Report
Administrative Section
Appearance Approval Report
Part Number
Part Name
Supplier Name
Reason for
Submission
Drawing Number
Supplier Sourcing & Texture Information
Buyer
List all first surface tools, graining
Source(s), grain type(s), and
grainLocation
and
Manufacturing
Gloss masters used to check part
Part Submission Warrant
Special Sample
Pre Texture
First Production Shipment
Application
E/C Level
Date
Pre-Texture
Evaluation
To be completed by Supplier
SQE Code
Other
Re-Submission
Engineering Change
Appearance Evaluation
Supplier Sourcing and Texture Information
Pre-Texture
Evaluation
Customer Representative
signature and Date
Correct and Proceed
Correct and Resubmit
Approved to Texture
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Appearance Approval Report
Master
Master
Material
Number
DateType
Material Source
Color Suffix
Enter
Enter
Identify
alphanumeric
the date
first
Identify
on
surface
which
firstfinish
surface
andand
Alphanumeric
or
numeric
master
thesubstrate
master
identification
was
substrate
(e.g.
approved
paint
suppliers
/ ABS)
color identification
Color Shipping Suffix
Color part number
suffix or color number
Color Evaluation
Color
Suffix
Tristimulus Data
Master Master Material Material
Number Date
Type
Source
DL* Da* Db* DE CMC
Red Yel
Tristimulus Data
List numerical (colorimeter)
data of submission part as
compared
to the customerComments:
authorized master
Supplier Signature
Hue
Phone No.
Grn Blu
Value
Chroma
Gloss
Color
Metallic
Part
Shipping
Brilliance
Disposition
Suffix
Light Dark Gray CleanHigh Low High Low
Part Disposition
Hue, Value, Chroma, Gloss, and
To be determined by
Metallic Brilliance
NCR (approved or
Visual assessment by NCR
rejected)
Date
Customer Representative Signature
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SAMPLE PRODUCTION
PARTS
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Sample Production Parts
What is It?
Actual samples that reflect the parts
documented in the PPAP.
Objective or Purpose
• Confirm cosmetic or functional
part approval.
When to Use It
• Sample parts should be delivered
WITH the PPAP submission
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Sample Production Parts
•The sample parts provided should be the same parts
measured for the dimensional results
•Default quantity for all submissions is 3 parts unless
otherwise requested
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Sample Production Parts
Sample production parts MUST be properly identified
– Include the following information on the part label:
• Date
• NCR
parts were packed
part number
See NCR part label examples
on the next slide
• Quantity
• Serial
number
• Supplier
• Part
part number (optional)
description
• Country
of origin
• Indication
• Approval
of RoHS compliance
markings (UL, CE, etc.) where applicable
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Part Label Example
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PPAP Summary
•The Production Part Approval Process is an extensive
approval process for new or changed designs or
processes
•It is very formalized, so it inevitably causes some
administrative work
•Later changes to the product or process can be
expensive and time-consuming!
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APPENDIX –
CAPABILITY
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Process Capability Tool Selection Map
Process Capability can be determined for
all types of data. However, selecting the
correct method is critical.
C a p a b ilit y A n a ly s is
fo r N o rm a l D a ta
Yes
N o rm a l
D a ta ?
V a r ia b le
B in o m ia l P r o c e s s
C a p a b ilit y
P ro cess
C a p a b ilit y
D e f e c t iv e
D a ta
Type?
A t t r ib u t e
No
U s e M in it a b 's
" I n d iv id u a l
D is t r ib u t io n
I d e n t if ic a t io n "
f u n c t io n
Yes
N o n -n o rm a l
D is t r ib u t io n
I d e n t if ie d ?
Yes
Is
re a s o n fo r
N o n - N o r m a lit y
u n d e rsto o d ?
D e fe c t
No
U se N o n -N o rm a l
C a p a b ilit y :
S e le c t I d e n t if ie d
D is t r ib u t io n
Yes
A p p ly C e n t r a l L im it
T h e o re m
P o is s o n P r o c e s s
C a p a b ilit y
D e t e r m in e r e a s o n s
fo r
N o n - N o r m a lit y
C a p a b ilit y A n a ly s is
fo r N o rm a l D a ta
( u s in g B o x - C o x
T r a n s f o r m a t io n )
Yes
No
R a t io n a l
S u b -g ro u p s ?
D e fe c t o r
D e f e c t iv e
No
T ra n s fo rm th e
d a t a u s in g B o x Cox
T r a n s f o r m a t io n
Is
tra n s fo rm e d
d a ta
N o r m a l?
No
C o n ta c t y o u r M B B
No
R e s u lt in g
d a t a N o r m a l?
Yes
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C a p a b ilit y A n a ly s is
fo r N o rm a l D a ta
( u s in g s u b g r o u p s )
138
Index of Capability Examples (Using Minitab)
Capability – Normal
Capability - Normal
Capability – Non-Normal
Distribution Identification
Central Limit Theorem
Box – Cox Transformation
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Normal Capability Example
Activity
Using the data in a Minitab file Capability Example.MTW
determine the capability of the PO process in terms of the time
is required to process the POs.
Time to Process
one individual PO
Use the file Capability Example.MTW
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Normal Capability Example
Q
Which Capability Analysis applies?
Is the data attribute or variable?
Is the data normal?
Yes
Does sub-grouping apply?
???
A
Normal
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Normal Capability Analysis in Minitab
1. Open the worksheet Capability
Example.MTW.
2. Choose Stat > Quality Tools >
Capability Analysis > Normal.
3. Click in the [Single Column]
field.
4. Double click [Time to Process]
in the column on the left.
6.
Depending on subgroup information
either:
5. Click in the [Subgroup Size]
field.
a. Enter 1 if the subgroup size is 1.
b. Double click Indiv Dates_1 in the
column on the left.
c. Since the subgroup size is constant
(n=5) the number 5 could be typed
in the subgroup size field.
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Use the file Capability Example MTW
142
Normal Capability Analysis in Minitab
7. Type 20 in Lower Spec.
8. Type 40 in Upper Spec.
9. Select [Options] button.
10.Add target value (if
applicable).
11.Under Display select
a.
Parts per million or Percents
b.
Capability Stats or Benchmark Z
12.Add Title if desired.
13.Click [OK].
14.Click [OK].
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Normal Capability Analysis Results
P r o c e s s C a pa bility o f T ime to P r o c e s s ( s ubgr o up o f 1 )
Sample Mean
LS L
Voice of the
Customer
P ro ce ss D a ta
LS L
2 0 .0 0 0 0 0
T a rg e t
USL
W ith in
O v er all
*
USL
4 0 .0 0 0 0 0
S a m p le M e a n
3 0 .7 2 1 0 0
S a m p le N
P o te n tia l (W ith in ) C a p a b ility
Voice of the
Process
200
S tD e v (W ith in )
7 .4 6 3 2 9
S tD e v (O v e ra ll)
7 .5 4 4 3 9
Cp
0 .4 5
C PL
0 .4 8
C PU
0 .4 1
C pk
0 .4 1
C C pk
0 .4 5
O v e ra ll C a p a b ility
Pp
0 .4 4
PPL
0 .4 7
PPU
0 .4 1
P pk
0 .4 1
C pm
*
StDev (Within):
Represents short term data.
18
24
StDev (Overall):E xp . W ith in P e rfo rm a n ce
Represents
%
< LS L
7 .5 0 long term
% < LS Ldata,
7 .5 4
includes
shift
and%drift
%
> USL
1 0 .0
0
> U S L 1 0 .6 9
%
T o ta l
1 7 .5
0
% T o ta l
1 8 .2 3
between
subgroups.
O b se rv e d P e rfo rm a n ce
30
36
42
48
E xp . O v e ra ll P e rfo rm a n ce
% < LS L
7 .7 7
% > USL
1 0 .9 4
% T o ta l
1 8 .7 0
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Normal Capability Analysis Results
P r o c e s s C a pa bility o f T ime to P r o c e s s ( s ubgr o up o f 1 )
Capability indices:
USL
Based on short
term data.
LS L
P ro ce ss D a ta
LS L
2 0 .0 0 0 0 0
T a rg e t
O v er all
*
USL
4 0 .0 0 0 0 0
S a m p le M e a n
3 0 .7 2 1 0 0
S a m p le N
P o te n tia l (W ith in ) C a p a b ility
Capability indices:
Based on long term
data.
200
.4 6 3 2 9
Exp Within 7Performance:
S tD e v (O v e ra ll)
7 .5 4 4 3 9
Based on StDev(Within)
and represents short term
process capability.
S tD e v (W ith in )
18
O b se rv e d P e rfo rm a n ce
7 .5 0
Exp Overall Performance:
Based on StDev (Overall)
and represents long term
process capability.
24
E xp . W ith in P e rfo rm a n ce
% < LS L
Cp
0 .4 5
C PL
0 .4 8
C PU
0 .4 1
C pk
0 .4 1
C C pk
0 .4 5
O v e ra ll C a p a b ility
Observed Performance:
Represents the sample
data.
% < LS L
W ith in
7 .5 4
30
36
42
Pp
0 .4 4
PPL
0 .4 7
PPU
0 .4 1
P pk
0 .4 1
C pm
*
48
E xp . O v e ra ll P e rfo rm a n ce
% < LS L
7 .7 7
% > USL
1 0 .0 0
% > USL
1 0 .6 9
% > USL
1 0 .9 4
% T o ta l
1 7 .5 0
% T o ta l
1 8 .2 3
% T o ta l
1 8 .7 0
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Non-Normal Capability – Distribution Identification
Exercise
Using the data (Time_2) in a Minitab file Capability Example.MTW
determine the capability of the PO process in terms of the time that is
required to process the POs.
Time to Process
one individual PO
Use the file Capability Example. MTW
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Non-Normal Capability – Distribution Identification
Q
Which Capability Analysis applies?
• Is the data attribute or variable?
• Is the data normal?
No
• Are the reasons for non-normality
understood?
Yes
• Can the data be described by another
distribution?
???
A
Non-normal
Try Individual
Distribution
Identification
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Individual Distribution Identification in Minitab
1.
Open the worksheet Capability
Example.MTW.
2.
Choose Stat > Quality Tools >
Individual Distribution
Identification.
3.
Click in the [Single Column] field.
4.
Double click Time_2 in the column
on the left.
5.
Choose [Use all distributions].
6.
Click [OK].
Use the file Capability Example. MTW
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Individual Distribution Identification in Minitab
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Using Individual Distribution Identification
1.
Open the worksheet Capability
Example.MTW.
2.
Choose Stat > Quality Tools >
Capability Analysis > Nonnormal.
3.
Click in the [Single Column] field.
4.
Double click Time_2 in the column
on the left.
5.
Select [Fit data with Distribution].
6.
Using pulldown menu select [3parameter Weibull].
7.
Type 20 in [Lower Spec].
8.
Type 40 in [Upper Spec].
Use the file Capability Example. MTW
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Using Individual Distribution Identification
9.
Select [Options] button.
10. Add target value (if applicable).
11. Under Display select
9.
Capability Stats
10. Benchmark Z
12. Add Title if desired.
13. Click [OK].
14. Click [OK].
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Using Individual Distribution Identification
P r o c e s s C a pa bility o f T ime _ 2
C a lcula tio ns Ba s e d o n W e ibull Dis tr ibutio n M o de l
Sample Mean
Voice of the
Customer
LS L
P ro ce ss D a ta
LS L
USL
O v e ra ll C a p a b ility
2 0 .0 0 0 0 0
T a rg e t
Overall Capability:
Benchmark Z or
Capability indices based on long term data
*
Z .B e n ch
1 .3 9
Z .LS L
6 .5 7
USL
4 0 .0 0 0 0 0
Z .U S L
0 .9 2
S a m p le M e a n
3 1 .0 4 1 0 0
P pk
0 .3 1
S a m p le N
200
S hape
1 .0 0 8 1 7
S ca le
6 .0 6 3 6 0
T h re sh o ld
Voice of the
Process
2 4 .9 9 7 5 0
E xp . O v e ra ll P e rfo rm a n ce
P P M < LS L
0 .0
PPM > USL
8 2 6 9 6 .6
P P M T o ta l
8 2 6 9 6 .6
O b se rv e d P e rfo rm a n ce
P P M < LS L
0
PPM > USL
75000
P P M T o ta l
75000
Exp Overall
Performance:
Represents long term
process capability
Observed Performance:
Represents the sample
data
24
30
36
42
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54
152
Non-Normal Capability – Central Limit Theorem
Activity
Using the data (Time_3 and Time 3 sub) in a Minitab file Capability
Example.MTW determine the capability of the PO process in terms of
the time is required to process the POs.
Average time
to process
five POs per
day
Time to
process one
individual PO
Use the file Capability Example. MTW
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Non-Normal Capability – Central Limit Theorem
Q
Which Capability Analysis applies?
• Is the data attribute or variable?
• Is the data normal?
No
• Are the reasons for non-normality
understood?
Yes
• Can the data be described by another
distribution?
No
• Can the data be sub-grouped?
• Is the sub-grouped data normal?
Yes
???
A
Non-normal
Try sub-grouping
the data
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Using Central Limit Theorem Sub-Grouping
Caution!
Check sub-group data Time_3 sub for
normality. If the data is not normal then
this method cannot be used!
Important!
1.
Open the worksheet Capability
Example.MTW.
2.
Choose Stat > Quality Tools >
Capability Analysis > Normal.
3.
Click in the [Single Column] field.
4.
Double click Time_3 in the column
on the left.
5.
Click in the [Subgroup Size] field –
Double click Individ Dates_3 in the
column on the left.
6.
Type 20 in [Lower Spec].
7.
Type 40 in [Upper Spec].
The sub-groups have to make logical sense,
such as by day, by shift, by machine…
Use the file Capability Example. MTW
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Using Central Limit Theorem Sub-Grouping
8.
Select [Options] button.
9.
Add target value (if applicable).
10. Under Display select
8.
Parts per million or Percents
9.
Capability Stats or Benchmark Z
11. Add Title if desired.
12. Click [OK].
13. Click [OK].
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Using Central Limit Theorem Sub-Grouping
Process Capability of Time_3
Sample Mean
LSL
Voice of the
Customer
USL
Within
Ov erall
P rocess Data
LS L
20
Target
*
USL
40
S ample M ean
31.262
S ample N
200
S tDev (Within)
7.55396
S tDev (O v erall) 8.3748
P otential (Within) C apability
Cp
0.44
C P L 0.50
Voice of the
C P U 0.39
Process C pk 0.39
O v erall C apability
Pp
PPL
PPU
P pk
C pm
0.40
0.45
0.35
0.35
*
StDev (Within):
Represents short term data
StDev (Overall):
15
20
25
Represents long term data,
O
bserv ed P erformance
E xp.
Within P erformance
includes
shift and
drift
P P M < LS L
85000.00
P P M < LS L
67997.38
between subgroups
P P M > U S L 175000.00
P P M > U S L 123688.49
P P M Total
260000.00
P P M Total
191685.87
30
35
40
45
50
E xp. O v erall P erformance
P P M < LS L
89353.21
P P M > U S L 148388.88
P P M Total
237742.09
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Using Central Limit Theorem Sub-Grouping
Process Capability of Time_3
LSL
P rocess Data
LS L
20
Target
*
USL
40
S ample M ean
31.262
S ample
N
200
Exp Within:
S tDev (Within)
7.55396
Performance:
S tDev (O v erall) 8.3748
Based on
StDev(Within) and
represents short term
process capability
Observed Performance:
Represents the sample
data.
15
O bserv ed P erformance
P P M < LS L
85000.00
P P M > U S L 175000.00
P P M Total
260000.00
E xp.
PPM
PPM
PPM
20
Capability indices:
USL
Based on short
term data.
Within
Ov erall
Capability indices:
Based on long term
data.
P otential (Within) C apability
Cp
0.44
C P L 0.50
C P U 0.39
C pk
0.39
O v erall C apability
Exp Overall:
Performance: Based on
StDev(Overall) and
represents long term
process capability.
25
Within P erformance
< LS L
67997.38
> U S L 123688.49
Total
191685.87
30
35
40
45
Pp
PPL
PPU
P pk
C pm
0.40
0.45
0.35
0.35
*
50
E xp. O v erall P erformance
P P M < LS L
89353.21
P P M > U S L 148388.88
P P M Total
237742.09
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Non-Normal Capability – Box-Cox Transformation
Activity
Using the data (Time_4) in a Minitab file Capability Example.MTW
determine the capability of the PO process in terms of the time is
required to process the POs.
Time to Process
one individual PO
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Non-Normal Capability – Box-Cox Transformation
Q
Which Capability Analysis applies?
• Is the data attribute or variable?
• Is the data normal?
No
• Are the reasons for non-normality
understood? Yes
• Can the data be described by another
distribution?
No
• Can the data be sub-grouped?
• Can data be transformed?
A
No
???
Non-normal
Try Box-Cox
transformation
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Box-Cox Transformation
1.
Open the worksheet Capability
Example.MTW
2.
Choose Stat > Control Charts > BoxCox Transformation
3.
Choose [All Observations …in one
column] from pull down menu
4.
Click in Large Box
5.
Double click [Time_4] in the column
on the left
6.
Click in the [Subgroup Size] field –
enter 1
7.
Select [Options] radio button
8.
Select [Optimal Lambda]
9.
Enter column for Stored Data
10. Click [OK]
11. Click [OK]
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Box-Cox Transformation Results
B o x -C o x P lo t o f T ime _ 4
L o w er C L
80
U p p er C L
Lam b d a
(u sin g 95.0% c o n fid en c e)
70
E stim ate
Transformed Data
S t De v
60
0.102509
Lo w er C L
- 0.071450
U p p er C L
0.280506
B est V alu e
0.000000
50
40
30
20
Lim it
10
-1
0
1
2
Lambda
Values
3
La mb d a
Q
Is the transformed data normal?
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Using Box-Cox Transformation
1. Open the worksheet Capability
Example.MTW
2. Choose Stat > Quality Tools >
Capability Analysis > Normal
3. Click in the [Single Column]
field
4. Double click Time_4 in the
column on the left

Use the original data, not the
transformed data.
5. Click in the [Subgroup Size]
field – enter 1 (the data is
already sub-grouped)
Caution!
Check transformed data for normality.
If the data is not normal then this
method cannot be used!
6. Type 20 in Lower Spec
7. Type 40 in Upper Spec
Use the file Capability Example. MTW
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Using Box-Cox Transformation
1. Select [Box-Cox] radio button
2. Select [Box-Cox power
transformation]
3. Select [Use Optional lambda]
4. Click OK
5. Select [Options] radio button
6. Add target value (if applicable)
7. Under Display select
a.
Parts per million or Percents
b.
Capability Stats or Benchmark Z
8. Add Title if desired
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NCR Confidential
164
Using Box-Cox Transformation
P r o c e s s C a pa bility o f T ime _ 4
Us ing Bo x-C o x T r a ns fo r m a tio n W ith La m bda = 0.1 33 7 2 5
P ro ce ss D a ta
2 0 .0 0 0 0 0
LS L
T a rg e t
LS L*
U S L*
Calculated
W ith in
O v e ra ll
Lambda
t ran sfo rm e d d at a
*
USL
4 0 .0 0 0 0 0
S a m p le M e a n
2 7 .7 3 8 5 0
S a m p le N
S tD e v (W ith in )
S tD e v (O v e ra ll)
Original
Distribution
P o te n tia l (W ith in ) C a p a b ility
Cp
0 .1 5
C PL
0 .0 1
Transformed
C PU
0 .2 8
Voice ofC pthe
k
0 .0 1
Customer
C C p k 0 .1 5
200
2 0 .1 8 0 6 9
2 3 .2 0 7 1 5
A fte r T ra n sfo rm a tio n
LS L*
O v e ra ll C a p a b ility
1 .4 9 2 7 2
T a rg e t*
*
U S L*
1 .6 3 7 7 0
S a m p le M e a n *
S tD e v (W ith in )*
1 .4 9 9 7 3
0 .1 6 3 1 6
S tD e v (O v e ra ll)*
0 .1 7 2 7 6
Original
Sample Data
1 .2 0
O b se rv e d P e rfo rm a n ce
% < LS L 4 7 .0 0
Transformed
% > U S L 2 3 .0 0
Sample
Data
% T o ta l
7 0 .0 0
E xp . W ith in P e rfo rm a n ce
% < LS L* 4 8 .2 9
1 .3 5
Pp
0 .1 4
PPL
0 .0 1
Transformed
PPU
0 .2 7
VoiceP pof
the
k
0 .0 1
C
p
m
*
Process
1 .5 0
1 .6 5
1 .8 0
E xp . O v e ra ll P e rfo rm a n ce
% < LS L* 4 8 .3 8
% > U S L*
1 9 .8 9
% > U S L* 2 1 .2 3
% T o ta l
6 8 .1 8
% T o ta l
6 9 .6 1
NCR Confidential
165
Using Box-Cox Transformation
P r o c e s s C a pa bility o f T ime _ 4
indices:
Us ing Bo x-C o x T r a ns fo rCapability
m a tio n W ith La
m bda = 0.1 33 7 2 5
Based on short
term data
LS L*
LS L
T a rg e t
4 0 .0 0 0 0 0
2 7 .7 3 8 5 0
Exp Within
200
Performance:
Based
S tD e v (W ith in )
2 0 .1 8 0 6 9
on StDev (Within) and
S tD e v (O v e ra ll) 2 3 .2 0 7 1 5
Arepresents
fte r T ra n sfo rm a tio n short term
LS L* process 1capability.
.4 9 2 7 2
S a m p le M e a n
S a m p le N
T a rg e t*
*
Observed
U S L*
1 .6 3 7 7 0
Performance:
S a m p le M e a n *
1 .4 9 9 7 3
S
tD
e
v
(W
ith
in
)*
.1 6 3 1 6
Represents 0the
S tD e v (O v e ra ll)* 0 .1 7 2 7 6
sample data
1 .2 0
O b se rv e d P e rfo rm a n ce
% < LS L 4 7 .0 0
E xp . W ith in P e rfo rm a n ce
% < LS L* 4 8 .2 9
Exp Overall
Performance: Based on
StDev (Overall) and
represents long term
process capability.
1 .3 5
1 .5 0
1 .6 5
O v e ra ll
P o te n tia l (W ith in ) C a p a b ility
Cp
0 .1 5
C PL
0 .0 1
C PU
0 .2 8
C pk
0 .0 1
C C p k 0 .1 5
O v e ra ll C a p a b ility
Pp
0 .1 4
PPL
0 .0 1
PPU
0 .2 7
P pk
0 .0 1
C pm
*
1 .8 0
E xp . O v e ra ll P e rfo rm a n ce
% < LS L* 4 8 .3 8
% > U S L 2 3 .0 0
% > U S L*
1 9 .8 9
% > U S L* 2 1 .2 3
% T o ta l
% T o ta l
6 8 .1 8
% T o ta l
7 0 .0 0
W ith in
Capability indices:
Based on long
term data.
*
USL
U S L*
t ran sfo rm e d d at a
P ro ce ss D a ta
2 0 .0 0 0 0 0
6 9 .6 1
NCR Confidential
166
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