Language Instruction that Works: Marzano’s Strategies for World Language Students and ELLs Presenter: Dr. Lori Langer de Ramírez firstname.lastname@example.org www.MisCositas.com Research-Based Instruction Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jane Pollock reviewed hundreds of studies on instructional practices that have proven to effect student achievement. 9 Essential Strategies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice… Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, & Advance Organizers Identifying Similarities and Differences Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge. • Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge. • COMPARING: the process of identifying similarities and differences between or among things or ideas. Identifying Similarities and Differences: Venn Diagrams Identifying Similarities and Differences: Comparing with a Comparison Matrix Identifying Similarities and Differences: Classifying The process of grouping things that are alike into categories on the basis of their characteristics. Identifying Similarities and Differences: Classifying with a Web Format Summarizing and Note Taking • To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information. • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information thoroughly. • Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information. • Provide opportunities for students to summarize key content. • Teach students how to process information for their own note taking. Summarizing and Note Taking: Use summary frames and other organizers to assist students who learn visually. Summarizing and Note Taking: Sequencing Events Summarizing and Note Taking: Informal outlines and webbing Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition • Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort. • Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort. • Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition: To Sticker or Not To Sticker? • Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance. • Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition: Electronic portfolios Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition: Gestures and classroom routines Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition: How to praise a classmate ¡UAU! ¡Así se hace! ¡Super! ¡Eres especial! ¡Sobresaliente! ¡Excelente! ¡Bueno! ¡Qué estúpendo! ¡Bien hecho! ¡Fantástico! ¡Super estrella! ¡Buen trabajo! ¡Vas bien! ¡Brava/o! ¡Eres increíble! ¡Eres fantástico/a! ¡Qué inteligente! ¡Eres sorprendente! ¡Buen trabajo! ¡Bien por ti! ¡Te aprecio! ¡Excelente trabajo! ¡Espectacular! ¡Lograste entender! ¡Un buen esfuerzo! ¡Admirable! ¡Fenomenal! ¡Eres interesante! ¡Eres divertido/a! ¡Trabajaste duro! ¡Se ve que te interesa! ¡Qué excelente rendimiento! ¡Me haces reir! ¡Tú iluminas mi día! ¡Te respeto! ¡Es correcto! ¡Eres un tesoro! ¡Eres maravilloso! ¡Eres un tesoro! ¡Eres muy especial! Homework and Practice • The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated. • Establish and communicate a homework policy. • Design homework assignments that clearly articulate the purpose and outcome. Homework and Practice: Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum. Homework and Practice: The importance of feedback • If homework is assigned, it should be commented on. • Vary the approaches to providing feedback on homework assignments. Nonlinguistic Representations • Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on the preexisting knowledge or the newly introduced knowledge. • A variety of activities to produce nonlinguistic representations should be used. Nonlinguistic Representations: Creating graphic representations Nonlinguistic Representations: Making physical models Nonlinguistic Representations Drawing pictures and pictographs Nonlinguistic Representations: Engaging in kinesthetic activities Cooperative Learning Organizing groups based on ability should be done sparingly. Students of low ability perform worse when they are placed in homogeneous groups. Students of high ability perform only marginally better when homogeneously grouped. Middle ability students benefit most. Cooperative Learning: Size and Organization • Cooperative groups should be kept small in size: 3 or 4 members. • Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but not overused. • Tasks given to cooperative groups should be well structured. Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback • Feedback should be corrective in nature. • The best feedback shows students what is accurate and what is not. • Asking students to keep working on a task until they succeed appears to enhance student achievement. Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback: Personalization Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals, adapting them to their personal needs and desires. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback: Criterion-based • Feedback should be specific to a criterion, telling students where they stand relative to a specific target of knowledge or skill. • Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback: Time is of the Essence The larger the delay in giving feedback, the less improvement one will see. Generating and Testing Hypotheses Hypotheses generation and testing can be approached in a more inductive or deductive manner. Inductive: use general rules to make prediction about specific event. Deductive: specific pieces of information lead to general conclusion. Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Problem-solving Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Invention Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers • Cues, questions, and advanced organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual. • “Higher level” questions or advanced organizers produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions or advanced organizers. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers: Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers: Wait time Waiting briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students’ answers.