that Works:
Strategies for
World Language
Students and ELLs
Dr. Lori Langer
de Ramírez
Research-Based Instruction
Robert Marzano,
Debra Pickering,
and Jane Pollock
reviewed hundreds
of studies on
practices that have
proven to effect
9 Essential Strategies
Identifying Similarities and Differences
Summarizing and Note Taking
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
Homework and Practice…
Nonlinguistic Representations
Cooperative Learning
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
Cues, Questions, & Advance Organizers
Identifying Similarities and Differences
Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and
differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
• Representing similarities
and differences in graphic
or symbolic form enhances
students’ understanding of
and ability to use
• COMPARING: the process
of identifying similarities
and differences between or
among things or ideas.
Identifying Similarities and Differences:
Venn Diagrams
Identifying Similarities and Differences:
Comparing with a Comparison Matrix
Identifying Similarities and Differences:
The process of
grouping things that
are alike into
categories on the
basis of their
Identifying Similarities and Differences:
Classifying with a Web Format
Summarizing and Note Taking
• To effectively summarize, students
must delete some information,
substitute some information, and
keep some information.
• To effectively delete, substitute, and
keep information, students must
analyze the information thoroughly.
• Being aware of the explicit structure
of information is an aid to
summarizing information.
• Provide opportunities for students to
summarize key content.
• Teach students how to process
information for their own note taking.
Summarizing and Note Taking:
Use summary frames and other organizers
to assist students who learn visually.
Summarizing and Note Taking:
Sequencing Events
Summarizing and Note Taking:
Informal outlines and webbing
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
• Not all students realize the
importance of believing in
• Students can learn to change
their beliefs to an emphasis
on effort.
• Rewards do not necessarily
have a negative effect on
intrinsic motivation.
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition:
To Sticker or Not To Sticker?
• Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the
attainment of some standard of performance.
• Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than
tangible rewards.
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition:
Electronic portfolios
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition:
Gestures and classroom routines
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition:
How to praise a classmate
¡Así se hace!
¡Eres especial!
¡Qué estúpendo!
¡Bien hecho!
¡Super estrella!
¡Buen trabajo!
¡Vas bien!
¡Eres increíble!
¡Eres fantástico/a!
¡Qué inteligente!
¡Eres sorprendente!
¡Buen trabajo!
¡Bien por ti!
¡Te aprecio!
¡Excelente trabajo!
¡Lograste entender!
¡Un buen esfuerzo!
¡Eres interesante!
¡Eres divertido/a!
¡Trabajaste duro!
¡Se ve que te
¡Qué excelente
¡Me haces reir!
¡Tú iluminas mi día!
¡Te respeto!
¡Es correcto!
¡Eres un tesoro!
¡Eres maravilloso!
¡Eres un tesoro!
¡Eres muy especial!
Homework and Practice
• The purpose of homework should be identified and
• Establish and
communicate a
homework policy.
• Design homework
assignments that clearly
articulate the purpose
and outcome.
Homework and Practice:
Parent involvement in homework
should be kept to a minimum.
Homework and Practice:
The importance of feedback
• If homework is
it should be
commented on.
• Vary the
to providing
on homework
Nonlinguistic Representations
• Nonlinguistic representations
should elaborate on the
preexisting knowledge or the
newly introduced knowledge.
• A variety of activities to
produce nonlinguistic
representations should be
Nonlinguistic Representations:
Creating graphic representations
Nonlinguistic Representations:
Making physical models
Nonlinguistic Representations
Drawing pictures and pictographs
Nonlinguistic Representations:
Engaging in kinesthetic activities
Cooperative Learning
Organizing groups based on
ability should be done
 Students of low
ability perform worse
when they are placed
in homogeneous groups.
 Students of high ability
perform only marginally
better when
 Middle ability students
benefit most.
Cooperative Learning:
Size and Organization
• Cooperative groups should be kept small in size: 3 or 4 members.
• Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but
not overused.
• Tasks given to cooperative groups should be well structured.
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback
• Feedback should be corrective in nature.
• The best feedback shows students what is accurate and what is not.
• Asking students to keep working on a task until they succeed appears
to enhance student achievement.
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback:
Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals, adapting them to
their personal needs and desires.
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback:
• Feedback should be
specific to a
criterion, telling
students where they
stand relative to a
specific target of
knowledge or skill.
• Students
can effectively
provide some
of their own
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback:
Time is of the Essence
The larger the delay in giving feedback,
the less improvement one will see.
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
generation and testing
can be approached in
a more inductive or
deductive manner.
 Inductive: use
general rules to
make prediction
about specific event.
 Deductive: specific
pieces of information
lead to general
Generating and Testing Hypotheses:
Generating and Testing Hypotheses:
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
• Cues, questions, and
advanced organizers should
focus on what is important
as opposed to what is
• “Higher level” questions or
advanced organizers
produce deeper learning
than “lower level” questions
or advanced organizers.
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers:
Questions are effective learning tools even
when asked before a learning experience.
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers:
Wait time
Waiting briefly before accepting responses
from students has the effect of increasing
the depth of students’ answers.

An introduction to World Languages at Herricks