The Golden Horde
Matt Below
Geog 308
Prof. Zoltan Grossman
Who Where the Mongols?
• Tatar people
• Were once nomads
• Lived in area of
Northern China, part
of what is now
• Made contact with
Marco Polo costumes/costume.html
Who Where the Mongols?
• One of the most
feared groups in
• Highly advanced
• Traveled mostly
during winter months
• Ambitious conquerors EarlyMedieval.html
The Golden Horde
• Dubbed “Golden Horde” because of bright
military tents- from fires inside
• Led and ruled by Khans
– Khan- supreme ruler (Turkish for Chief)
• Khans always chosen from “Golden
Mongolian Yurts
Mongolian Yurts
• Advantages of Yurts:
– Easily set up
– Easily taken down
– Easily transported
– Light-weight
Beginning of the Golden Horde
• Mongol leader
Temujin wills himself
supreme ruler
• Assumes title of
Genghis Khan
• Established the
“Golden Family”
• Blue Horde and White
Horde unite to form
the Golden Horde UKWI/index_2.htm
Genghis Khan
• 1206-1227
• Feared throughout Asia
and Europe
• Began first conquests of
• Took capital of Peking
(now Beijing)
• Seized control of entire
Chinese empire
– Stretched from Volga River
to the Pacific Ocean military/khan.html
Extent of Golden Horde Territories
Batu Khan
Grandson of Genghis
Leader of Blue Horde
Second khan of the Golden Horde
Emphasized boundary expansion
Took Moscow, Kiev, Hungary, Poland, parts of
• Longest ruling khan in history of the Golden
Orda Khan
Leader of the White Horde
Brother of Batu
Along with brother, formed Golden Horde
Timur Khan
• Last ruler of the Golden Horde
• Broke into 3 separate Tatar tribes
– 3 khanates
– Astrakhan, Kazan, and the Crimea
• Partly due to Central Russia becoming
much more powerful
• Assimilated into Islamic Turkic rule, rather
than Russian Christian
• Golden Horde fades into history
Conquests of the Golden Horde
The Golden Horde
• Highly advanced
• Very skilled at siegecraft
– Contracted Middle
Eastern and Chinese
engineers to build
siege devices
• Catapults
• Battering rams mongol/mongol1.htm
Some Siege Techniques
• Begin a siege on a
fortified city, then fall back
• Enemies would believe
Mongols were retreating
• Enemy opens gates in
pursuit of Mongol soldiers
• Mongols ambush
opponents, siege city mongol/mongol.shtml
Siege Techniques
• If conventional means
did not work
• Mongols broke dikes
and levees of nearby
rivers and lakes
• Created floods
• Flood either
destroyed walls of the
city or forced the
enemy to surrender mongol/mongol1.htm
Battlefield Warfare
• Skilled horsemen
– Had small, stout ponies
– Treated them with extreme
• Cavalry moved on
horseback with
astonishing speed
• Rode standing up and
used stirrups
• Allowed them to fire
arrows in any direction mongol/mongol1.htm
Extent of Golden Horde Territories
Communication by Mongols
• Mongols on
horseback relay
• Called “orto”
• Similar to Pony
The Golden Horde
• Spoke Mongol, Arabic, Tatar languages
• State religion was Islam, but allowed for religious
freedom throughout entire empire
• Derived postal systems and censuses
• Allowed free-trade throughout the entire empire
(even conquered peoples)
• Vast contacts across Europe and Asia
• Golden Horde greatly pushed their imperial
power, but not their ethnicity or religious beliefs
Mongol Artwork
• Many pieces considered
ancient Chinese were
either influenced by or
made by Mongols
• Absorbed Chinese,
Indian, Middle Eastern art
styles after conquering
the people
• Mongol soldiers carved
elaborate designs on
saddles, bows and
• 03/hm3_5_13d.html
Golden Horde Trade
• Free trade allowed
throughout the empire
• Controlled “Silk Road”
– Trade route
– 1000’s of miles long
– Linked Russia,
Mongolia, China, and
The Golden Horde
• Feared by nearly all
people familiar with
• Portrayed as ruthless
– European artwork
showed Mongols as
unhuman, beastly mongol/mongol1.htm
The Golden Horde
• Actually quite opposite
• Then, the Mongols were more tolerant of
different races and religions than many
nations are today
• Treated all territories equally as part of
• Did not assimilate conquered peoples into
the Mongol culture
The Golden Horde Vassal Policy
• Vassal- territory of conquered people under
Mongol rule
• After conquering, left diplomats and
representative behind to control people
• Only attacked vassals if they rebelled
• If the Vassals rebelled, Mongols armies would
destroy their cities and everyone/everything in it
• The Golden Horde rulers would have everyone
killed before they would discriminate against
• The Mongol Khans Ancient Ancestors All Empires 03/hm3_5_13d.html The State
Hermitage UKWI/index_2.htm Book Place Friesan Country Studies GoldenHistory.htm Tripod

The Golden Horde