Empire of the Great Khan 12.3 Kublai Khan • Grandson of Genghis Khan • Took the title of ‘Great Khan’ in 1260. • Remember the Mongol Empire was already divided into 4 Khanates. • Kublai Khan focused on extending the power of his own Khanate, which already included Mongolia, Korea, Tibet, and Northern China. • Kublai Khan wanted ALL of China. Kublai Khan • It took 3 generations of Mongol leaders to complete the conquest of China begun by Genghis Khan. – 1233, Genghis’s son, Ogadai conquered Northern China. – This opened Southern China open to attack. – Chinese soldiers fought the Mongols for 40 years, but in 1279, Kublai Khan’s army overwhelmed them. 4 Khanates Khanate of Kublai Khan Kublai Khan- China’s new emperor • Founded a new dynasty – Yuan Dynasty • It lasted less than a century. – In 1368, it was overthrown. – But the Yuan era was important in China’s history. Considered one of China’s greatest emperors • Kublai Khan united China for the first time in 300 years. • Established greater foreign trade and contacts. • Allowed Chinese culture to remain and made few changes in the government. Enjoyed luxuries • Kubali Khan spent most of his life in China. • He enjoyed living as a Chinese emperor. – Summer palace at Shangdu, or Xanadu – Built a new square walled capital in Beijing – Marco Polo called his palace, “the largest that was ever seen.” – The Silk Road ended in Beijing. – Beijing means “Northern Capital” Marco Polo- excerpt from The Travels of Marco Polo • “The hall is so vast and so wide that a meal might well be served there for more than 6,000 men….the whole building is at once so immense and so well constructed that no man in the world…could imagine any improvement in design or execution.” Kublai Khan Wall remnants of Kublai Khan’s summer palace at Xanadu Failure in Japan • Kublai Khan tried to conquer Japan. • In 1274 and also in 1281, The Great Khan sent huge fleets against Japan. • Mongols forced Koreans to build, sail, and provide boats, a costly task that almost ruined Korea. • The second fleet carried 150,000 Mongol, Chinese, and Korean warriors. – It was the largest seaborne invasion force in history until WWII • After 53 days of fighting, a typhoon swept furiously across the Sea of Japan. – Mongol ships were crushed against the rocky shores. – Many Mongols drowned – For centuries afterward, the Japanese spoke reverently about the kamikaze, or “divine wind’ that saved Japan. Mongol Rule in China • Had little in common with Chinese subjects • Obeyed different laws and followed different customs • Chinese officials served at the local levels, while Mongols and foreigners had the highest government positions. Grand Canal • Kublai Khan restored the ‘Grand Canal’ • This ensured the steady trade of grain from China’s southern heartland to northern China. Foreign Trades • Safe caravan routes across the Mongol Empire for trade. • Established mail routes that linked China to India and Persia • Invited foreign merchants to China. • People transported Chinese silk and porcelain. • Other Chinese inventions that went west included printing, gunpowder, the compass, paper currency, and playing cards. Marco Polo • Most famous European to visit China. • Traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads and arrived at Kublai Khan’s palace around 1275. • Marco learned several Asian languages and Khan sent him to various cities on government missions. • Polo served the Great Khan for 17 years. • In 1292, Marco Polo left China and returned to Venice, Italy. • They returned by sea around Southeast Asia and India. • Marco Polo was captured during a war between Venice and Genoa, Italy. • He was imprisoned. • While in prison, he told the full story of his travels and adventures. Marco Polo’s stories • • • • • Fantastic wealth ‘Burning of the black stones’ - coal Khan’s government Trade in Beijing His stories were put into a book, which sold many copies. • Many people, however, did not believe it and thought they were ‘tall tales’. The End of Yuan Empire • Khan sent several expeditions into Southeast Asia. • His armies and navies suffered many humiliating defeats. • The heavy spending for wars, public works, and royal luxuries created resentment among the overtaxed Chinese. Death • Died in 1294, almost age 80 • The Yuan Dynasty remained in power for another 74 years. • Family members fought over who would rule. • Rebellions broke out in many parts of China during the 1300s – Tired of Mongol Rule – Famine – Flood – Disease – Economic problems – Official corruption • In 1368, the Chinese rebels overthrew the Mongols and seized power. • The rebel leader founded a new dynasty – the Ming dynasty. • Some Mongols remained in China, but most of them returned to their homeland on the Mongolian Steppe. • By the end of the Yuan Dynasty the Mongol Empire had disintegrated. • Three out of the four Khanates had fallen apart. • Only the ‘Golden Horde’ remained, which ruled Russia for another 250 years. • Ivan III finally led the way to Russia’s independence in 1480. Artifacts from Yuan Dynasty • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p9Ol0IJ kU7c 1. Kublai Khan founded the ________________ Dynasty. 2. Kublai Khan was the grandson of __________________________. 3. Unlike his ancestors, Kublai Khan lived most of his life in ________________ instead of ___________________________. 4. As the emperor of China, Kublai Khan built a new capital and palace at the site of the modern-day city of _______________________. 5. Kublai Khan assumed the title of Great Khan, a role that, in theory, placed him in control of the entire ______________________ ________________________. 6. Up until World War II, the largest seaborne invasion in history was one that the Mongol launched against ___________________. 7. In 1368, the last Mongol Khan of China was overthrown and power was seized by __________________________. 8. Under Mongol rule, most of the highest government posts were awarded to two groups: _________________________ and __________________. 9. _____________ __________________ was the most famous European to visit China during the lifetime of Kublai Kahn. Later, he described Kublai Khan and his court to disbelieving Europeans. 10. Many traders and missionaries travel to and from China on the trade route called the ___________________________. Assignment • You are a Chinese citizen. Write a letter to Kublai Kahn explaining what is unfair, or what you dislike about his leadership. • You must have at least 3 reasons listed with descriptions and explanations in your letter. • You must also explain who you are, what your occupation is, and what your life is like. • Use # 25 to help you with your letter.