NOMADIC EMPIRES
AND EURASIAN
INTEGRATION
Chapter 18 Review
DURING WHAT PERIOD DID THE
NOMADS OF CENTRAL ASIA
IMPACT THE OTHER GLOBAL
CIVILIZATIONS OF THE EASTERN
HEMISPHERE DURING THE POST
CLASSICAL ERA?
 A) 900 to 1100
 B) 1100 to 1300
 C) 1200 to 1400
 D) 1300 to 1500
 E) 800-900
WHAT WAS THE BASIC UNIT OF MONGOL
SOCIETY?
 A) The nuclear family
 B) The tribe
 C) The guild
 D) The city-state
 E) Band
HOW DID THE GEOGRAPHY OF CENTRAL
ASIA AFFECT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
NOMADIC CULTURES?
NOMADIC ECONOMY
AND SOCIETY
 Clans, related languages
 sought trade, were prominent on caravan routes
 Fluidity of classes in nomadic society
 Two social classes: nobles and commoners
 Autonomous clans and tribes
 Religions: shamans, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity; by
tenth century, Islam
HOW DID THESE PEOPLE ADAPT TO THEIR
ENVIRONMENT? WHAT ADVANTAGES DID THEIR
ADAPTATIONS GIVE THEM?
ENVIRONMENT
 Nomads drove herds in migratory cycles
 Lived mostly on animal products
 limited amounts of millet, pottery, leather goods, iron
DISCUSS THE MILITARY ORGANIZATION,
TECHNIQUES, AND STRATEGIES OF THESE
ASIAN NOMADS. HOW DID THESE ABILITIES
MAKE THEIR MILITARY SO FORMIDABLE?
WHERE WAS THE CAPITAL OF THE
MONGOL EMPIRE UNDER CHINGGIS
KHAN?
 A) Samarkand
 B) Karakorum
 C) Tatu
 D) Khwarazm
 E) Cambolu
Using Primary source material: Marco
Polo
 Read the Primary source and highlight the following:
 Military structures
 Pleasure structures
 Economic structures
 Marco Polo’s impressions
 Discuss
MILITARY
 Khan ("ruler") organized vast confederation of individual
tribes for expansion
 Outstanding cavalry forces
 formidable military power
Kublai Khan
Genghis Khan
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szxPar0BcMo
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WAS
NOT ONE OF THE POSITIVE
ASPECTS OF CHINGGIS KHANʹS
IMPERIAL RULE?
 A) He promulgated a legal code to end divisions and quarrels
among the Mongol clans.
 B) He brought peace to much of Asia.
 C) He promoted the growth of trade and commerce.
 D) He ordered the creation of huge pastures in northern
China for the use of the Mongol
 clans.
 E) He promised religious toleration for many different
religious groups.
CONQUEST OF NORTHERN
CHINA
 Chinggis Khan, Mongols
raided the Jurchen in north
China 1211
 Controlled north China by
1220
 South China ruled by the
Song dynasty
 Mongol/Yuan dynasty
(founded 1279)
 Unsuccessful conquests of
Vietnam, Burma, Java, and
Japan by Khubilai
FACTORS
 Equestrian skills
 Bows
 Mobile forces
 Mongol overlords oversaw local administrators
 Outlawed intermarriage
 Tolerated religions
 Confucianism lost government support
HOW DID THE MONGOLS COME TO CONQUER
CHINA? WHAT WERE THE KEY ELEMENTS IN THEIR
SUCCESS?
Speed
Fear
Babies
WHAT WAS THE RELIGIOUS POLICY
OF THE MONGOL EMPIRE UNDER
CHINGGIS KHAN?
 A) He was converted to Islam late in his life.
 B) He practiced no religious beliefs himself, but tolerated
Islam only.
 C) All religions were tolerated in his empire.
 D) Buddhism became the state religion of the Mongol
empire.
 E) After the Russian campaign the Mongols became
Orthodox Christians.
FOLLOWING CHINGGIS KHANʹS DEATH, WHAT WAS THE
PROVISION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE
EMPIRE?
 A) It was divided into four regional kingdoms, or khanates,
ruled by his sons and grandsons.
 B) It was centralized with a Mongol bureaucracy located at the
Chinese capital of Tatu.
 C) The empire immediately fragmented into its constituent
tribes and clans.
 D) It passed as a single government with its capital at
Karakorum to Chinggis Khanʹs oldest son.
 E) Mandarins from China were brought in to help administer
the empire under the guidance of the grand khan.
DISCUSS THE ROLE OF
EPIDEMICS IN THE DECLINE OF
THE MONGOL EMPIRES. How
were the Mongol’s responsible?
After the Mongols:
The rise of the Turks
TURKISH EXPANSION INTO
PERSIA AND INDIA
SALJUK TURKS
In the Abbasid Empire
 Mid 8th – mide 10th centuries
 Lived on borders
 Traded
 Joined Army
In the Byzantine
Empire
 Began migrating to Anatolia
in 11th century
 1071 – defeat Byzantines at
Manzikert – take emperor
 1055 – Tughril Beg recognized
as sultan by caliph
 Peasants see Saljuks as
liberators
 Successors extend rule to
Syria and Paestine
 Displaced Byzantine
authority
WHO WAS TAMERLANE, AND
WHAT WAS HIS LASTING LEGACY?
HOW DID THE TURKS COME TO TOPPLE THE
BYZANTINE EMPIRE?
WHAT ROLE DID RELIGION(S) PLAY IN THE
NOMADIC EMPIRES? WHAT GENERALIZATIONS
CAN YOU MAKE? WHAT ARE THE SIGNIFICANT
DIFFERENCES?
MAHMUD OF GHAZNI
 Enemy of Buddhism and Hinduism
 Attacked temples and shrines
 Stripped Hindu and Buddhist establishments of their
wealth
 Repressed Buddhism and Hinduism and promoted Islam
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Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Integration