Global Review
Early Civilizations
Hunters and Gatherers (Old Stone Age)
Also called nomads, or people who moved from place to place.
Social structure consisted of small groups of people that traveled together.
Made simple tools and weapons, such as digging sticks and spears.
Developed a language which allowed them to cooperate in a hunt.
Began burying dead with care- maybe believed in afterlife
Buried tools and weapons with their dead.
Invented clothing made of animal skins.
Used fire for warmth and for cooking food.
 A member of a group that has no permanent home, wandering from place to place in search of food and
 Nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods are called
 These people increased their food supply by inventing tools such as spears and knives.
 The nomadic lifestyle eventually lead to the domesticated way of life, where crops were planted and
animals were raised for food.
 In present day, nomads still exist in places such as the Kalahari Desert and the BaMbuti rainforest.
 Neolithic revolution was around 10,000 B.C.
 Environmental changes caused an end to the stone age because people could farm and domesticate animals.
 People no longer had to wander to search for food but could raise their own food and live in permanent
 This new age was called the Neolithic period
 The new discoveries called the Neolithic Revolution or the Agricultural Revolution
because the new farming discoveries changed the way people lived.
Cultural Diffusion (The old stone age)
 The exchange of ideas, customs, and goods among cultures.
 Migration, during the old stone age people migrated into North America and other migrated to the islands in
the Pacific, led to cultural diffusion.
 Cultural diffusion also occurred through trade and warfare.
 An example is the Sumerians, as their population and trade increased the Sumerians started coming in contact
with other people. New cities were arising all over the Fertile Crescent. The Sumerians absorbed ideas such as
religious beliefs from neighboring cultures.
Defined as a complex culture with five characteristics (1)advanced cities, (2)specilized workers,
(3)complex institutions, (4) record keeping, and (5) advanced technology
Advanced cities: center for trade
Specialized workers: not everyone had to farm people could specialize in other areas like traders or
Complex institutions: like government need to be a lasting pattern of organization in a community
Record keeping: all civilizations have a system of writing to keep track of taxes and laws
advanced technology: new tools and techniques that are needed to solve the problems.
 The King of ancient Egypt
 The Pharaoh was considered a god as well as a ruler
 This type of government was a theocracy because Pharaoh was a divine figure and at the head of
 The Egyptians believed that Pharaoh was in charge of the kingdom's well-being
 He caused the sun to rise and the crops to grow
 The pharaoh also was responsible for the court system and promoting truth and justice
 Egyptians also believed that their kings ruled even after they had died
 Pyramids were built for the pharaohs because it was believed that their eternal spirit reigned forever
Fertile Crescent
 The Fertile Crescent is an area of land that lies between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea in
Southwest Asia.
 The Fertile Crescent is also known as Mesopotamia.
 The people of which were the first to settle in this area around 4500 B.C, were the Sumerians.
 The Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, which lie within the crescent, flow southeastward to the Persian Gulf.
Once a year, they flood the Crescent, and it leaves a thick layer of silt, a thick mud, which keeps the land so
moist and fertile. In this thick layer of soil, the farmers can plant and harvest enormous quantities of wheat
barley, allowing their villages to grow.
 The good soil was what attracted people to Mesopotamia, but this type of environment had three
disadvantages to it
 The flooding of the rivers was unpredictable, they could come as early as April, and as late as June. The
floods would recede, the hot sun would dry them up, no rain would fall, and the land would become dry
and desert-like.
 The region was small, about the size of Massachusetts, and villages were in small clusters and were
almost defenseless.
 Natural resources were extremely limited, they didn’t have much to use for tools and buildings.
Sumerian Civilization (4000b.c- 500a.d)
 Sumerians lived 5000 years ago in Sumer, Mesopotamia.
 The Sumerians lived by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
 Government
 Each Sumerian state had a hereditary ruler who was seen as chief servant to the gods.
 Religion
 Each Sumerian state was believed in many powerful gods or the were polytheistic.
 Most of the gods were compared to the forces of nature.
 The largest buildings were temples called ziggurat's.
 Economy
 Their economy was based on trading.
 Contributions
 The Sumerians developed a form of writing called cuneiform.
 They also developed algebra and geometry.
 Sumerians built the worlds first wheeled vehicle and had irrigation systems, dikes, and canals.
Middle Kingdom (1650 B.C.)
 The Middle Kingdom was the early kingdom of China.
 The geography in the region isolated the Chinese people, more so than other civilizations.
 Because they had little contact with other cultures, the Chinese people believed their culture was the center of
the world, so they named it the Middle Kingdom.
 Most people of this region lived along the coast and in the river valleys.
 Though the country had a king, clans, or large family groups, controlled the land.
 The king in Shang China set up the first dynasty in China.
 Social Structure:
 Noble Warriors : owned land
 Merchants and Craftsmen : earned a living in the cities
 Peasants : largest amount of people, lived in farming villages
Bantu Migration(2,000 years ago)
 The Bantu refer to over 400 different ethnic groups in Africa, from Cameroon to South Africa, united by a
common language family, the Bantu languages, and in many cases common customs.
 About 2,000 years ago, small groups of Bantu speakers began spreading south and east.
 They shared their skills with people they met on their journey, adapted their methods to suit their new
environment, and learned new ways.
 Moving eastward toward the savannas they adapted their skills for herding goats and sheep to raising cattle.
 Passing through what is now Kenya and Tanzania, they learned to cultivate new crops.
 This expanded their food supply
 They followed the Congo river through the rain forests, there they farmed the riverbanks.
 1,500 years = Bantu speakers reached the southern tip of
 They believe the Bantu migrated because their was an
explosion of food supply, which increased the population.
With this increase, their was a need for food and land, so
people went to search these out resulting in the migration.
Classical Civilizations
Zhou Dynasty
Around 1027 B.C., the Zhou overthrew the Shang and brought new ideas such as the Mandate of Heaven into
Chinese culture.
Controlled vast amounts of land, so the government established the system known as Feudalism, in which
nobles are given use of the lands that the king legally owns, in exchange for the nobles’ loyalty and military service
to the king.
The Chinese people gradually accepted the Zhou ways.
The Zhou improved trade by introducing coined money to China, and also made advancements such as using
iron in weapons and agricultural tools.
The Zhou dynasty rule ended in 256 B.C.
Mandate of Heaven
Used by the ancient Chinese dynasties
The belief that the right to rule is granted from Heaven
There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler.
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The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler.
The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty.
Han Dynasty
 The founding of the Han Dynasty:
 Liu Bang fought for the power of the dynasty against Xiang Xu, an aristocratic general
 Liu Bang established a centralized government in which a central authority controls the running of a
 Started civil service jobs, government jobs that civilians could obtain by taking examinations to work for
the bureaucracy that helped the rulers. They would test the civilians on Confucianism
 Han Technology
 Paper was invented and before this books were written on silk but paper was cheaper so it made books
more able to spread Chinese education
 Everyone began to think agriculture was the most important so everyone began to practice it
 Overthrow by Wang Mang
 He was a Confucian scholar and member of the court he overthrew the infant leader and the Han
A Greek city-state– the fundamental political unit of ancient Greece after about 750 B.C.
After the sea of peoples invaded mainland Greece around 1200 B.C., the Dorians moved in the area.
Greek civilization experienced a decline during this time. By 750 B.C. the Greeks saw the rise of powerful
Made up of a city and its surrounding countryside, which included numerous villages.
Most city-states controlled between 50 and 500 square miles of territory.
In some city-states there were monarchies, however in time most adopted aristocracy. These very rich
ruling families often gained political power after working in a king’s military cavalry.
As trade expanded, a new class of wealthy merchants and artisans emerged in some cities. When these
groups became dissatisfied with aristocratic rule, they either took power or shared it with the nobility.
They formed an oligarchy.
Athens and Sparta are famous city states.
Direct Democracy
Direct democracy is a select group of people who have all the say in the government.
The people get the chance o vote for who they want those select individuals to be.
If the people chose the wrong people for the job then they would not be able to change it.
The only way to overthrow them would be to kill them.
 Hellenistic is a Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences.
 Koine is the most popular spoken language.
 This Greek culture was spread by Alexander the Great as he conqueror places like Egypt, and Persia
Alexander the Great
Roman Empire
 The Roman Empire was founded in 753 B.C.
This republic slowly became one of the worlds most powerful empire.
Around 50 B.C. Julius Caesar took control of Rome.
Caesar soon became the absolute ruler of the Roman Empire.
Caesars biggest goal for Rome was to make it the biggest empire ever, so he would constantly invade
countries to enlarge his territory.
 Caesar was assassinated and his grandnephew takes over his name Caesar Augustus and brought the republic
to and end thus starting the age of the roman empire this two-hundred year peace was called the Pax
Pax Romana 27 B.C to 180 A.D.
The Pax Romana
 The period of peace and prosperity in Rome. Also known as “Roman Peace.”
 The population increased during this period.
 Cultural and intellectual achievements of Rome increased.
The laws of twelve tables-set of laws such as a person is considered innocent until proven guilty.
Aqueducts- bridge like structures used to carry water to long distances.
The use of arch’s and dome’s for the Pantheon.
Greek and roman culture spread throughout culture.
Belief Systems
 An ancient religion that centralizes it’s beliefs around the belief that human-like spirits are present in animals,
plants, and all other natural objects.
 The spirits are believed to be the souls of dead ancestors.
 Spirits possess living and non-living things
 Often combined with other religions to extend beliefs.
Definition: a belief in a single god
Greek words “mono” meaning “one” and “theism” meaning “god-worship”
The Hebrews (Jews) were the first religions to become monotheistic. They believed in one god for
protection who they called Yahweh. Yahweh had power over everyone, not just the Jews and Hebrews.
God was not a physical being, and no physical images were to be made of him.
According to the Torah the treason Yahweh looked after the Hebrews was because Abraham promised to
obey him, not because of ceremonies or sacrifices as seen in polytheism.
 Started with Nomads in the Indus Valley in 1500 B.C.
 Brahmah – one unifying spirit
 Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, Shiva the Destroyer
 Goal of life is to unite with Brahman (through reincarnation)
 Reincarnation – rebirth of the soul in a new body, get closer to Brahman with every rebirth
 Karma – deeds of ones life that effect his or her next life
 Dharma – moral and religious duties that are expected from an individual
 Caste system – social class system
 Vedas – one of the books of Hinduism, filled with sacred teachings
Karma (750 B.C.)
 Hindus share a common world-view.
 They see religion as a way of liberating the soul from the illusions, disappointments, and mistakes of everyday
 Sometime between 750 B.C. and 550 B.C., Hindu teachers tried to interpret and explain the hidden meaning
of the Vedic hymns.
 As they meditated on the Vedas, they asked:
 What is the nature of reality?
 What is morality?
 Is there eternal life?
 What is the soul?
 A belief in reincarnation, or rebirth of the soul in another body after death, forms the basis of Hinduism and
underlies the entire cast system.
 A person’s cast is their reward or punishment for karma, deeds committed in a previous
 Karma influences specific life circumstances, such as the cast one is born into, one’s
state of health, wealth or poverty, and so on.
 Reincarnation is a central teaching of the Hindu Religion.
 When one is born they are given life by Brahma, as they pass through life they are preserved by Vishnu, until
Shiva claims you in death.
 Than the cycle is repeated over and over again until one finally achieves Moksha.
 Rivers are used to symbolize reincarnation because they have a constant flow, yet follow the same course.
 Originated in India, by Siddhartha Guatama
 Four Noble truths
All life is suffering
Suffering is caused by desire for things that re illusions
The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate desire
Following the Eightfold Path will help people overcome desire
 Sacred text Tripitaka- Three baskets of wisdom
 Ultimate goal: Nirvana- union with the universe and release from the cycle of death and rebirth
Four Noble Truths
The Four Noble Truths were a part of Siddhartha Gautama’s Buddhism.
These truths were what was understood by Siddhartha in his enlightenment.
They were ideas that were supposed to be followed to seek enlightenment, or wisdom.
The First Noble Truth- Everything in life is suffering and sorrow.
The Second Noble Truth- The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of
this world.
The Third Noble Truth- The way to end all suffering is to end all desires.
The Fourth Noble Truth- The way to overcome such desires and to attain enlightenment is to follow the
Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self-denial.
Nirvana- 250 B.C.
 Belief of the Buddhist religion.
 Defined as union with the universe. It is also a release from the cycle of death and rebirth.
 It is also a release from selfishness and pain.
 Buddha stressed that each individual person could reach a peace state called nirvana.
 You have to follow the Eightfold Path in order to reach nirvana.
To achieve Nirvana, you would have to reject the sensory world and embracing spiritual discipline.
Confucianism started in China during the Zhou Dynasty
Confucianism was the guide to the nature of government and the structure to society
Men were thought to be superior to women
Confucius wrote The Analects
Confucius believed in order to establish social order, harmony and a good government he needed
to use the
 Five key relationships 1. friend to friend, 2.father to son, 3. ruler to subject, 4. husband to wife,
5. older brother to younger brother
 Confucius stressed that children should practice filial piety or respect for their elders
 There was also an influence on the Japanese
Taoism (or Daoism) bout 500 B.C.
Founder= Laozi
Live in harmony with nature
Contemplate Tao, or the ‘way’
Yielding and acceptance are important virtues
Followers rejected the world and human government, they often became hermits, mystics or poets.
Balance of yin and yang
Yin= earth, darkness, female forces
Yang= heaven, light, and male forces
Collected works: The Way of Virtue and zhuang-zi
Islam(1600s – 2005)
Islam is a religion that came about in the early 1600s.
The first follower was a merchant named Muhammad Ali.
He claimed that one night the voice of Allah (God) spoke to him, and thus he began the religion.
To be a Muslim (a submitted one) or a follower of Islam, followers must obey the five pillars or five duties
to Allah.
The first of the five pillars is faith – the follower must proclaimed that Allah is the one true God and
Muhammad is the messenger of God.
The second of the five pillars is prayer – five times a day the Muslims must face toward Mecca (the holy
city) and pray.
The third of the five pillars is alms – Muslims all have a responsibility to support the poor, which they do by
giving religious tax, in money.
The fourth pillar of Islam is fasting – During the Muslim’s holy month called Ramadan the Muslims will eat
nothing from dawn to sunset, and then only a simple meal to remind themselves that they should have
greater priorities than bread.
The fifth pillar of Islam is pilgrimage – All Muslims who can afford it are supposed to make a pilgrimage to
If a Muslim follows the five pillars of Mecca then they go to Heaven, if they don’t then they go to Hell.
* Muhammad was born into a clan of a powerful Mecca Family
* Muhammad took great interest in religion. When he was alone he mostly prayed and meditated.
* When he was 40 a voice called to him while he was meditating. The voice was believed to say that Muhammad
was a messenger of god.
* In 622 Muhammad left Mecca. He went 200 miles north of Mecca too a town called Yathrib. This journey by
Muhammad was known as the Hijrah.
* Muhammad returned to Mecca in 630 with his 10,000 followers.
* Mecca surrendered and Muhammad became leader. Most people in Mecca converted to Islam to pledge their
loyalty to Muhammad.
* Muhammad dies two years later at the age of 62.
Five Pillars
 This applies to the Islamic religion.
 Faith
 To become muslin, you need to testify to the statement of faith: “there is no god but allah, Muhammad is the
messenger of allah.
 Prayer
 Muslims must face Mecca and pray five times a day.
 Alms
 Muslims have been taught to support the less fortunate.
 Fasting
 During the Muslim month of Ramadan, Muslims fast. Fasting is eating and drinking nothing from sun up to
sun down.
 Pilgrimage
 Muslims must go on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime.
Jesus Christ was the founder of Christianity.
He was born around 6 to 4 B.C.
He began his ministry at age 30.
Jesus’ teachings included many Jewish beliefs, such as monotheism and the Ten
Commandments. He stressed God’s personal relationship with each person.
 Jesus’ followers were called ‘disciples’ and later ‘apostles’.
 Jesus was crucified around A.D. 29 for ‘challenging the authority of the Roman government’.
Jesus’ disciples believed that his crucifixion was a triumph over death and that he was the
Messiah. The Jewish priests of the time did not believe he was the Messiah and call his ministry
 Jesus’ disciples continued to spread Jesus’ teachings and Christianity later became a
prominent religion throughout the world.
 Christians used the book as a way to follow their god.
 The book consisted of the old and new testament.
 The bible contains stories and messages about their god.
 The old testament is their god’s life as it was on earth and how it came to be.
Monotheistic – belief in one God who is present everywhere, all-knowing, all-powerful
Holy book – Torah
Writings are a sacred recording of the laws and events in Jewish history
Also writings of the prophets (spiritual leaders)
Believe that God made a covenant (agreement) with Abraham and the Hebrews to protect them
Ten Commandments from God given to Moses – laws that describe how people should behave towards God
and each other
 Believe that God chose the Hebrews as His people
 Prophets were people who God talked to, they taught about moral standards and justice
 Judaism later had a strong influence on Christianity and Islam
A Diaspora is a dispersion of a people from their original homeland. In global history we studied the
Diaspora of the Jews from their homeland in Canaan (Israel) in 77 C.E. According to
tradition, the Jews were given Israel by “God” in about 2000 B.C.E. In about 77 C.E., the
Romans attacked Jerusalem and destroyed the temple. With Jerusalem now being
controlled by the Romans, Jews dispersed throughout Eurasia in search of a place where
they could practice freely. In 1948 A Jewish state of Israel was crated although many Jews
still live in other parts of the World.
Cultural Exchange
The Gupta Dynasty (300-700)
 Known as India’s Golden Age
 After being invaded and defeated India needed a new leader
 The Gupta family came to rule, and managed to defeat the foreigners
 The Gupta's reign would last 300 years from 329 to 650 A.D
 ChandraGupta I
 The first Gupta who turned around India and fought off foreigners and expanded India.
 The Golden Age
 The golden age of India During the Gupta’s was architecture and Buddhist art.
Caste System
 This is based on what place your are in society.
 The say if you are up there in the caste system, that means that you have good “Karma” Which means that
you where good in your past life.
 In the caste system it is good to be a male, wealthy, and a warrior.
 Sometimes the caste system is bad, like if you did something really bad then you are shun and no one can talk
to them.
 Untouchables lowest form of the Caste System.
 Urbanization was the building of cities and the movement of people to the cities.
 Some cities such as London and Berlin tripled or even quadrupled in size.
 The Byzantium Empire
 In 395, the empire officially divided into two.
 Western roman empire was outrun by Germanic tribes.
 The new Rome
 Constantinople, the new capital or the empire.
 In 527, Justinian I becomes emperor.
High ranking Byzantine nobleman
Ruled with absolute power
Won Italy and Spain
He ruled almost all the territory all Rome had ever had
Made Justinian's code, set of laws, severed the empire for 900 years
 In 671, Greek fire was invented.
 In 1054, Christian church divides
 Eastern orthodox
 Roman catholic
 In 1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks.
Justinian Code
 To regulate a complex society, Justinian set up a panel of ten experts.
 The panels task was to create a single, uniform code for Justinian’s New Rome.
The result of the panel’s work was a body of civil law known as the Justinian Code.
After its completion the code consisted of four works;
1. The Code contained about 5,000 Roman laws.
2. The Digest quoted and summarized the opinions of Rome’s greatest legal thinkers about the
laws. This work was ran to a total of 50 volumes.
 3. The Institutes was a textbook that told law students how to use the laws.
 4. The Novellae (New Laws) presented legislation passed after 534.
 The Justinian Code decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life.
Islam’s Golden Age
 Islam Civilization  Islam began in the Arabian peninsula in the early 7th century.
 It spread from the Middle East to Africa , Spain and Sicily. Then to India and SE Asia.
 Islam’s Success  The strength of the Arab armies brought Islam it’s power.
 Arab armies conquered much territory.
 Abbassid Dynasty  (750 - 1258) The ruling family of the Islamic Empire
 Responsible for many achievements.
 The Islamic culture became a mixture of Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European traditions.
 The Golden Age became an era of stunning intellectual and cultural achievements. (art, literature, religion
The 2nd largest branch of the Islamic religion.
Shiites account for 10%-15% of all Muslims.
The central belief for Shiites is of the 12th Imam.
The 12th Imam is considered to be the only legitimate ruler, and the Shiites believe that the Muslim state can
not be successful without this ruler in charge.
 Khomeini served as the one who brought activism back into the Shiite mainstream.
 During the Iranian Revolution in 1979, the Shiite activists tried to press their ideology onto the people.
 They believe Islam should live as a tool to empower the oppressed.
 In 661, a family called the Umayyad came to power, and set up a hereditary system of
succession in Syria
 They moved the Muslim capital from Mecca to Damascus to make ruling conquered
territories easier
 They abandoned a life of simplicity to surround themselves with wealth
 The movement of the capital, along with their drift from Muslim beliefs, caused a
fundamental divide in the Muslim community
 A small group called the Shi’a openly resisted Umayyad rule
 Those who did not openly resist, but disagreed with Umayyad rule were called Sunnis,
meaning followers of Muhammad’s example
 They believed the Umayyad had become too worldly and lost their religious faith
 Caliph means “successor” or “Deputy”
 A caliph is a supreme political and religious leader
 Some famous caliphs are Abu-Bakr the first caliph, Umayyads was elected, and Abbasides who took control
 During the 800’s, Charlemagne, a Frankish king, built an empire (modern-day France, Germany, and part of
 Cooperation with the Church
 Charlemagne helped Pope Leo III defeat rebellious Roman nobles.
 In return, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne “Emperor of the Romans”
 Charlemagne wanted a united Christian Europe and helped spread Christianity
 Government
 Appointed nobles to rule local areas (He gave them land, they help defend the empire)
 Sent off officials called missi Domenici to check on conditions throughout the empire
 Learning
 Encouraged learning
 Set up school to educate government officials and established libraries where scholars copied ancient texts.
 End of Charlemagne’s Reign
 Died in 1814- empire fell apart as heirs battled for control
 843- Charlemagne’s grandsons signed Treaty of Verdun- divided Charlemagne’s empire into 3 separate
kingdoms (one for each grandson).
 Charlemagne’s strong government was a model for future medieval rulers
 A system of government in which local lords control their own lands but owe military
service and support to a greater lord.
The land was divided into estates.
The lesser lords were called vassals.
Local lords owned serfs who would work the land
The serfs were able to live on the land in manors.
Manors were the basic economic arrangement during the Middle Ages
The lord provided serfs with protection, housing, and strips of farmland
The serfs worked for the lord and maintained the estate
Peasants rarely traveled from their manor
Nearly everything they needed was produced: crops, fuel, cloth, lumber, and leather goods
The manor contained a church, mill, blacksmith, water, fields, anything that was needed
Troubles of Manor Life
 Serfs had to pay taxes for grain, marriage, and 10% of their income as a tithe, or church tax
 Serfs lived in crowded cottages, with dirt floors and straw beds
 The peasants believed that God determined their place in society
 A style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained-glass
windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires.
 Developed in the 1100s, replacing the old Romanesque style of churches.
 Gothic cathedrals, unlike the grave and ominous Romanesque buildings, stood very tall, as if reaching
toward heaven.
 Cathedrals started off in Germany and quickly spread throughout medieval Europe.
 Soon, they were found in Paris, Chartres, Reims, Amiens, and Beauvais.
 Nearly 500 Gothic cathedrals were built between 1170 and 1270.
 Other forms of art centered around the Gothic style, such as sculpture, woodcarvings, and stained-glass
Cultural Exchanges: The Crusades
 Crusades
 During the Middle Ages, Europeans had only one significant unifying aspect of life. The
Catholic Church permeated every aspect of society.
 For about 200 years, Western Europe under the sway of the Catholic church attempted to
retake the Holy Land away from the Muslims. The largest target was the holy city of Jerusalem,
however, other areas were fought over, such as the city of Constantinople.
 Although the crusades were considered there were some positive effects. Europeans began to
gain an expanded view of the world. Trade increased drastically. Crusaders brought home new
fabrics, spices, and perfumes.
∙ Respected Muslim Leader
∙Saladin united the Muslim world in the late 1100’s.
∙He was respected by both Christians and Muslims.
∙Saladin went to Jerusalem and the Christians had their mind set on stopping him.
∙Taking of Jerusalem
∙There was no Christian victory when they went to stop Saladin.
∙Crusaders in Jerusalem surrendered, but Saladin would not let his soldiers kill or harm them the Crusaders or the
∙Richard the Lion-Hearted
∙King of England in 1189.
∙He wanted to take Jerusalem from Saladin.
∙Richard won a lot of victories during the Third Crusade.
∙Richards forces were unable to capture the city.
Impact of the Crusades
 Increased Trade
Before the crusades trade with the Byzantine empire sparked interest in goods form the east
Crusaders returning from Europe brought home new fabrics, spices, and perfume
Ships used to carry crusaders now became trade ships
Both Eastern and Western economies benefited from trade
 Encouragement of Learning
 As Europeans were exposed to the Byzantine and Muslim culture they began to take interest in
 They were exposed to advances in math, science, literature, art, and geographic knowledge
 Changes in the Church
 The Crusades increased the power of the pope for a short time
 Problems between Eastern and Western Churches grew after the crusader’s attack on
 Changes in the Feudal System
 Crusades increased the power of Monarchs
 Feudalism was weakening
 Serfs had been to pay for land using food, but now Lords demanded payment in the form of
money to finance the crusades
 An economy based on money, not land, took over
Feudal Japan
 Rival lords in Japan surrounded themselves with body guards called Samurai.
 They lived according the demanding code, Bushido.
 They were expected to show reckless courage, reverence for the gods, fairness, and generosity toward those
who are weaker than themselves.
 Dying an honorable death was more important than living a long life.
Kamakura Shogun:
 The shogun had the power of a military dictator over: Officials, judges, taxes, armies, roads- all were under
his authority.
 Although tradition was the Emperor still reigned, even though the Shogun had the real power.
 The emperor became more of a puppet head than a political influence.
 The Kamakura Shoguns were strong enough to turn back the two naval invasions by the Mongols.
 Although this drained the Shoguns’ treasury and loyal samurais weren’t getting paid.
 Samurais became attached more closely to their local lords and soon local lords were fighting each other as
fiercely as they fought the Mongols.
What is Shinto?
 It was a Japanese religion in which each clan in Japan worshipped their own Nature
Gods and Goddesses.
 It was varied because of different customs and beliefs
 Shinto meant “way of the Gods”
 It had no rituals or philosophy, but instead based on respect for the forces of nature.
 Worshipers believed in kami or divine spirits in nature.
 An abnormal tree, rock, waterfall, mountain could be home to kami
Tokugawa Shogun
Tokugawa Ieyasu
United Japan in 1600
Held landowner’s (Daimyo) families hostage in the capital of Edo to ensure obedience
Founded the Tokugawa Shogunate, which continued until 1867
Society under the Tokugawa Shogun
Japan enjoyed over 200 years under the new Shogun
Merchant class and rich prospered
Rich and poor benefited from a growing Japanese culture
Rise of Mongols
Who and where?
 In the 1200’s, a ferocious group of horsemen from central Asia fought their way into Russia. These nomads
were Mongols.
 They exploded onto the scene under the leadership of Genghis Khan, one of the most feared military leaders
of all time.
 When Genghis Khan died in 1227 his successors continued the conquering that he had begun.
Mongols In Russia
 Under Mongol rule the Russians could follow all their usual customs as long as the made no sign of rebellion.
The Mongols tolerated all the religions in their realms, and the Church acted as a mediator between the
people and the Mongols.
 The Mongols demanded two things from the Russians: Extreme Obedience, and massive amounts of tribute.
Mongol Rule Serves Russian Interests
 The Mongol rule in some ways helped unite Russia. They viewed Russia as their unified Empire. The rise of
the city of Moscow also began under Mongol rule.
Genghis Khan
In the middle 1200’s, a ferocious group of horsemen from central Asia slashed their way into Russia.
These nomads were the Mongols.
They had exploded onto the world scene at the beginning of the 1200’s under Genghis Khan.
He was one of the most feared warriors of all time.
When Genghis Khan died in 1227, his successors continued the conquering that he had begun.
At the fullest extent, the Mongol Empire stretched from the Yellow Sea to the Baltic Sea and from the
Himalayas to northern Russia.
 After the death of Genghis Khan, the Mongolian Empire slowly began to fall apart.
Golden Horde
 During the time of Genghis Khan the Mongols invaded Eastern Europe
 After his time they attacked Russia, Hungary, and Poland
 His grandson, Batu, led Mongol armies into Russia and other lands of Eastern Europe between 1236 and
 This group was known as the Golden Horde because of the color of there tents
 They conquered many Russian cities
 They ruled from a capital on the Volga River for 240 years
 The Golden Horde were fierce warriors but relatively tolerant rulers
Mongol Dynasty
 Kublai Khan Khan was another grandson of Genghis Khan, completed the job of conquering China. He did so by
dominating the south, he did not only rule China, but also Korea, Tibet, and some of Vietnam.
 Yuan dynasty Kublai Khan adopted the Chinese name of the Yuan dynasty for his dynasty because he did not want the
Mongols to become involved with Chinese civilization.
 However, Khan gave his best government jobs to Mongol workers and only allowed Mongols to serve in the
 But, Chinese officials still governed the provinces.
Kublai Khan
Mongol Impact
 Reached it’s greatest extent in 1300.
 Stretched into Russia, Europe, Asia, and China
Destruction and Conquest
Most of the leaders ruled with tolerance
Genghis Khan allowed art and education in his conquered countries
They ruled Russia for 250 years
They cut it off from the rest of Europe
Mongol Impact
 The Mongols were nomadic herders of central Asia. By 1300, they controlled much of Asia and eastern
 The Mongol influence led to increases in trade and cultural spread over Asia and Europe.
 In Russia, the Mongol idea of Absolutist government stuck after the Mongols left, but it also isolated Russia
from Western Europe, leaving it behind in arts and science.
 Mongol rule promoted trade between Europe and Asia. The Mongols guaranteed safe passage along the Silk
Road, which increased trade greatly.
Expansion of Chinese Trade
Trade in Chine bloomed in the Yuan dynasty in the 1200’s.
The Silk Road helped transport goods to Asia Minor, Russia, and other lands. Marco Polo used the Silk Road.
When the Ming dynasty took over China in 1368, economic prosperity came over the land
and trade and cities expanded.
China began overseas expansion and in 1404, Zheng He traveled to many different lands and promoted Chinese
trade and culture.
Chinese city, Canton, became a global center of trade and traders were sent there from all over the world.
Bubonic Plague
 Approximately two thirds of the population in China were wiped out by a deadly disease called the bubonic
plague, that also destroyed populations of Muslim towns in Southwest Asia and killed about one third of
Europe’s population.
 It started in the 1300s.
 The Plague began in Asia.
 The disease became known as the “Black Death.”
 It got its name from the purplish or blackish spots that it produced on the skin.
 The disease was spread by black rats that carried fleas from one area to another. These fleas were infested
with a bacillus called Yersinia pestis, and because people did not bathe and because of unsanitary conditions
the bubonic plague spread very quickly.
 Effects of the disease were high fever, chills, delirium, and in most cases death.
The Effect Of The Bubonic Plague
 In 1347 approximately one third of European’s population died of the deadly disease known as the bubonic
 The bubonic plague was also known as the black death and began in Asia.
 The black death traveled the trade lines infecting Asia, the Muslim world and eventually Europe.
 It got its name by the black spots that produced on the persons skin infected.
 The plague killed almost 25 million Europeans and millions in Asia and North Africa.
 The economic effects of the plague were enormous. Town populations fell and so did trade.
 The church suffered a loss of prestige when its prayers and penances failed to stop the plague.
 The bubonic plague and its aftermath disrupted medieval society, hastening changes that were in the making.
 The society of the middle ages was collapsing.
 The Han dynasty opened a trade route called the silk road that eventually linked china with lands as far west
as Mesopotamia. Silk and other Chinese goods moved west, while products such as muslin, glass, and new
foods came to china. The silk road stretched for 4000 miles. Few merchants traveled the entire distance.
Most of the good that were traded were done at markets along the way
Italian City-States
1300’s: Northern Italian cities were great places of industry and trade.
City-states that became rich and powerful: Venice, Genoa, and Florence.
Venice took control of the spice trade with Asia due to its location.
Venice took up a partnership with Egypt and both areas became prosperous.
Trade from Italy went as far as Great Britain and the Baltic Sea.
 A period of great change throughout Europe that involved advances in everything from art to
 The concept of humanism was developed during the early stages of the renaissance, this way
of thinking focused on the present and individual achievements.
 The artistic mentality of the renaissance was much like the art and sculpture of the golden ages
of Rome and Greece. Architecture also returned to Greco-roman fashions.
 Artisans were supported by rich nobles, princes and popes.
 Some of the most famous artisans include Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci and Albrecht
 Writing also changed during the renaissance, common language began to be used. Machiavelli,
Shakespeare, and Dante were three of the most famous for their literary works.
 The invention of the printing press made books more available to common people, literacy
 The protestant reformation led by Martin Luther and John Calvin sought to make changes in the
church, the result was two churches, Catholic and protestant.
 During the Renaissance, Europeans developed a new way of thinking called humanism.
 A Renaissance intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects that
the ancient Greeks and Romans had studied, rather that religious ones. They hoped to use ancient
learning to increase knowledge about their own times.
 Humanists influenced artists an architects to carry on classical traditions.
 Philosophers and writers had wondered about life after death during the middle ages. Renaissance
humanists, on the other hand, were more curious about life in the present.
What he did?
 Machiavelli was the a writer , One of his master pieces was The Prince in 1513.
 Machiavelli said that most rules can gain power and keep it in spit of there enemies.
 In the book The Prince, Machiavelli was not concerned with what was morally right, but with what was
politically effective.
 He was also a states man and a political philosopher
A Renaissance individual that didn’t agree with the Catholic church.
Outraged with the church he wrote 95 thesis (95 ideas that he did agree with), and posted his thoughts on the
church’s door.
Was banned from the church after an argument about indulgences.
After breaking away from the church he started the protestant religion.
95 Thesis
 WHO: Written by Martin Luther
 WHAT: Martin Luther posted a list of 95 Theses, or formal statements, that he wrote on the door of a castle
church in Wittenberg,
 WHERE: Posted them on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, became known all over Germany
 WHEN: October 31, 1517
 WHY: he did those because he did not agree with how a friar named John Tetzel was raising money to
rebuild a church in Rome. Tetzel was selling indulgences to people who have sinned, which would release
them from performing the penalty.
Mansa Musa
He was an African American ruler
He may have been the grandnephew of Mali’s first leader, Sandiata
Musa was a skilled military leader and exorcised royal control
He was a devout Muslim, he went on a hajj to Mecca from 1324 to 1325
Controlled and ruled a vast empire in Africa
 The Songhai was a West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400’s to
 They built up an army and extended their territory to the Niger River near Gao, and gained control
of all the important trade routes.
 Until the late 1500’s, civil war broke out. Invaders from the north defeated the forces of Songhai, and
caused downfall of the kingdom.
The First Global Age
Suleiman’s Golden Age
First Came to the throne of the Ottoman Empire in 1520 and ruled for 46 years
Known by his own people as Suleiman the Lawgiver and in the west as Suleiman the Magnificent
The Ottoman conquered all of the eastern Mediterranean under Suleiman’s rule.
Suleiman became the most powerful monarch on earth
He required a good form of government for his large empire and so he simplified the system of taxation and
reduced the government bureaucracy in order to keep the peace and his people happy.
 In 1571 this golden age of Suleiman ended when his sons fleet was destroyed by Spain and Italy
Suleiman’s Mosque
 An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large
amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Ideas of mercantilism:
 The nation’s ultimate goal under mercantilism was to become self-sufficient, not dependent on other
countries for goods.
 Two ways to increase the nations wealth, according to mercantilism, was to gain as much gold and silver as
they could and establish a favorable balance of trade, in which it sold more goods than they bought.
Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire began in the 11th century
There were Ottoman Turks, and after the 13th century there was a new group of people called the Ottoman
Empire lead by Osman I.
When people were captured by the Ottoman Empire they were used for military purposes instead of killing
During the 16th century, the Ottomans gained control of Egypt and Syria, then also Iraq, Hungry, and
Albania, which led to the beginning of a naval force in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Ottoman Empire turned into a great power of Europe.
This was a long effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain.
The Muslims held a little kingdom.
Spain attacked it and they started the crusades.
The Spanish drove the Muslims out of Spain
Middle Passage
 The Middle Passage was the voyage that brought captured Africans to be used as slaves to the west Indies
 Later they were brought to North and South American
 It was named the Middle Passage because it was in the middle leg of the transatlantic trade triangle.
Divine Right
 The power for the monarch to rule comes from God and that the king is an agent of God.
 Absolute monarchs used this power to justify their rule.
 Divine Right allowed the monarch to control all aspects of the government because the people
believed that monarch was God’s agent on earth.
Louis XIV(14)
He was the 14th king of France.
He was an absolute Monarch during the 17th century.
Louis XIV was the only one to totally free himself from the Parliament, which controlled the King.
Louis XIV coined the phrase “L'état, c'est moi”, which means “I am the state.”
Louis XIV centralized the government and made all the laws for France
Louis XIV put France into debt by spending money building the Palace of Versailles and fighting wars.
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was an absolute monarch in Russia, he was the czar from 1682 to 1725.
He worked to centralize royal power
Reduced the power of nobility and gained control of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Peter wanted to modernize Russia. He traveled from Western European cities to study western technology
and brought back the ideas to westernize Russia.
Simplified Russian Alphabet, developed mining and textiles.
Peter sometimes resorted to force and terror to achieve his goals.
Created the largest army in Europe in the late 1600s and used it to expand Russian territory.
Westernization under Peter
Peter wanted a modernized Russia, went to Western Europe to study technology, brought back ideas, simplified
the Russian alphabet, developed mining and textiles, capital at St. Petersburg served as symbol of new Russia,
used force and terror to gain goal
Petition of Rights(1628)
 King Charles I had to call Parliament to ask for money
 They refused to give him any until he signed the Petition of Rights
 In the Petition the king agreed to:
 Not imprison subjects without due cause
 Not levy taxes without Parliament’s consent
 Not house soldiers in private homes
 Not impose martial law in peacetime
 The king agreed to the Petition but after he ignored it
 The petition was important because it set forth the idea that the law was higher even then the king.
English Civil War
 Charles I offended the puritans by upholding church rituals and a former prayer book
 Charles tried to force the Presbyterian Scots to accept a version of the Anglican prayer book
 Lead to a conflict between the supporters of parliament and the supporters of English monarchy from 16421649
Oliver Cromwell
 Was a skilled military leader who overthrew the British king.
 King Charles I was put in prison and put on trial. He was sentenced to death by way of beheading. He was
the first king to be executed by his own subjects.
 After the kings execution Parliament’s House of commons abolished the monarchy, the House of Lords, and
the official Church of England. England became a Commonwealth.
 Charles II the heir to the throne revolted against Cromwell and attacked England from Ireland and Scotland.
Cromwell sent troops into Ireland and Scotland to crush the uprising.
 Cromwell took the title of Lord Protector. At the time of his death in 1658 many people were tired of
Puritan rule.
The Restoration
 During the year of 1660, Parliament asked Charles II to become the King of England.
 When Parliament asked Charles II to become King it marked the restoration of the Stuart monarchy.
 In 1685 James II, who was Charles brother inherited the throne in England.
 James II who was currently King in England, was unpopular to the people because of his Catholicism and
his Absolutist policies.
The Glorious Revolution (1688)
Parliament feared Catholic dominance
Mary and William (Dutch) take English throne.
Both protestant.
When they arrived, James II fled.
Bloodless overthrow of power.
English Bill of Rights
The bill was drafted in 1689.
England had become a constitutional monarchy meaning there were laws that limited the ruler’s power.
The English Bill of Rights listed the things the leader could not do.
There were four laws- 2 dealt with not interfering with Parliament speech or laws and 2 dealt with not taxing
the citizens without the consent of Parliament and letting the citizens petition.
Magna Carta
“Great Charter”
 A document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King
John in A.D. 1215.
 This charter was a form of revolt, rebelling against the unfair leadership of King John.
 John failed as a military leader. He was horrible to his subjects and tried to squeeze money out of them.
To finance his wars, John raised taxes to an all-time high.
 The nobles wanted to guarantee certain basic political rights and limit the power of the king.
 Guaranteed rights included no taxation without representation, a jury trial, and the protection of the law.
Limited monarchy (1660)
Started after the restoration
Passing of habeas corpus act
Parliament passed the bill of rights in 1689
No monarch could rule without parliaments consent
Also called a constitutional monarchy

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