BBI 2421
General Writing Skills
Course Introduction
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Fauziah Hanim Ahmad Shaari
B13, 2nd Floor, Sanggar Bahasa,
Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication
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Course Content
Sentence Writing
Paragraph Writing
Essay Writing
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Sentence Structure
Clauses: dependent & independent
Types of sentences: simple, compound, complex
Sentence errors: fragment, run on, comma splice
& parallel structure
Conjunctions: coordinating & subordinating
Grammar: subject-verb/noun-pronoun agreement,
tenses
Mechanics: punctuations
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Paragraphs
Format of a paragraph
Paragraph outline
- Topic sentence
- Controlling idea
- Supporting details
- Conclusion
Unity
Coherence
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Mid semester examination
Final examination
Coursework
Coursework
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Assignment 3
25 marks
30 marks
45 marks
10 marks
15 marks
20 marks
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Assignment 1
Content:
Online exercises
* ensure a proper cover page
* please print the exercises that you have done. Photocopied
exercises are not accepted.
* ensure the exercises are arranged correctly (Task1, etc.)
* each work should be clearly separated using a divider.
Due Date: 23 April 2012
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Assignment 2
Assignment 1 (A1) - Letter to the Editor
Content: Selected newspaper article / news
Paragraph Outline
Draft 1
Peer editing form
Draft 2
Self editing form
Final Draft (clean copy to be marked)
• Arial 11 or Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing, Cover page
(Please refer to [email protected])
Due Date: 18 March 2012
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Assignment 3 – Academic Essay
Content:
Please refer to Lecture 2 (Perjumpaan 2)
* ensure a proper cover page
• Arial 11 or Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing
Due Date: 23 April 2012
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Sentence Structure: Phrases & Clauses
A word?
Fatimah
Sing
House
Morning
Happy
Continuously
Driving
Dancing
A Phrase?
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Sentence Structure: Phrases & Clauses
A Phrase?
A group of words (more than 1 word) without a SUBJECT
and a VERB
In the morning
A long time ago
Several hours later
At the far end of the room
Ten minutes ago
around the corner
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Clause?
A group of words containing a SUBJECT and a VERB
S V
She is here.
When we visited the farm.
The students are listening.
Until I get my salary.
Linda jots down notes during the lecture.
Most PJJ students have their own cars.
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Class practice
Tommy is here.
Several hundreds years ago in Malacca.
When I come home.
Because the nurses care.
Behind my back.
They went scuba-diving.
A beautiful morning.
Rahim and Suzie are planning to attend the party.
Although we managed to escape the fire.
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Answer Key
Tommy is here. (C)
Several hundreds years ago in Malacca. (P)
When I come home. (C)
Because the nurses care. (C)
Behind my back. (P)
They went scuba-diving. (C)
A beautiful morning. (P)
Rahim and Suzie are planning to attend the party. (C)
Although we managed to escape the fire. (C)
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Types of Clauses
Independent Clause (IC)
a complete sentence
- the sentence contains a S + V + Complete thought / idea
Tommy is here.
They went scuba-diving.
Rahim and Suzie are planning to attend the party.
The general election is scheduled soon.
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Dependent Clause
Dependent Clause (DC)
An incomplete sentence
- The sentence contains a S + V but the thought/ idea
is incomplete
When I come home. (DC) so what? incomplete idea
Because the nurses care. (DC) so…? incomplete idea
Although we managed to escape the fire. (DC) so..?
After the villagers managed to escape. (DC) so..?
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Type of Sentences
What is a simple sentence?
2 answers:
a) When there is only 1 subject, 1 verb and
it expresses 1 idea.
1) S = S + V
Tina cries.
The cat jumped into the drain.
Both prisoners plan to escape from the jail.
The movie is funny.
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Type of Sentences
b) When there is a sharing of either the subjects, the verbs
or both the subjects and verbs.
2) S = S + S + V
Tina and Sam cry.
3) S = S + V + V
Tina kissed and hugged me.
4) S = S + S + V + V
Tina and Sam kissed and hugged me.
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S=S+V
Tina cries.
The cat jumped into the drain.
Both prisoners plan to escape from the jail.
The movie is funny.
S=S+S+V
Tina and Sam cry.
S=S+V+V
Tina kissed and hugged me.
S=S+S+V+V
Tina and Sam kissed and hugged me.
All these simple sentences are complete = IC
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Compound Sentence
When 2 or more independent clauses are combined to
form a sentence (IC + IC)
Remember ‘IC’. ‘C’ = clause (contain S + V)
Anna bought several flowers.
Anna sent them to her mother.
S + V (IC) Simple
S + V (IC) Simple
Anna bought several flowers and sent them to her mother.
S + V + V (This is a simple sentence! Not a compound sentence)
IC
(s + v)
+
IC
(s + v)
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(IC + IC)
Anna bought several flowers, and she sent them to her
mother.
IC
+
IC
S + V, S + V (This is a compound sentence)
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Using conjunctions to form a
compound sentence
Anna bought several flowers, and she sent them to her
mother.
We cannot wait any longer in this dangerous place, so we
and the rest of the team have to move now.
so, and
Coordinating conjunctions
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Coordinating Conjunctions (CC)
, for
, and
, nor
, but
, or
, yet
, so
FANBOYS (Short Words)
*check out your textbook (pg 189) for more examples
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Coordinating Conjunctions (Long words)
Conjunctive Adverbs
;therefore,
;however,
;whereas,
;consequently,
;moreover,
;furthermore,
*check
out your textbook (pg 189) for more examples
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More Examples
I ran very fast. I missed the train.
I ran very fast; however, I missed the train.
I ran very fast, but I missed the train.
They should go. They should never return.
They should go, and they should never return.
My children admire me. I feel proud of myself.
My children admire me; therefore, I feel proud of myself.
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Complex Sentence
IC + DC
Anna brought several flowers.
When she visited her mother.
(IC)
(DC)
Anna brought several flowers when she visited her
mother. (IC DC)
When Anna visited her mother, she brought
several flowers. (DC, IC)
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Many of the victims died because they did not receive
medical attention early.
Because the victims did not receive medical attention early,
many of them died.
I will return the books when you return my cds.
Since Rob moved to Canada, Christina has become very
temperamental.
We bumped into Ning as we were leaving the café.
When, since, as
Subordinating Conjunctions
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Subordinating Conjunctions (SC)
As, When, While, Since, Although, Though
Even though, Because, Until
Till, Where, As if, Before, Unless
Whether, Whenever
*check out your textbook (pg 189) for more examples
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Sentence Errors
Fragment
Run On
Comma splice
Non Parallel Structure
*Please refer to self study notes
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Paragraph Writing
A collection of 5-12 sentences
Focuses on ONE topic
Contains a topic sentence (ts)
*a good ts contains a clear controlling idea
Contains 2-3 points to support the topic sentence
Several sentences to support (explain, elaborate) the points
Usually ends with a concluding sentence (cs)
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How do we write a paragraph?
Select an Interesting Topic
Create a Focus
Write the Topic Sentence
Draw an Outline
Write the Paragraph
Edit & Revise the Paragraph
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Selecting a Topic
Dr Mahathir
Computer games
Exercising
Camping
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Create a Focus
Dr Mahathir
life/ success/ personality/ contributions/ influence/ beliefs
Computer games
disadvantages/ types/ software/ cost/ addictions
Exercising
danger/ reasons/ benefits/ equipment/ types
Camping
reasons/ benefits/ difference/ cost/ equipment/ location
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Once you know your topic and your focus, write the topic
sentence for your paragraph.
What is a topic sentence (ts)?
It is a sentence that tells readers the main idea of the whole
paragraph.
This means readers will know what the paragraph is all
about just by reading your topic sentence.
A GOOD topic sentence (ts) should contain the topic and the
controlling idea. It should not be too general nor too specific.
*please refer to your textbook.
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Examples:
Dr Mahathir - influence
Dr Mahathir (the topic) is a very influential (controlling idea) man.
Computer games - addictive
Playing computer games can be addictive.
There are four causes of addiction to computer games among
teenagers.
Jogging – benefits
Many people enjoy jogging to gain these benefits.
Camping - best holiday
Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
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Draw an outline
Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
P1
Get in touch
with nature
P2
poor telephone
reception
P3
Cheap
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Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
P1
Get in touch
with nature
-direct access to
natural surrounding
-bath in cold river,
breathpure mountain
air and listen to
birds chirping
P2
poor telephone
reception
-enjoy a truly relaxing
holiday
-no one can call.
forget work problems
P3
Cheap
-doesn’t cost
much to rent
a camp site
- RM100-200
for a hotel
tent =RM10
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Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
P1
Get in touch
with nature
-direct access to
natural surrounding
-bath in cold river,
breathpure mountain
air and listen to
birds chirping
P2
poor telephone
reception
-enjoy a truly relaxing
holiday
-no one can call.
forget work problems
P3
Cheap
-doesn’t cost
much to rent
a camp site
- RM100-200
for a hotel
tent =RM10
CS: In short, these are why I believe everyone should opt for a camping
trip.
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Draw an outline (another format)
Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
P1: Get in touch with nature
sd: direct access to natural surrounding
sd:. bath in cold river, breathpure mountain air and listen to birds chirping
P2: poor telephone reception
Sd: enjoy a truly relaxing holiday
Sd: No one can call, forget work problems
P3: Cheap
Sd: doesn’t cost much to rent a tent and a camping site
Sd: RM100 to RM200 for hotel, RM10 or less for a tent
CS: In short, these are why I believe everyone should opt for a camping
trip.
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Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
Firstly, it allows you to get in touch with nature. Unlike
other typical holidays, camping gives you a direct access to
the natural surrounding. You can actually bath in the cold
river, breath pure mountain air, and listen to birds chirping
as you relax in your tent. Next, as telephone reception is
poor in many camping grounds, you can enjoy a truly
relaxing holiday. No one from the office can call you, so
you can forget about your work problems for a while. Lastly,
it is also cheap. It doesn’t cost much to rent a tent and a
camping site. If you normally pay RM100 to RM200 per
night for a hotel room, you only need to pay RM10 or less to
rent a tent a night. In short, these are why I believe
everyone should opt for a camping trip.
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