Developmental Psychology:
Children and Adolescents
• Business Driven• Technology Oriented • Sustainable Development• Environmental Friendly
Processes of physical, cognitive, social
and emotional growth and development
from conception through adolescence.
Emphasis on the major aspects at each
stage of development. Processes and
outcomes of interaction between the childadolescent and the environment.
• Business Driven• Technology Oriented • Sustainable Development• Environmental Friendly
By the end of the course students will be able to:
• Identify ecological processes of physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children
and adolescents.
• Explain the effects of genetic, environment, and
genetic-environment interactions influences on
children-adolescent development.
• Explain the effects of children-adolescent
interactions with the environment on childrenadolescent growth and development.
• Business Driven• Technology Oriented • Sustainable Development• Environmental Friendly
Unit 1:
Introduces major concepts, principles and
theories of child and adolescent
development. Unit 1 also covers various
alternative methods researchers use to
explore questions or obtain information on
child and adolescent development.
Unit 2:
Highlights the prenatal development of the
unborn child.
• Business Driven• Technology Oriented • Sustainable Development• Environmental Friendly
Unit 3:
Unit 4:
Covers physical, intellectual, language and socioemotional development of children (early – late
• Business Driven• Technology Oriented • Sustainable Development• Environmental Friendly
Unit 5:
Covers significant aspects of adolescent development
such as physical, cognitive, personality, moral and
vocational planning. Specific developmental
problems during adolescence are highlighted.
• Business Driven• Technology Oriented • Sustainable Development• Environmental Friendly
Test 1
1. Lab project for children
2. Lab project for adolescent
Final exam
• Business Driven• Technology Oriented • Sustainable Development• Environmental Friendly
Get to know a child –child’s background and character
Child’s physical growth, reflexes, motor skill and sensory
Cognitive development and academic achievement
Language development
Socio-emotional development
Adolescent development project
• Business Driven• Technology Oriented • Sustainable Development• Environmental Friendly
Students are required to:
observe and/or conduct tests and compile a
Case Study portfolio for one preschool age child
and one primary school age child.
write a paper related to any aspects of
adolescent development.
• Business Driven• Technology Oriented • Sustainable Development• Environmental Friendly
Bee, H. 2000. The Developing Child. New York: Harper &
Berk, L.E. 2005. Child Development. Boston, MA:Allyn &
Berk, L.E. 2001. Infants, Children and Adolescents. Boston,
MA:Allyn & Bacon
Rohani, A. 2001. Perkembangan Kanak-kanak:Penilaian
Secara Portfolio. Serdang, Selangor:Penerbit UPM
Santrock, J.W. 2008. Adolescence. Boston:Mc Graw-Hill
Steinberg, L. 1999. Adolescence. Boston:Mc Graw-Hill
Test 1
1. Lab project for children
2. Lab project for adolescent
Final exam
 What is Growth (Pertumbuhan)?
 What is Development (Perkembangan)?
 Growth is a quantitative process of change
 ex. change in weight/height – i.e. changes
in saiz and structure, physical and
mental aspects.
 Changes can be measured & assess - from
one stage to the other.
 Growth will reach its peak once a person
 “Growth is an individual development in
body size, for ex. changes in muscles,
bones, hair, skin & glands. [Karl E. Garrison]
 “Growth is a change that can be
measured from one stage to the other, and
from time to time” [Atan Long]
 “Growth as an increment in a person
external attributes. For examples in terms
of size, height and body weight” [D.S
Wright & Ann Taylor]
 Developmental is defined as change.
 Human development refers to a particular
type of change or the pattern of change that
begins at conception and continue through
the life span.
 Development occurs in the context of the
significant social environment of life process
(family, school, peer group, community).
Thus….Child Development is….
 A scientific study of understanding all
aspects of human constancy and change
from conception through adolescence
 A part of a larger discipline known as
developmental psychology or human
development, which includes all changes
experienced throughout the lifespan
Behavioral change as a developmental
 Three general condition/criteria:
 The change is orderly or sequential.
 The change results in a permanent
alteration of behavior.
 The change results in a new behavior or
mode of functioning that is more
advanced, adaptive or useful than prior
The study of childhood: Basic Concepts
 Developmental Processes: Changes and
 Quantitative change (growth) refers to the easily
measurable and sometimes obvious aspects of
e.g: Involve changes in size or amount, such as
height, weight.
 Developmental Processes: Changes and
 Qualitative change refers to variations and
modifications in functioning.
 E.g ability of a newborn & 5 months old baby
 Stability – constancy or enduring characteristics
Changes in development is continues  from one
stage to the other  but maintaining a pattern
Specific characteristics  Cephalacaudal,
proximodistal, mass to specific
Developmental stages
 Prenatal
 Infancy (0-2 years) & Toddlerhood (2-3 years)
 Early childhood(3-6 years)
 Middle childhood (6-10 years)
 Adolescence (11-19 years)
 Early (11-14 years)
 Middle (15-17 years)
 Late (18-19 years)
 Adulthood(≥ 20 years)
 Early (20-30 years)
 Middle (40-50 years)
 Late (60 years and above)
Domains of development
 Physical development
 Body, brain, senses, motor skills
 Cognitive development
 Learning, memory, language, thinking,
moral reasoning
 Psychosocial development
 Personality, emotions, social
 Interrelated throughout development
Domains of Development (con’t)
Changes in
•Body size & proportions, appearance
•Function of body systems, health
•Perceptual & motor capacities
• Intellectual abilities
•Emotional communication
•Self-understanding, knowledge about others
•Interpersonal skills & relationships
•Moral reasoning & behavior
Influences on Development:
 Factors that can influence development
are: Nature (sejadi)
 Genetic (Warisan/baka/genetik)
 Nurture (Asuhan)
 Environment (Persekitaran)
 Food intake (Pemakanan)
 Health (Kesihatan)
Major Contextual Influences
 Normative Influences
 Normative age-graded influences/event, i..e.
biological or social
 Example = puberty or entry into formal
 Normative history-graded event, i.e. cohort (a
group of people who share a similar experience)
 Example = living during the Great
 i.e. Atypical events, e.g. having a birth defect
 Non-normative Influences
 Individual events that impact the person
 Events can be traumatic or happy
Historical foundation: How the study of
childhood has evolved?
 Early Approaches
 Medieval times
 The Reformation
 The Enlightenment
John Locke
 John Jacques Rousseau
 Darwin
Scientific Beginnings
 Baby biographies
Charles Darwin
 G. Stanley Hall
 Normative Period of Child Study
 Mental Testing Movement
An emerging consensus
 All domains are interrelated.
 Normal development includes a wide range of
individual differences.
 Children help to shape their own development and
influence others’ responses to them.
 Historical and cultural contexts strongly influence
 Early experience is important, but children can be
remarkably resilient.
 Development in childhood is connected to
development throughout the rest of the lifespan.
Theories in
What is a theory?
 A theory is a set of logically related
concepts or statements, which seeks to
describe and explain development and
predict what kinds of behavior may occur
under certain conditions.
 Hypotheses are tentative explanations or
predictions that can be tested by research.
An orderly, integrated set of
statements that
 Describes
 Explains
 Predicts
Benefits of theories in
Developmental Psychology
 Explain the meaning of an event/facts
 Able to relate these facts
 Psychoanalytic
 Psychosexual (S. Freud)
 Psychosocial (E. Erickson)
 Learning
 Behavioral Learning
 Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
 Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
 Social Learning (A. Bandura)
 Cognitive
 Cognitive Developmental Theory (J. Piaget)
 Socio-cultural (L. Vygotsky)
 Moral Development (Reasoning) (Kohlberg)
 Human Ecology System (U. Bronfenbrenner)
Freud’s Three Parts of the Personality
•Largest portion of the mind
•Unconscious, present at birth
•Source of biological needs & desires
•Conscious, rational part of mind
•Emerges in early infancy
•Redirects id impulses acceptably
•The conscience
•Develops from ages 3 to 6, from
interactions with caregivers
 Psychosexual (S. Freud)
 Psychosocial (E. Erickson)
* 8 stages of dev.
*Psychosexual stages
•Oral stage
•Anal stage
Trust versus mistrust
Autonomy vs shame
Initiative vs guilt
Industry vs Inferiority
Identity vs Identity Confusion
Intimacy versus isolation
Generativity vs stagnation
Integrity vs despair
 Psychoanalytic theory proposes that morality
develops through humans' conflict between their
instinctual drives and the demands of society.
 Freud identified three parts of the personality that
become integrated during five stages
of development
Personality Structure
Personality Structures
 ID (unconscious element)
 the largest portion  is the source of basic
biological needs and desires.
 EGO (semi-conscious element)
 the conscious  rational part of the personality,
emerges in early infancy to redirect the id’s
impulses so they are discharged in acceptable ways
 SUPEREGO (The conscious element that function
on the basis of morality).
 the conscience that develops between ages 3 and
6 through interactions with parents, who insist
that the child conform to the values of society.
Freud Psychosexual stages:
 Oral stage [0- 1 year] –
 Mouth is the focus of stimulation &
interaction. Feeding & weaning are central
 Anal stage [1-3 year] –
 Anus as the focus of stimulation &
interaction. Elimination & toilet training is
Freud Psychosexual stages:
 Phallic [3-6year]
 The genital is the focus of stimulation. Gender
role & moral development are central.
 Conflict between id & superego
 Children interested to know more different sexes,
babies etc.
 2 main conflict:
 Oedipus Conflict  son attracted to mother
 Electra Conflict  daughter attracted to father
 Penis envy
Freud Psychosexual stages:
 Latency [6-12 year]
 A period of suspended sexual activities;
Energy shift to physical and intellectual
activities. Focus on achievement
 Genital [Adolescent – adulthood (12 &
 Genital are the focus of stimulation with the
onset of puberty
 Mature sexual relationship develop
Erikson’s Psychosocial stages
Late Adulthood (60 above)
Integrity vs Despair
Middle Adulthood (40’s-50’s)
Generativity vs Stagnation
Young Adulthood (20 -30’s)
Intimacy vs Isolation
Adolescent (12-19)
Identity vs Role Confusion
Middle childhood (6-11)
Industry vs Inferiority
Early Childhood (3-5)
Initiative vs Guilt
Toddler (1-2)
Infancy (0-1)
Autonomy vs Shame/doubt
Trust vs Distrust
Behaviorism & Social Learning
Stimulus –
(Reward) and
Social Learning
Behavioral Theory
 Classical Conditioning
 Ivan Pavlov
• Stimulus & Response
 Learning based on association
of a stimulus that does not
ordinarily elicit a response with
another stimulus that does elicit
the response.
 Operant Conditioning
(B.F. Skinner)
• Learning based on reinforcement
(punishment) or punishment
• Positive reinforcement
• Negative reinforcement
• Punishment
• Behavior modification
Behavioral Theory
 Social Learning Theory
 Albert Bandura
 Modelling (Role model)
 Theory that behaviors are learned by
observing and imitating models
 Observational learning
 Models
 Importance of values and thoughts in
imitating behavior of a model
 Practical implications?
Behaviorism & Social Learning
 Development results from learning
 Behaviorism – a mechanistic theory
 Continuous change
 Quantitative change
 Importance of the environment
 Associative learning
Cognitive Theory
 Jean Piaget
 Socio-Cultural Theory
 L. Vygotsky
 Cognitive Development
• Sensorimotor
• Preoperational (2-6)
• Concrete Operational (6-11)
• Formal Operation (11-adulthood)
Community & culture influence on
development  Focus is the social, cultural,
and historical complex of which the child is
Social Interaction
• Zone of proximal development –
The difference between what a child
can do alone and with help
• Scaffolding –Temporary support to
help a child master a task.
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
 Transmission of culture to new
 Beliefs, customs, skills
 Social interaction necessary to
learn culture
 Cooperative dialogue with more
knowledgeable members of
Zone of proximal
Cognitive Theory
 Moral Development
 Kohlberg
 Paras 1: Moraliti Pra- konvensional (4-9 tahun)
 Orientasi dendaan dan patuh/taat
 Hedonisme Instrumental/Orientasi Egoistik
 Paras 2:Peringkat Konvensional (10-15 tahun)
 Moraliti “budak baik”
 Moraliti mengekalkan susunan sosial & autoriti
 Paras 3:Peringkat Pasca Konvensional
 Moraliti kontrak, hak individu dan undang-undang
secara demokrasi
 Orientasi prinsip-prinsip moral yang universal dan
 Human Ecological System
 U. Bronfenbrenner
 View of development that sees the
individual as inseparable from the
social context
 Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological
 Understanding processes and
contexts of development
Micro system
Meso system
Ecological Systems Theory
How theory and research work
 Which theory is generally accepted today?
 What is the relationship between theory
and research?
Research methods
 Qualitative and quantitative research
 Scientific method – system of established
principles and processes of scientific inquiry
 Identifying a problem
 Formulating hypotheses
 Collecting data
 Analyzing the data
 Disseminating findings
 Groups of participants chosen to represent
the entire population
 The sample should adequately represent the
population under study
 Generalization
 Random selection
Forms of data collection
 Naturalistic and laboratory observations
 Parental self-reports
 Clinical interview
 Open-ended interview
 Structured interview
 Questionnaire
 Psychophysiological Methods
Systematic Observation
Observe respondent in their natural setting
 Naturalistic Observation
In the “field” or natural environment where
behavior happens
 Structured observation
Laboratory situation set up to evoke behavior of
All participants have equal chance to display
 Participant observation
 Record data
 Audio
 Video
 Manual
Clinical Interview
 Flexible,
conversational style
 Probes for
participant’s point of
Structured Interview
 Each participant is
asked same questions
in same way
 May use questionnaires,
get answers from
Psychophysiological Methods
 Measures of autonomic nervous system
 Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, pupils,
stress hormones
 Measures of Brain Function
 Functional brain
imaging (fMRI)
Basic research designs
Case studies
 Collect various information about a subject to be
studied (people/event)
 Make a conclusion about subject understudied.
 Ethnographic studies
 Participant observation
 Correlational studies –
 To examine the relationship between 2 variables
(independent and dependent variables)
 Research intended to discover whether a statistical
relationship between two variables exists
 Problems of control and interpretation of causality
 Survey - A study on respondent’s views  on certain
 Use Questionnaires/Structured interview schedule
Correlation Coefficients
 Size of the number between
0 and 1.
 Closer to one (positive or
negative) is a stronger
 Indicated by + or - sign.
 Positive (+) means, as one
variable increases, so does the
 Negative (-) means, as one
variable increase, the other
Experimental studies
 To examine the cause & effect of a
phenomena understudied
 Rigorously controlled, replicable procedure in
which the researcher manipulates variables to
assess the effect of one on the other.
 Independent variable - the condition over
which the experimenter has direct control
 Dependent variable - the condition that may
or may not change as a result of changes in
the independent variable
 Experimental group and control group
Independent and Dependent
 Experimenter changes,
or manipulates
 Expected to cause
changes in another
 Experimenter
measures, but does
not manipulate
 Expected to be
influenced by the
independent variable
Modified Experiments
 Use rare opportunities for
natural assignment in
natural settings
 Compare differences in
treatment that already exist
 Groups chosen to match
characteristics as much as
Designs for Studying Development
Same participants studied repeatedly at
different ages
People of differing ages all studied at the same
Longitudinal- Same groups of different-aged people studied
Cross-sectional repeatedly as they change ages.
Same participant studied repeatedly over a
short period as they master a task
Children’s Research Rights
 Protection from harm
 Right to Informed
 Knowledge of results
 Beneficial treatments
 Avoidance of deception
 Debriefing, providing a full account and
justification of research activities, should
take place with children, but does not
always work as well
 Right to privacy and confidentiality
Children’s Research Rights
The Female Reproductive System
 Uterus
 A muscular chamber about
the size and shape of a pear.
 Located in a woman's abdomen,
is a hollow, elastic reproductive
organ, where a baby develops
during pregnancy.
Female anatomy
 The uterus - is a major
female hormoneresponsive
reproductive sex organ
 Within the uterus 
fetus develops during
 The term uterus
 One end, the cervix,
opens into the vagina;
the other is connected
on both sides to the
Fallopian tubes.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell
Chief Characteristics:
1. Tightly packed tip (acrosome) that contains 23 chromosomes
that carry genetic information
2. Short neck region
3. Trail to propel it in its search for the ovum
4. Microscopic
 Remains capable of fertilizing egg for 24-48 hours after
 Of 200 million sperm that enter the vagina, only about 200
survive the journey to the fallopian tubes, where fertilization
 Males, at birth, have in their testes those cells that will
eventually produce sperm
Ovum (Egg)
The ovum is the female reproductive cell
Chief Characteristics:
1. Round
2. .01 mm in diameter
3. Consistency of stiff jelly
4. Contributes 23 chromosomes
 Females already have 1-2 million primal eggs at birth
 Eggs usually fertilized about 12 hours after discharged
from the ovary or they die within 12-24 hours
• When a young woman
reaches puberty, she
begins to ovulate
• a process in which a
mature egg cell (also
called an ovum), ready
for fertilization by a
sperm cell, is released
from one of the ovaries
 Her body prepares for a potential pregnancy every cycle,
whether or not she want to actually conceive.
 Under the influence of Follicle Stimulating Hormone
(FSH), about 15 to 20 eggs start to mature in each ovary.
 Although it averages about two weeks, the process to
release an egg can take anywhere from about eight days
to a month or longer to complete.
menstrual cycle
 Ovulation occurs 14 days
before the next
 As the average menstrual
cycle lasts 28 days
(starting with the first day
of one period and ending
with the first day of the
next menstrual period),
most women ovulate on
day 14.
 A menstrual cycle can vary between 21 to 38 days.
 A woman is generally most fertile (able to become
pregnant) a few days before, during, and after
 The corpus luteum remains behind on the interior
ovarian wall, and starts releasing progesterone.
 Progesterone quickly stops the release of all other
eggs until the next cycle. The corpus luteum has a
finite lifespan, of about 12 to 16 days.
 If the egg does not become fertilized as it
travels down the fallopian tube on its way
to the uterus, the endometrium (lining of
the uterus) is shed and passes through
the vagina (the passageway through
which fluid passes out of the body during
menstrual periods; also called the birth
canal), a process called menstruation.
 If the egg is fertilized by a
sperm cell as it travels down
the fallopian tube, then
pregnancy occurs, it
becomes attached to the
lining of the uterus
 In order for conception to occur, though, there must
be three factors present:
 the egg,
 the sperm
 a medium in which the sperm can travel to reach the
fallopian tubes.
 Women produce cervical fluid under the influence
of increasing levels of estrogen in the first part of
the cycle.
 Sperms can live up to five days in fertile quality
cervical fluid
3 Stages in prenatal development:
 Germinal stage
 Embryonic stage
 Fetal stage
 Principles
 Cephalocaudal principle
 Proximodistal principle
First Stage: Germinal
 Starts at conception (fertilization) until implantation
 14 days.
 Conception process  When the sperms meets the
egg (ovum) in the fallopian tube  travel down into
the uterus where it implants in the uterine lining and
begin to grow (implantation).
 Conception occurs when
the sperm meets and
penetrates the ovum, or
 Normally, only one sperms will succeed
penetrating through the ovum wall.
 When one sperms succeeded penetrating the ovum
wall, a protective lining will form around it 
preventing other sperms to enter/penetrate.
 The combination of ovum & sperms  form zygote
(with one nucleus).
 Zygote will later develop into blastosist  a complex
organism with millions of cells  with various
Germinal stage (fertilization to 2 weeks)
 Rapid cell division, increasing complexity and
differentiation, and implantation
 Mitosis
 Blastocyst
 Embryonic disk
 Ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
 Trophoblast
 Placenta & umbilical cord
 Amniotic sac & chorion
Fertilization: the sperm and egg join in
the fallopian tube to form a unique
human being.
• a fertilized egg,
only thirty hours
after conception.
Zygotic Period
(Conception - 1st Week)
 A zygote is a fertilized egg with
46 chromosomes
 Genetic potential determined at
this time
 Egg is 2.5 mm in diameter at end
of 1st week
 Mitosis, a process of cell
division, occurs during this
Early development of a human
Early development of a human embryo
Embrio : blastosis burrows into
the uterine lining
 As soon as the fertilized egg burrows into the lining, it starts
releasing a pregnancy hormone, HCG (Human Chorionic
Gonadotropin) which sends a message back to the corpus
luteum left behind on the ovarian wall.
 HCG signals the corpus luteum to remain alive beyond its
usual maximum of 16 days and continuing to release
progesterone long enough to sustain the nourishing lining.
 After several months, the placenta takes over, not only
maintaining the endometrium, but providing all the oxygen
and nutrients the fetus needs to thrive.
Cells Division
 There are two type of cell division
 Mitosis and meiosis
 Reproductive cells divide through meiosis process,
while all other body cells divide through the
mitosis process
Cells Division
 Mitosis is cell division that results in the duplication of cells; the
daughter cells genetic copies of the parent cell. This cell multiplication
allows for replacement of old cells, tissue repair, growth and
 Mitosis
 The creation of new cells through duplication of chromosomes &
divisions of cells  cells duplicates (From 1 24  16 32,
 Cells developed into organs, brain, heart etc.
 Growth & Development
 You grew from a zygote, or fertilized egg (the fusion of two cells: an
egg and a sperm) into an organism with trillions of specialized cells.
 Mitosis is the process that enabled you to grow and develop after
that fateful meeting of ovum and sperm became ‘you’.
 Cell Replacement
 Cells must divide in order for an organism to grow and develop, but
cell division is also required for maintenance, cell turnover and
Meiosis is Sex Cell (Gamete) Formation
 In sexually reproducing organisms, some cells are able to divide by another
method called meiosis.
 Meiosis is a complex process by which gametes form; involves duplication
and division of reproductive cells and their chromosomes.
 The number of chromosomes in cells divide into two’s, and each set of
cell will receive 1 from each sets of chromosomes  makes up 23
 This type of cell division results in the production of gametes (eggs or
 Meiosis is much more complex than mitosis involves the duplication and
subsequent division of chromosomes, meiosis involves two divisions of
genetic material. As is the case in mitosis, in meiosis the cell duplicates its
chromosome number prior to beginning cellular division. Then nuclear
division, the sorting out of the genetic material, begins, and unfolds over the
course of 2 cellular divisions that result in 4 gametes.
Meiosis is Sex Cell (Gamete) Formation
 Gametes & Gonads
 Gametes are haploid (1n) with half the number of chromosomes
than the progenitor cell that they arose from. These haploid sex
cells arise in specialized reproductive tissue called the gonads.
Ovaries (female gonads) and testes (male gonads) are the sites of
 Fertilization & Development
 Sexual reproduction results in the merging of sperm and egg at
fertilization, and brings the chromosome count back to the 2n
diploid number necessary for a zygote to have complete genetic
information; 2 sets of genetic instructions in 23 pairs of
 As cells divide, the zygote develops and grows into an embryo,
fetus and beyond. These 23 pairs of chromosomes are duplicated
with every cell division, and are the genetic material inside nearly
every cell of the body.
What's the Difference between
Mitosis & Meiosis
 Mitosis is how the cells of our body make
more cells for growth, development and
 Meiosis is how our body makes sex cells,
or gametes (eggs or sperm).
Mechanisms of Heredity
 The Genetic Code
 Basis of heredity is a chemical called deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA), which contains all the inherited material passed from
biological parents to children
 Every cell except the sex cells has 23 pairs of chromosomes-46 in all
 Genetic action that triggers growth of body and brain is often
regulated by hormones
Mechanisms of heredity
 The genetic code
 DNA and chromosomes
 Human genome
 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell (46 total)
– except sex cells
Meiosis – division in sex cells (23 single chromosomes)
Mitosis – division in body cells
Genetic Code
 Genetic information are kept in chromosomes 
ie. A long & complex set of DNA molecules.
 Genes is a segment of DNA molecules  contains
instructions for making protein.
 Human being is said to have 100 trillions of cells
in the body  with specific functions; and is
distributed through 46 chromosomes, ie. 23 from
father & 23 from mother.
Genetic Foundation
 Genotype (genetic makeup)
 Phenotype (observable characteristics)
Hereditary composition of
the zygote
What determines sex?
 Autosomes – chromosome pairs 1- 22
 Sex chromosomes – 23rd pair of chromosomes
 XX = female
 Xy = males
Determination of a child’s sex
What Determines Sex?
 Sex chromosomes are either X chromosomes or Y
 When an ovum (X) is fertilized by an X-carrying sperm,
the zygote formed is XX, a female
 When an ovum (X) is fertilized by a Y-carrying sperm,
the resulting zygote is XY, a male
 Boy or girl?
 Chromosomes determine sex :
 23 pairs of sex chromosomes
 Female : XX pairs of sex chromosomes
 Male
: XY pairs of sex chromosomes
XY (male)
XX (female)
Patterns of Genetic Transmission
 When an offspring receives two contradictory
traits, only one of them, the dominant one
shows itself
 The expression of a recessive trait, occurs
only when a person receives the recessive
traits from both parents
Dominant and recessive
 What Causes Multiple Births?
 Dizygotic (two-egg) twins=fraternal twins
 Monozygotic (one-egg) twins=identical twins
 The rise in multiple births is due in part to a trend
toward delayed childbearing
 Infertility
 Inability to conceive a baby after 12 to 18 months
of trying
Genetic and Chromosomal
 Some defects are due to abnormalities in genes or
chromosomes, which may result from mutations
 Many disorders arise when an inherited predisposition
interacts with an environmental factor, either before
or after birth
Sex linked inheritance of a birth defect
Genetic Counseling and Testing
 A chart can show chromosomal abnormalities and
can indicate whether a person who appears normal
might transmit genetic defects to a child
Multiple births
 Dizygotic and monozygotic twins
 Increased incidence of multiple births in US
 Why?
 Delayed childrearing
 Fertility drugs
Infertility: Alternative ways to
 Inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months of
 Multiple causes
 Too few sperm
 Too few ova
 Abnormal ova
 Disease of the uterine lining
 Deterioration in quality of ova
 Blockage of the fallopian tubes
Assisted reproduction
 Artificial insemination
 Artificial insemination by a donor
 In vitro fertilization
 Ovum transfer
 Surrogate motherhood
 What are concerns raised by surrogate
Nature and Nurture
 Some Characteristics Influenced by Heredity and
 Adopted children's IQs are consistently closer to the IQs of
their biological mothers than to those of their adoptive
parents and siblings.
 Monozygotic twins generally look alike; they are also more
concordant than dizygotic twins in their risk for such medical
disorders as hypertension (high blood pressure), heart
disease, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, peptic ulcers, and
 Heredity seems to exert a strong influence on general
intelligence and also on specific abilities
 A strong hereditary influence on schizophrenia and autism,
among other disorders; found in families
Embryonic Stage
Embryonic stage
(2 to 8 weeks)
 Rapid growth and development of major body
systems and organs
 A critical period
 Trimesters
 Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage)
 Stillborn
Phases in pregnancy:
 First trimester (week 1-12)
 2nd Trimester (week 13 -24)
 3rd Trimester (week 25 & above)
Proses Persenyawaan
Bapa (sperma)
½ sel (23 kromosom X or Y)
Ibu (Ovum)
½ sel (23 kromosom X)
2nd Stage: Embryonic Period
(2nd Week - 2nd Month)
 The phase after implantation.  after the
development of zygote  and developing its
 Embryo composed of millions of cells with
various functions (week 3-8)
2nd Stage: Embryonic Period
(2nd Week - 2nd Month)
 The differentiation of
embryonic cells into layers
marks the beginning of the
embryo, or embryonic period
 Period when all body systems
 Highly sensitive for
susceptibility of congenital
malformations, or abnormal
conditions with which an infant
is born
Embryonic Period: End of the 1st Month
 1/4 inch (6 mm)
1 oz. Weight
with small limb
buds on sides
Tail with tiny ridges
circulatory system is
Heart begins to beat
Growth acceleration
Embryonic Period:End of 2nd Month
 1.5 inches long
 Beginning of face, neck,
fingers, toes develop
Limb buds lengthen
Muscles enlarge
Sex organs begin to form
Rapid brain development
Embryo is firmly planted
on uterine wall and is
receiving nourishment
from placenta and
umbilical cord
7 weeks
Facial features are visible,
including a mouth and tongue. The
eyes have a retina and lens. The
major muscle system is
developed, and the unborn child
practices moving. The child has its
own blood type, distinct from the
mother's. These blood cells are
produced by the liver now instead
of the yolk sac.
stage: Fetal Stage
(8 weeks to birth)
 Embryo develops  fetus (baby in the uterus).
 Cells that represents eyes, head, body, hands, legs 
further develops  larger.
 The period of consumption until baby is born  40
weeks (sometimes 38-36 weeks).
 Increased
detail of body parts and greatly enlarged
body size
 Finishing touches
 Fetal behavior
 Ultrasound
Early Fetal Period: 3rd - 6th Month
 Period of the fetus begins
around the 3rd month and
continues until delivery
 Movement first becomes
apparent to mother at this time
 No new anatomical features
appear during this period, yet
still critical time
Early Fetal Period: 3rd Month
 Rapid growth, 3 inches long at end
of 3rd month
Sexual differentiation continues
Teeth buds emerge
Stomach and kidneys begin to
Vocal cords appear
Reflex actions felt: opens/closes
mouth, clenches fist, sucks thumb
Early Fetal Period:4th Month
 Most rapid growth rate
(doubles in length to 6-8
 6 oz. Weight
 Hands fully shaped
 Bony tissue begins to form
Early Fetal Period:5th Month
 Reaches 1/2 of birth length (8-
10 inches)
Only 10% of birth weight (1/2
Skin, hair, nails appear
Internal organs grow and
assume proper anatomical
Pigmented hair on head &
eyebrows appears
Early Fetal Period: 6th Month
13 inches long
1 lb. Weight
Eyelids reopen and are completed
Structurally complete but
functionally immature
Later Fetal Period: 7th-9th Month/Birth
 From the 7th month to
birth, the fetus triples in
 This is a period of filling out
 Preparation for birth
Later Fetal Period:7th Month
 A layer of adipose tissue begins to
form under skin (serves as both
insulator & food supplier)
 Rapid 2-4 lb. Weight gain
 14-16 inches long
 Fetus is quiet for long periods of
 Brain more active and is increasing
control over body systems
Later Fetal Period:8th Month
 Fetus is more active
(frequent changes in
 Fatty deposits distributed
 16-18 inches long
 4-6 lbs.
Later Fetal Period:9th Month (Birth)
 19-21 inches long
 6-8 lbs.
 Birth process is
initiated by placenta
and contraction of
uterine muscles
 Birth generally occurs
after week 40 of
gestation (normal is
38-42 wks.)
Important parts in the uterus
 Amniotic Sac
 Placenta
 Amniotic fluid
 Umbilical cord
Environmental Influences
 Maternal factors
 Teratogenic – capable of causing birth defects
Maternal factors (continued)
 Prescription and Nonprescription
 Medical drugs
 Caffeine
 Cocaine, heroin, or methadone
Maternal factors (continued)
 Tobacco/Nicotine
 Alcohol
 Fetal alcohol syndrome
 Fetal alcohol effects Sexually transmitted diseases
and other maternal illnesses
 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
 Radiation
 Environmental Polution
 Maternal Diseases
Other Maternal factors
 Exercise & Physical activity
 Nutrition
 Emotional Stress
 Rh Incompartibility
 Maternal age
Paternal factors
 Environmentally caused defects
 Cocaine use
 Age
 Smoking
Monitoring prenatal
 Ultrasound
 Sonogram
 Sonoembriology
 Amniocentesis
 Chorionic villus sampling
 Embryoscopy
 Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
 Umbilical cord sampling (fetal blood sampling)
 Maternal blood test
Prenatal care
 Why is prenatal care important?
 How can it be improved?
 What is the relationship between prenatal care and low
birthweight and premature births?
 How can we tell whether a new baby is healthy and is
developing normally?
 What complications of childbirth can endanger
newborn babies, and what can be done to increase the
chances of a positive outcome?
The birth process
 Stages of childbirth
 First stage
 Second stage
 Third stage
 Fourth stage
 Electronic fetal monitoring
Stages of childbirth
Prenatal development (con’t)
The Baby’s
Adaptation to
Labor and
The Newborn Baby
 Newborn are called Neonate.
 First four weeks of life (neonatal period)
A time of transition from the uterus, where a fetus is
supported entirely by the mother  to an
independent existence.
 When neonate are first born:
Covered by fluid from amniotic sac
Blood from placenta
Brownish fluid from own faeces.
Covered with lanugo (fuzzy prenatal hair)
Covered with vernix caseosa (cheesy varnish)
The Newborn Baby
 Size and Appearance
 New babies have distinctive feature a large head and a
receding chin
 On the head  Fontanels (the soft spots)
 Newborns have a pinkish cast  skin so thin that it barely
covers the capillaries through which blood flows.
 Boys tend to be slightly longer and heavier than girls, and a
firstborn child is likely to weigh less at birth than later-borns
The Newborn Baby
 Weight
2.8 -3.2 kg
 Length :
51-53 cm (Boy > girl)
 Head Circumference: 30-33 cm
 Breathing:
Initially fast, short & irregular
Later  more stable & with rhythm
 Blood pressure become stable in 10 days.
Is the Baby Healthy?
Medical and Behavioral Screening
Apgar Scale
The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
Checks are also done for any structural or physical
deformities (eg. spinal defect, cleft palate)
Silver nitrate or tetracycline is usually dropped into
neonate eyes to prevent from bacterial infection while
passing through birth canal.
Apgar Scale
 Apgar Scale is a standard measurement of a newborn’s
 Introduced by Dr. Virginia Apgar
 Access newborn
 1 min after birth
 5 min after birth
 Assess:
 Appearance (colour)
 Pulse (heart beat rate)
 Grimace (reflex)
 Activity (muscle tone)
 Respiration (breathing)
Blue, pale
Body pink,
extremities blue
Entirely Pink
Slow (below 100)
Rapid (over 100)
No response
sneezing, crying
Weak, inactive
Strong, active
Irregular, slow
Good, Crying
Above 7 = (good/normal)
4 -7 = average, need monitoring
3 & Below = need immediate attention, high risk situation
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral
Assessment Scale
 The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment
Scale (NBAS) (Dr. Berry Brazelton) serves 3
 As an index of neurological integrity after
 To predict future development
 To assesses neonates' responsiveness to their
physical and social environment
 Screening done on 3rd day and repeat again
after several days.
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral
Assessment Scale (NBAS)
 Test on four distinct areas:
 Social behavior (interactive behaviors in the
 Motor behaviors (reflexes & muscle
 Control of physiology (baby’s ability to quiet
 Stress response (startle reaction)
 High score  a neurologically well developed infant
 Low score  a sluggish infant who need help in
responding to social situations, or possible brain damage.
Babies In-born Reflexes
 Reflexes  an inborn, automatic response to a particular
form of stimulation.
 Full term newborns come equipped with a variety of
reflexes for use in dealing efficiently with stimuli
present in their environment.
 Some reflexes are necessary for survival (eg. Rooting &
sucking reflexes)
 Reflexes are probably genetic in origin & include a timing
mechanism that allows them to fade away after a period of
Examples of Newborn Reflexes
 Eye Blink
 Moro
 Withdrawal
 Palmar Grasp
 Rooting
 Tonic Neck
 Sucking
 Stepping
 Swimming
 Babinski
Eliciting Stimulus
Gentle stroke along
Toes fan out: big toe
sole of foot (heel - toe) reflexes
Disappears by
end of first
Sudden lost of
Disappear in
6 months
Rod of finger pressed Object grasp
against infant’s palm
Disappear in
3-4 months
Object lightly brushes
infant’s cheek
Disappear in
3-4 months
Insert Finger in mouth Rhythmic sucking
Held baby upright.
Sole of feet placed on
hard surface
Arms extended, then
brought towards each
Baby turns towards
object and attempts to
Disappear in
3-4 months
Infant step forward as if Disappear in
3-4 months
 Stroke cheek near corner of
mouth or object brushes the
 Infant respon by turning
head toward stimulation
 Disappears at 3 weeks when
child begins to be able to
voluntarily turn head
 Helps infant find nipple
Moro Reflex
 Hold infant horizontally on
back and let head drop
slightly or produce sudden
loud sound against surface
supporting infant
 Infant response is to make
an embracing motion by
arching back, extending
legs, throwing arms
outward and then bringing
them in toward the body
 Disappear at 6 months
 Probably in human
evolution helped baby cling
to mother
Palmer Grasp
 Spontaneous grasp of
adult’s finger
 Disappears at 3-4
months to allow
reaching and grasping
 Prepares infant for
voluntary grasping
Tonic Neck Reflex
 Turn baby's head to one side
while lying on back
 Infant responds by lying in a
“fencing position” with one
arm extended in front of
eyes on side to which head
is turned other arm is flexed
 Disappears at 4 months
 May prepare infant for
voluntary reaching
 Children grow faster during the first years, especially
during the first few months.
 This rapid growth rate tapers off during the second and
third years
 Physical growth and development follow the maturational
principles of the cephalocaudal principle and proximodistal
Influences on Growth
 Genes interact with environment, i.e.
nutrition and living conditions,  general
health and well-being
 Well-fed, well-cared-for children grow taller
and heavier than less well nourished and
nurtured children
 Better medical care, immunization and
antibioticsbetter health
Growth And Nutrition
 Nourishment
 Breast milk is almost always the best food for
newborns and is recommended for at least the first 12
 Parents can avoid obesity and cardiac problems in
themselves and in their children by adopting a more
active lifestyle for the entire family--and to breastfeed
their babies
The Brain
 First 3 years of life is critical to baby’s brain
 Before & after birth  brain growth is fundamental to
future development.
 It is estimated that about 250,000 brain cells are form
every minute in the uterus.
 By birth, almost 100 billion nerve cell are formed, but not
fully develop.
Molding the Brain: The Role of Experience
 Smiling, babbling, crawling, walking, and talking are
possible due to rapid development of the brain, particularly
the cerebral cortex
 Each part of the brain is very important in infuencing a child
development  integration between child emotions and behavior.
Middle brain: Limbic System
• Covers motivation, emotions, &
long term memory, aggressive
behavior, body temperature,
hunger, nerve system
activities, hormon secretion
Outer Brain: Cortex &
• Divided into
(folds) with specific
• Placement of
‘intelligence’ & higer
mental process,
learning, memory,
thinking, language
(last to develop)
• Also control vision,
hearing, inventing.
Brain stem
Contro process such as
breathing, heartbeat muscle
movement, kidney process,
reflex behavior, sleep,
arousal, attention,
balance/movement etc.
Thin layer on the brain’s surface that
include lobes or sections:
 Occipital lobe
 Process vision.
 Temporal Lobe
 Process hearing
 Parietal Lobe
 Process sensory stimuli
 Frontal Lobe
 Critical thinking & problem
 Frontal cortex  area of the cortex
that controls personality and the
ability to carry out plans
Molding the Brain: The Role of
 Early experience can have lasting effects on emotional
development and the capacity of the central nervous
system to learn and store information
 Sometimes corrective experience can make up for past
Brain and Neurons
 First 3 years of life  children’s brain are actively
building and developing connections between the
neurons cells.
 Connections are developed when the brain are
actively receiving stimulus  process between
receiving and sending impulses between the cells.
 Through axons/dendrites  send signals to other
neurons & receive incoming message through
connection called synapses.
Infant States of Arousal
 States of arousal are different degrees of sleep and
 Infants move in and out of 5 states throughout the day and
Regular sleep
Irregular sleep
Alert Activity
Waking activity and crying
 Striking individual differences in daily rhythms exist that
affect parents’ attitudes toward and interactions with baby.
Ways to Soothe a Crying Baby
 Hold on shoulder and
rock or walk
 Swaddle
 Pacifier
 Ride in carriage, car,
 Combine methods
 Let cry for short time
Adjustments to Parenthood
Gender roles
Parents’ relationship
 Pre-birth counseling
 Interventions for high-risk couples
Early Sensory Capacities
 Touch
 Hearing
 Vision
 Taste
 Smell
Touch and Pain
 Touch seems to be the first sense to develop
 Sensitivity to touch, pain, and temperature change is well-
developed at birth.
 Pain experienced during the neonatal period may sensitize
an infant to later pain, perhaps by affecting the neural
pathways that process painful stimuli
 Relieve pain with anesthetics, sugar, gentle holding
 Reflexes reveal sensitivity to touch, for example touch on
mouth, palms, soles, genitals
 Touch helps stimulate physical and emotional development.
Newborn Senses of
Taste and Smell
Prefer sweet tastes at birth
Quickly learn to like new tastes
Have odor preferences from birth
Can locate odors and identify mother
by smell from birth
 Babies are born with the ability to communicate their taste
preferences to caregivers.
 Infant facial expressions indicate they can distinguish among
several tastes.
 Newborns' rejection of bitter tastes is probably another
survival mechanism, since many bitter substances are toxic
 The responsiveness of infants to the smell of certain foods is
similar to that of adults  showed that some odor
preferences are innate.
 A newborn infant is attracted to the odor of her own
mother’s lactating breast  helps to find food source and to
identify own mother a survival mechanism.
 Newborns can identify the location of an unpleasant odor
and turn head away.
 A preference for pleasant odors seems to be learned in utero
and during the first few days after birth
Studies conducted: Smell and Taste
 Lipsitt, Engen & Kye (1963) : Baby showed negative response
to the smell of ammonia.
 Steiner : Baby showed different facial expression when
exposed to different type of scent.
 Mac Farlane (1977): Baby can differentiate between own
mother’s milk and other mothers’ milk.
 Schmidt & Beauchamp (1988) : Baby’s ability to smell is
almost equivalent to a 3 years old ability to smell.
 Harris & friends: By aged 4 months old, baby like the taste of
Baby likes the
smell of:
• Banana,
• Margerine
• Tangerine
Baby dislikes
the smell of:
• Amonia
• Rotten egg
 Well developed at birth - sensitive to voices and
biologically prepared to learn language
 Hearing is functional before birth ability to
discrimination sound develops rapidly after birth. E.g.
Infants respond with changes in heart rate to loud
sounds (even in the womb)
 Can hear wide range of sounds but are more responsive
to some than others – i.e. prefer complex sounds to pure
 Newborns prefer complex sounds such as voices and
noises to pure tones - learn sound patterns within days
 Newborns prefer speech that is high-pitched and
 There are only a few speech sounds that newborns
cannot discriminate, and their ability to perceive speech
sounds outside their language is more precise than an
Developments in Hearing
4 – 6 months
6 months
Sense of musical phrasing
“Screen out” sounds from non-native
Recognize familiar words, natural
7 – 9 months phrasing in native language
10 months
Can detect words that start with weak
Studies conducted:
 De Casper & Fifer (1980): Baby can differentiate
mother’s voices from others  thru’ baby sucking
 Birnhold & Benacerraf (1983): 28th week baby showed
his/her response thru facial expression.
 Wertheimer (1961) : Baby able to follow source of
sound thru’ the “clicker” test.
 Vision - the least developed sense at birth
 Newborns cannot focus their eyes very well
and their visual acuity  fineness of
discrimination, is limited
 However, newborns explore their
environment by scanning it for interesting
sights & tracking moving objects.
 They can’t yet discriminate colors but
color vision will improve in a couple of
 Visual perception is poor at birth  but
improves to 20/100 by age 6 months
 Binocular vision using both eyes to
Infants’ Scanning of Faces
Face-like Stimuli
Studies conducted: Sight
 Langlois & friends (1990): Babies are more attracted to
attractive and beautiful human faces.
 Fantz (1993): Babies prefer to look at pictures of human.
 Aslin (1987): 4 days old babies can differentiate between
green and red.
 Babies prefer blue and red as compared to other colors.
 Gibson & Walk (1960): Visual cliff experiment. 6 mth
babies has already develop in-dept perception in visual.
Steps in Depth Perception
Birth – 1
Sensitivity to motion cues
Sensitivity to binocular cues
5 –12
Sensitivity to pictorial cues.
Wariness of heights
Steps in Pattern Perception
3 weeks
Poor contrast sensitivity.
Prefer large simple patterns
2 months
Can detect fine-grained detail. Prefer
complex patterns.
4 months
Can detect patterns even if boundaries are
not really present
12 months
Can detect objects if two-thirds of drawing
is missing
Improvements in Vision
Brain development helps infants
reach adult levels of vision skills:
 2 months: Focus and color vision
 6 months: acuity, scanning &
 6–7 months: depth perception
Integrating Sensory
 By 1 month, can integrate sight and touch
 By 4 months, can integrate sight and
 4- and 7-month-olds can match facial
appearance (boy or man) with sound of
Motor Development
 Maturity affect infant perceptual and motor abilities.
 Milestones of Motor Development
 Babies first learn simple skills and then combine them into
increasingly complex systems of action
Week 1 : Motor ability progress
Month 1
: Chin lift
Month 2
: Reach for object
 Denver Developmental Screening Test measures:
 Gross motor skills (those using large muscles), such as
rolling over and catching a ball, and
 Fine motor skills (using small muscles), such as grasping a
rattle and copying a circle.
 Language development (for example, knowing the definitions
of words)
 Personality and social development (such as smiling
spontaneously and dressing without help).
Motor Development
 Newborn are not able to control their body movement  no
 Most movements are due to inborn reflexes (rooting, moro,
palmer grasp etc)
 Humans begin to walk later than other species, possibly
because babies' heavy heads and short legs make balance
Milestone in motor develpment
Motor Development
How Motor Development Occurs:
Maturation in Context
 According to Thelen, normal babies develop the
same skills in the same order because they are built
approximately the same way and have similar
physical challenges and needs
Motor Development
Cultural Influences on Motor Development
 Chances to explore their surroundings motor
development likely to be normal
 Some cultures actively encourage early development of
motor skills
Motor Development
Training Motor Skills Experimentally
 Gesell concluded that children perform certain
activities when they are ready, and training gives no
 Interaction of biology and environment are
involved in infant motor development
Social development
 Baby's ability to interact with other people
 Develops thru regular interaction with babies,:
 Feeding
 Cleaning
 Caring/loving
 Newborn can imitate facial expression.
 What is attachment?
 The most important form of social development that
occurs during infancy is ATTACHMENT, the positive
emotional bond that develops between a child and a
particular individual.
 Bowlby viewed attachment as based on infant's needs for
safety and security (especially from the mother)
Infant Attachment
 Attachment
 an infant responds positively to specific others,
feels better when they are close, and seeks them
out when frightened.
 Attachment provides
 a sense of security to the child
 information about the environment
Infant Attachment
 Critical for allowing the infant to explore the world
 Having a strong, firm attachment provides a safe base
from which the child can gain independence.
 Attachment: adaptive
 suggests that the tendency to form relationships is at
least partly biologically based.
Infant Attachment
 Mary Ainsworth (1978) identified three major
attachment styles: Secure  strong bonding
 Avoidant  negative bonding
 Anxious/ambivalent  display a combination of
positive and negative bonding

FEM 3101 (Sem Pertama 2011