BBI 2421
General Writing Skills
Course Introduction
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Fauziah Hanim Ahmad Shaari
B13, 2nd Floor, Sanggar Bahasa,
Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication
[email protected] / 019 9329753
Irda Hidayah
Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication
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Course Content
Sentence Structure
Paragraph Writing
Essay Writing
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Sentence Structure
Clauses: dependent & independent
Types of sentences: simple, compound, complex
Sentence errors: fragment, run on, comma splice
& parallel structure
Conjunctions: coordinating & subordinating
Grammar: subject-verb/noun-pronoun agreement
Mechanics: punctuations
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Paragraphs
Format of a paragraph
Types of paragraphs
Paragraph outline
- Topic sentence
- Controlling idea
- Supporting details
- Conclusion
Unity
Coherence
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Essays
Format of an essay
Thesis statements
Supporting details
Concluding paragraph
Unity
Coherence
Citation format
References
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Mid semester examination
Final examination
Coursework
25 marks
30 marks
45 marks
Coursework
Writing Assignments 1 (A1)
Self Directed Learning Portfolio (SDL)
Writing Assignments 2 (A2)
15 marks
10 marks
20 marks
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Assignment 1
Writing Assignment 1 (A1) - Letter to the Editor
Content: Selected newspaper article used
Paragraph Outline
Draft 1
Peer editing form
Draft 2
Self editing form
Final Draft (clean copy to be marked)
• Arial 11 or Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing, Cover page
(Please refer to [email protected])
Due Date: 12 August 2011
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Self Directed learning (SDL)
Content: Weekly online assignment
(to be done throughout the 1st half of the course)
- Please refer to [email protected]
* ensure a proper cover page
* please print the exercises that you have done. Photocopied
exercises are not accepted.
* ensure the exercises are correctly arranged (Week 1, etc.)
* each week SDL work should be clearly separated using a
divider.
* to be submitted together with A1 (bind together)
Due Date: 12 August 2011
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Writing Assignment 2 – Academic Essay
Content:
Please refer to Lecture 2 (Perjumpaan 2)
* ensure a proper cover page
• Arial 11 or Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing
Due Date: 23 September 2011
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Sentence Structure: Phrases & Clauses
A Phrase?
A group of words without a SUBJECT and a
VERB
In the morning
A long time ago
Several hours later / At the far end of the room
Ten minutes ago / around the corner
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Clause?
A group of words containing a SUBJECT
and a VERB
She is here.
When we visited the farm.
The students are listening.
Until I get my salary.
Linda jots down notes during the lecture.
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Class practice
Tommy is here.
Several hundreds years ago in Malacca.
When I come home.
Because the nurses care.
Behind my back.
They went scuba-diving.
A beautiful morning.
Rahim and Suzie are planning to attend the party.
Although we managed to escape the fire.
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Answer Key
Tommy is here. (C)
Several hundreds years ago in Malacca. (P)
When I come home. (C)
Because the nurses care. (C)
Behind my back. (P)
They went scuba-diving. (C)
A beautiful morning. (P)
Rahim and Suzie are planning to attend the party. (C)
Although we managed to escape the fire. (C)
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Types of Clauses
Independent Clause (IC)
a complete sentence
- the sentence contains a S + V + Complete thought / idea
Tommy is here.
They went scuba-diving.
Rahim and Suzie are planning to attend the
party.
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Dependent Clause
Dependent Clause (DC)
An incomplete sentence
- The sentence contains a S + V but the thought/ idea
is incomplete
When I come home. (DC)
so what? incomplete idea
Because the nurses care. (DC)
so…? incomplete idea
Although we managed to escape the fire. (DC)
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A dependent or Independent Clause?
Tina cries.
Tina and Sam cry.
Tina kissed and hugged me.
Tina and Sam kissed and hugged me.
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Answer Key
Tina cries. (IC – a complete sentence)
Tina and Sam cry. (IC- a complete sentence)
Tina kissed and hugged me. (IC – a complete sentence)
Tina and Sam kissed and hugged me.
(IC- a complete sentence)
An Independent clause = A complete sentence
Sentence: A group of words containing a subject, a verb,
and a complete thought / idea
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Type of Sentences
Simple Sentence
S=S+V
Tina cries.
S=S+S+V
Tina and Sam cry.
S=S+V+V
Tina kissed and hugged me.
S=S+S+V+V
Tina and Sam kissed and hugged me.
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Compound Sentence
IC + IC
Anna bought several flowers.
Anna sent them to her mother.
S + V (IC) Simple
S + V (IC) Simple
Anna bought several flowers and sent them to her mother.
S + V + V (simple sentence)
Anna bought several flowers, and she sent them to her
mother.
S + V, S + V (compound sentence)
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We cannot wait any longer in this dangerous place.
S + V (IC) simple
We and the rest of the team have to move now.
S + S + V (IC) simple
We cannot wait any longer in this dangerous place, so we
and the rest of the team have to move now.
IC + IC (compound)
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Using conjunctions to form a
compound sentence
Anna bought several flowers, and she sent them to her
mother.
We cannot wait any longer in this dangerous place, so we
and the rest of the team have to move now.
so, and
Coordinating conjunctions
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Coordinating Conjunctions (CC)
, for
, and
, nor
, but
, or
, yet
, so
FANBOYS (Short Words)
*check out your textbook (pg 189) for more examples
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Coordinating Conjunctions (Long words)
Conjunctive Adverbs
;therefore,
;however,
;whereas,
;consequently,
;moreover,
;furthermore,
*check
out your textbook (pg 189) for more examples
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More Examples
I ran very fast. I missed the train.
I ran very fast; however, I missed the train.
I ran very fast, but I missed the train.
They should go. They should never return.
They should go, and they should never return.
My children admire me. I feel proud of myself.
My children admire me; therefore, I feel proud of myself.
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Complex Sentence
IC + DC
Anna brought several flowers.
When she visited her mother.
(IC)
(DC)
Anna brought several flowers when she visited her
mother. (IC DC)
When Anna visited her mother, she brought
several flowers. (DC, IC)
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Many of the victims died because they did not receive
medical attention early.
Because the victims did not receive medical attention early,
many of them died.
I will return the books when you return my cds.
Since Rob moved to Canada, Christina has become very
temperamental.
We bumped into Ning as we were leaving the café.
When, since, as
Subordinating Conjunctions
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Subordinating Conjunctions (SC)
As, When, While, Since, Although, Though
Even though, Because, Until
Till, Where, As if, Before, Unless
Whether, Whenever
*check out your textbook (pg 189) for more examples
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Sentence Errors
Fragment
When was riding home last night, he saw a strange object.
(missing subject)
People in KL always in a hurry.
(missing verb)
Until I am cured. (incomplete thought / idea)
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Repairing Fragments
Add a subject
When Rony / He / The man was riding home last night, he
saw a strange object.
Add a verb
People in KL are always in a hurry.
Complete the sentence. Add IC.
I will not lose hope until I am cured.
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Sentence Errors
Comma-splice
I drove fast, I missed my flight.
I drove fast, I missed my flight.
(Two complete sentences (IC) combined using
merely a comma)
Sonia feels hungry, she eats several slices of bread.
I have won a car from BSN, I am excited.
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Repairing a comma-splice error
Add CC to form a compound sentence.
I drove fast, but I missed my flight.
I drove fast; however, I missed my flight.
Add SC to form a complex sentence.
I missed my flight though I drove fast.
Though I drove fast, I missed my flight.
Place a full-stop or a semicolon.
I drove fast. I missed my flight.
I drove fast; I missed my flight.
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Sentence Errors
Run-Ons
I drove fast I miss my flight.
(Two complete sentences (IC) joined as one
sentence without a conjunction or proper
punctuation)
Rita feels thirsty she buys two cans of orange juice.
We were lost we were not worried.
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Repairing a Run-Ons
We were lost we were not worried.
Add CC to form a compound sentence.
We were lost, yet we were not worried.
We were lost; however, we were not worried.
Add SC to form a complex sentence.
Although we were lost, we were not worried.
We were not worried although we were lost.
Place a full-stop or a semicolon.
We were lost. We were not worried.
We were lost; we were not worried.
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Sentence Structure
Parallelism
I enjoy reading and to plant flowers.
I enjoy reading and planting flowers.
She is friendly, nice and loves to help
others.
She is friendly, nice, and helpful.
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Paragraph Writing
A collection of 5-12 sentences
Focuses on ONE topic
Contains a topic sentence (ts)
*a good ts contains a clear controlling idea
Contains 2-3 points to support the topic sentence
Several sentences to support (explain, elaborate) the points
Usually ends with a concluding sentence (cs)
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How do we a paragraph?
Select An Interesting Topic
Create a Focus
Write the Topic Sentence
Draw an Outline
Write the Paragraph
Edit & Revise the Paragraph
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Select a Topic
Dr Mahathir
Computer games
Exercising
Camping
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Create a Focus
Dr Mahathir
life/ success/ personality/ contributions/ influence/ beliefs
Computer games
disadvantages/ types/ software/ cost/ addictions
Exercising
danger/ reasons/ benefits/ equipment/ types
Camping
reasons/ benefits/ difference/ cost/ equipment/ location
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Write a clear topic sentence. Include a controlling idea.
Dr Mahathir - influence
Dr Mahathir is a very influential man.
Computer games - addictive
Playing computer games can be addictive.
There are four causes of addiction to computer games among
teenagers.
Jogging – benefits
Many people enjoy jogging to gain these benefits.
Camping - best holiday
Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
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Draw an outline
Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
P1
Get in touch
with nature
-direct access to
natural surrounding
-bath in cold river,
breathpure mountain
air and listen to
birds chirping
P2
poor telephone
reception
-enjoy a truly relaxing
holiday
-no one can call.
forget work problems
P3
Cheap
-doesn’t cost
much to rent
a camp site
- RM100-200
for a hotel
tent =RM10
CS: In short, these are why everyone should go camping.
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Draw an outline
Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
P1: Get in touch with nature
sd: direct access to natural surrounding
sd:. bath in cold river, breathpure mountain air and listen to birds
chirping
P2: poor telephone reception
Sd: enjoy a truly relaxing holiday
Sd: No one can call, forget work problems
P3: Cheap
Sd: doesn’t cost much to rent a tent and a camping site
Sd: RM100 to RM200 for hotel, RM10 or less for a tent
CS: In short, these are why everyone should go camping.
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Camping is the best form of holiday for these reasons.
Firstly, it allows you to get in touch with nature. Unlike
other typical holidays, camping gives you a direct access to
the natural surrounding. You can actually bath in the cold
river, breath pure mountain air, and listen to birds chirping
as you relax in your tent. Next, as telephone reception is
poor in many camping grounds, you can enjoy a truly
relaxing holiday. No one from the office can call you, so
you can forget your work problems for a while. Lastly, it is
also cheap. It doesn’t cost much to rent a tent and a
camping site. If you normally pay RM100 to RM200 per
night for a hotel room, you only need to pay RM10 or less to
rent a tent a night. In short, these are why I believe
everyone should opt for a a camping trip.
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