The Challenges in Improving
Student Success
Terri M. Manning, Ed.D.
Central Piedmont Community College
A Multitude of Issues Facing Colleges
• A lot is going on in community colleges across the
country – focusing on students success, retention,
graduation, improving higher education
opportunities
» Achieving the Dream (first Lumina – now 80
funders)
» The Rural Community College Initiative (Ford)
» The Developmental Education Initiative (Gates)
» Global Skills for College Success (Gates through the
League to LaGuardia to 16 institutions in 14 states)
» We can learn from these initiatives and use their
data and techniques
Stages of Community College Change
Stage 4
Stage 5
Acceptance & adaptation
Challenge & competition
Catalyst - Proactive
Depression
Compliance - Passive reactive
Stage 3
Bargaining - no time/no money
Seek outside sources
Stage 2
Anger and antagonism
Resistant & Reactive
Stage 1
Disbelief & Denial
Paralysis - Passive resistance
Students are More Diverse Than Ever Before
All NCCCS Curriculum Students in 2008-09 (IPEDS Annual Enrollments)
Native American
Asian/Pac. Islander
Black/Afr. Amer.
Hispanic/Latino
White
Non Res. Alien
Other/unknown
Total
males
1,479
2,293
23,420
4,739
82,584
1,348
5,525
121,388
% male by
race
1.2%
1.9%
19.3%
3.9%
68.0%
1.1%
4.6%
38.6%
females
3,376
3,081
51,143
6,835
119,003
1,831
7,495
192,764
% females by
race
1.8%
1.6%
26.5%
3.5%
61.7%
0.9%
3.9%
61.4%
Total
4,855
5,374
74,563
11,574
201,587
3,179
13,020
314,152
% total by
race
1.5%
1.7%
23.7%
3.7%
64.2%
1.0%
4.1%
100.0%
More International Students
• In 2007-08 international student enrollment
grew by 7% to a record of 623,805 in US higher
education institutions.
• Over the past 5-10 years, CPCC has had student
from 216 countries speaking as many as 899
languages.
• Annually we have 5,000 to 7,500 international
students.
Source: America.gov
http://www.america.gov/st/educenglish/2008/November/200811171600491CJsamohT0.646908.html
Students are Coming to us Less Prepared
• Whose fault is
this?
• Can we do
anything about
it?
The Need for Developmental Ed
Of 2002 Achieving the Dream Cohort, % Needing
Developmental Education
Source: Achieving the Dream Data Notes,1(6) July/Aug 2006.
How Are They Doing
Percent of 2002 AtD Cohort referred to developmental education that
attempted and completed at least one developmental course during their
first term, by race.
Source: Achieving the Dream Data Notes, 1(6) July/Aug 2006.
How Are They Doing
Percentage of AtD students referred to developmental education by completion
status of developmental requirements during the 1st academic year.
Source: Achieving the Dream Data Notes, 3(4), July/August 2008.
How are They Doing?
Percentage of AtD students persisting by developmental status the end of the
first year.
Retention Rates
2nd Term
2nd Year
Referred to DE – did not complete any
57%
45%
Referred to DE – partially completed
85%
65%
Referred to DE – completed all
94%
80%
Not referred to DE = college ready
66%
54%
All students
70%
57%
Source: Achieving the Dream Data Notes, 3(4), July/August 2008.
Student Age
College populations are getting
younger – under 25 is the fastest
growing group across the
country.
(Boomers)
(Xers)
(Millennials)
The Economy
• Greatest impact on us right now.
• Creating a multitude of issues
that colleges must address.
Rapid Enrollment Growth
NC unemployment Rate
NCCCS Curriculum Headcount
310,000
12.00%
11.00%
10.00%
9.00%
8.00%
7.00%
6.00%
5.00%
4.00%
3.00%
300,000
???
290,000
280,000
270,000
260,000
250,000
230,000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
240,000
Source: State ESC and NCCCS Websites
Greatest Growth
• Developmental Courses
• Gatekeeper or gateway courses
– Typically high volume, high risk courses (most sections and most
enrollment.)
– Courses where students often withdraw or do not pass.
– They serve as the gatekeeper between developmental or pre-college
courses and courses in the “majors.”
– Courses are fundamental to the college due to the size of the
enrollment - 35-40% of all enrollment.
– The courses are fundamental to other courses at the college (often prerequisites.)
– Improvements in these courses would be beneficial to the college
overall.
Who Are The Unemployed?
Students are More Needy
• Displaced workers are different than the more
traditional community college students • A greater need for student services
• Need someone to talk to
• Need for financial aid goes up.
• Number with zero family contribution (family
cannot help them at all) rose from 2,891 in
2008 to 4,681 in 2009 (increase of 62% at CPCC)
(It was 600% at UNCC.)
• Different brain usage – must be “turned back
on.”
Gender Issues
For Every 100 Girls Who….
Number of Boys
Enroll in Kindergarten
116
Enroll in Ninth Grade
101
Enroll in Twelfth Grade
98
Are Suspended from K-12
250
Are Expelled from K-12
335
Diagnosed with Learning Disability 276
Enroll in the gifted and talented
program
94
The Boys Project. http://www.boysproject.net/statistics.html
Gender Issues and Education Choices
For Every 100 Girls Who….
Number of Boys
Graduate from High School
96
Enroll in College
77
Earn an Associates Degree
67
Earn a Bachelors Degree
73
Earn a Masters Degree
62
Earn a Doctorate
92
The Boys Project. http://www.boysproject.net/statistics.html
SO THEY ARE ALL HERE
Enrollment At Mitchell
• In Fall 2009, Mitchell offered 574 sections of
251 courses – but 50% of the enrollment and
FTE came from 25 courses (10% of your
courses).
• What were they?
Largest to Smallest – College Level
Gen Ed and College Transfer
•ENG 111 – Expository Writing
•ENG111a - Lab
•PSY 150 - Psychology
•SOC 210 – Intro to Sociology
•ART 111 - Art Appreciation
•CIS 110 – Intro to Computers
•COM 120 – Interpersonal Com
•ENG 113 - Lit-based Research
•BUS 110 - Intro to Business
•SPA 111 – Elem Spanish
509 seats
509 seats
391 seats
260 seats
256 seats
248 seats
231 seats
218 seats
181 seats
173 seats
Largest to Smallest – College Level
Gen Ed and College Transfer
•HIS 121 – Western Civilization
•ECO 251 – Prin of Microeconomics
•BIO 111 – General Biology
•ACC 120 – Prin of Accounting
151 seats
148 seats
126 seats
119 seats
Highest Enrolled Courses
Developmental Courses – Top Five
•ENG 095 – Reading & Comp Strat 313 seats
•MAT 070 – Introductory Algebra
260 seats
•MAT 060 – Essential Mathematics 247 seats
•ENG 085 – Reading and Writing
177 seats
•MAT 050 – Basic Math Skills
111 seats
Highest Enrolled Courses
Career Courses – Top Six
•COE 111 - Work Experience
79 seats
•NUR 115 – Fundamentals of Nursing 62 seats
•CJC 100 – Basic Law Enforcement 48 seats
•NUR 125 – Maternal Child Nursing 45 seats
•COS 112 – Salon I
31 seats
•COS 114 – Salon II
19 seats
How Are Students Doing?
General Education or College Transfer Courses
Highest Enrolled - Fall 2009
Course
ENG-111
ENG-111A
PSY-150
ART-111
SOC-210
CIS-110
COM-120
ENG-113
BUS-110
SPA-111
HIS-121
ECO-251
BIO-111
ACC-120
A-C
308
307
333
191
200
154
176
146
130
115
85
118
88
80
%A-C
60.5%
60.3%
85.2%
73.2%
76.9%
62.1%
76.5%
67.0%
71.8%
66.5%
56.3%
79.7%
69.8%
67.8%
A-F
380
380
354
219
222
191
196
164
155
132
117
127
105
91
%A-F
74.7%
74.7%
90.5%
83.9%
85.4%
77.0%
85.2%
75.2%
85.6%
76.3%
77.5%
85.8%
83.3%
77.1%
All
509
509
391
261
260
248
230
218
181
173
151
148
126
118
How Are Students Doing?
Five Developmental Courses in the Top 25
Highest Enrolled Courses - Fall 2009
Course
A-C
%A-C
A-F
%A-F
All
ENG-095
216
69.0%
263
84.0%
313
MAT-070
186
71.8%
215
83.0%
259
MAT-060
187
75.7%
210
85.0%
247
ENG-085
146
82.5%
155
87.6%
177
MAT-050
85
76.6%
89
80.2%
111
How Are Students Doing?
Career Oriented Courses in the Top 25
Highest Enrolled Courses - Fall 2009
Course
A-C
%A-C
A-F
%A-F
All
COE-111
51
64.6%
51
64.6%
79
NUR-115
52
83.9%
54
87.1%
62
NUR-125
43
95.6%
45
100.0%
45
CJC-100
29
90.6%
29
90.6%
32
COS-112
17
54.8%
18
58.1%
31
COS-114
15
78.9%
17
89.5%
19
What Colleges are Doing
• To improve success in these two areas (dev ed and
gateway courses) we have to address two issues:
– Strategies to increase retention – keep them to the end of the
term, to the next term, to the next year and to completion.
– Strategies to improve “academic skills” – to make better
students of them.
– Our primary goal should be for students to “master the
course content” not just to keep them around for one or two
more terms before they flunk out.
– Retention and academic success are two different animals
and require two different sets of strategies.
Issues With Developmental Education
• Too many math faculty believe “all roads lead to
calculus.” Students don’t need that much math.
We need a statistics tract for non-STEM majors.
Math is typically taught by people for whom math
was easy.
• Students will finish their entire program and wait
until the last semester to take math – then never
complete.
• It is defeating to students who discover that they
need two full semesters of remediation before
they can take college level classes.
Developmental Ed.
• Students need to be able to take a few college
level courses while taking developmental –
figure out what those should be – maybe link
them.
• Students don’t take the placement test
seriously – not enough orientation to it –
don’t work with the practice test – realize
after-the-fact – “I should have tried harder.”
Developmental Ed.
• Reading is a tough issue and probably the best
predictor of overall success. You can teach the
skill but never make up the deficit from a
lifetime of not reading.
• English appears to be the easiest for student to
successfully complete – but the area most
program faculty complain the most about “they
can’t write a coherent sentence.”
• Also the area that will “make or break” them in
a career.
Issues with Gateway Courses
• Program faculty have a sense of responsibility for all
their majors – getting them through the curriculum – a
set of courses to obtain the credential.
• Gateway faculty come from mostly service areas (no
majors, just multiple courses) and often see
themselves as responsible for just their course.
• Students come to us today needing to learn process
and application skills. They are being taught by
content specialists in a day when all possible content is
on the internet.
Top Ten Skills for the Future
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Work ethic, including self-motivation and time management.
Physical skills, e.g., maintaining one's health and good appearance.
Verbal (oral) communication, including one-on-one and in a group
Written communication, including editing and proofing one's work.
Working directly with people, relationship building, and team work.
Influencing people, including effective salesmanship and leadership.
Gathering information through various media and keeping it
organized.
• Using quantitative tools, e.g., statistics, graphs, or spreadsheets.
• Asking and answering the right questions, evaluating information,
and applying knowledge.
• Solving problems, including identifying problems, developing
possible solutions, and launching solutions.
The Futurist Update (Vol. 5, No. 2), an e-newsletter from the World Future Society,
quotes Bill Coplin on the “ten things employers want [young people] to learn in
college”
Learning Outcomes for the 21st Century
Students in the 21st Century will need to be proficient in:
• Reading, writing, speaking and listening
• Applying concepts and reasoning
• Analyzing and using numerical data
• Citizenship, diversity/pluralism
• Local, community, global, environmental awareness
• Analysis, synthesis, evaluation, decision-making, creative thinking
• Collecting, analyzing and organizing information
• Teamwork, relationship management, conflict resolution and workplace
skills
• Learning to learn, understand and manage self, management of change,
personal responsibility, aesthetic responsiveness and wellness
• Computer literacy, internet skills, information retrieval and information
management
(The League for Innovation’s 21st Century Learning Outcomes Project.)
A Virginia Study Found….
• Most students never completed the gatekeeper
courses, but in many cases that’s because these
students never enrolled in them, having started
and finished their educations in remediation.
• The rates of reaching college-level work were
particularly low for those requiring multiple
remedial courses to reach college work.
• Only 25% of remedial math student ever
reached college level math.
Virginia Study, cont.
• Students who needed remedial courses and
completed them and then enrolled in the gatekeeper
courses did as well in them as did students who didn’t
need remediation.
• Less than 20 percent of those enrolled in the lowest
level of developmental mathematics (pre-algebra)
ever enrolled in the gatekeeper math courses.
• More likely to leave between courses not fail them.
• Must track cohorts to see this.
Community College Research Center at Columbia, 2004
Seven Hawaii Community Colleges
• Faculty were asked to identify the knowledge,
skills, attitudes, values, etc. they wanted
students student to develop throughout the
general education core – by course.
• They could easily answer they questions: “Why
do we want them to take these courses? What
do we want them to get out of it?”
Hawaii, cont.
• Then they were asked:
• “How many of you think students do
poorly in these courses because they have
a total inability to grasp the content?”
• How many raised their hand?
• Then they were asked: “Why do they do
poorly? What are they lacking?
Faculty Responses
• Poor study skills (note-taking, test-taking, etc.)
• No sense of belonging to the institution or the
class – lack of affect
• Not understanding the purpose of the course
• The disconnect between effort put in and the
outcome (unrealistic idea about time spent on
the product)
• Poor course-specific self-assessment (of
strengths and weaknesses, study needs)
Faculty response….
• Lack of understanding of their overall
educational strengths and weaknesses (due to
social promotion)
• Procrastination – don’t commit early
• Believing effort is the only criteria for success
• Poor academic background (some as far back
as elementary school)
• Attitude toward the requirements for the
course (too much effort needed –
only want a C)
Faculty response….
• Don’t see themselves as or value being a
scholar (cultural attitude toward “smart”)
• Too much drama/complexity in their lives
• Poor perception of the effort (e.g. 2 hours is a
lot of study time when really 10 hours are
needed)
• Recognizing that they must work outside of
class (used to getting class time for homework
– don’t know 2-3 hours outside for every 1
inside)
Faculty response…..
• K-12 experiences (vast and varied)
• Lack of childhood expectation of success, early
educational enrichment and prior academic
success. Impacts their expectations of failure.
• Perceive the course to be of no value/relevance
• International issues (foreign born, cultural and
language barriers, etc.)
• Irrational sense of entitlement
Faculty response….
• No experience with the higher education
environment (lack of understanding of how to
be a student)
• Mediocre expectations – don’t strive for an A,
just want a C
• Lack of faculty understanding about special
accommodations (large percent had IEPs in K12 and need special assistance)
•
Connections
• How do we take their current skills, attitudes
and behaviors and move them toward the
threshold of where we want them to be?
• How can you connect “college skills or good
student skills” to the content of your course?
• What skills are most critical to being a “master
student?”
• This will take collaboration among all the
faculty and student services staff.
What Some Colleges Are Doing
1. Better Orientation (mandatory students don’t do optional)
• Within orientation is a detailed orientation and
refresher courses on placement testing subjects.
– The test will contain 45 questions (what type).
– The better you do, the further you go into the test.
– A score in math from 43 to 55 means you will have to take 3
developmental math classes and will keep you out of your
major courses for 4 semesters.
– Now – would you like to practice?
– Would you like to attend a refresher session on math?
What Colleges are Doing
2. Support activities
a) Offer supplemental instruction, service learning
opportunities, tutoring, and study groups.
b) Create a series of success workshops (offered through
the tutoring center, library or student success center)
and require students attend a set number of them as
part of their grade.
c) Create learning communities or linked classes.
d) Implement an Early Alert System to ensure that
struggling students get help not just a warning.
Colleges, cont.
3. Curriculum and pedagogy
a) Make instruction in gatekeeper courses more
related to real life experiences.
b) Use techniques such as active/collaborative
learning, mini learning communities in the class,
and computer-assisted labs.
c) Establish learning competencies and share them
with students.
d) Allow retesting in courses with sequential content
so students can master it. When students fail the
first test in math – why do we let them go on?
Others, cont.
Institute “class conferencing” in classes – instructors
meet with students individually on a regular basis.
e) Used grading rubrics for all assignments and give
students a copy beforehand (know what’s expected.)
d)
4. Faculty development
a) Offer professional development for faculty who teach
gatekeeper courses.
b) Let the faculty with great success teach these
workshops.
1)
Focus on retention techniques, improving academic skills and
student engagement
Others, cont.
5. Next Steps
5. Faculty across disciplines work together to
increase the basic skills.
1) How do the paralegal faculty teach students to
become better writers?
2) How do the culinary faculty improve computational
skills?
3) How do the Nursing faculty improve critical thinking
skills in students
Things to Keep in Mind
• When students exit your course with deficiencies –
they enter someone else’s course with them – we are
passing the deficient student along for someone else
to deal with.
• Developmental faculty teach students the basic skills
based of the content of the course – such as writing in
ENG 090 and ENG 111 faculty improve those skills
then pass them along to the programs.
• Program faculty should say “thank you very much,
we’ll take it from here” - then continuously and in
every course, reinforce those skills.
For Retention and Student Success
• Developmental and gatekeeper faculty are
the most critical and important. Why?
– Greatest opportunity to improve skills and promote
success.
– Greatest opportunity for engagement and
retention.
– All program students get their foundation there.
– Can help students make the decision … Do I belong
here, can I do it?
In Closing ..the Challenge
– Seeing these courses for the opportunity they
represent.
– Program faculty and gatekeeper faculty should
come together and make some decisions:
• What student skills do we want them to have when they leave
the gatekeeper (pre-major) courses? Develop a reasonable list.
• How can we teach/facilitate those skills while teaching the
content? When will they become habit?
• In what course is it logical that we reinforce the skills.
In Closing…
• By the time students complete gen ed, we
have inoculated them 10 times.
• A students who knows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
How to be a student
Where to find reputable material
How to develop a solution
How to organize their work
How to develop a success team
How to build consensus
– Can master any course or major
Good Resources
• Achieving the Dream
• http://www.achievingthedream.org/
– Look at Community College Strategies
– Look at Data and Research
• Click on Data Notes Newsletter
• Southern Regional Education Board
• http://www.sreb.org/
• Look at their Fact Book on Higher Education
Contact Me:
•
•
•
•
•
Terri Manning
(704) 330-6592
[email protected]
http://www.cpcc.edu/planning
Click on “studies and reports”
Descargar

What’s Going on with Our Students?