Developmental Education:
Programs and Practices Across
Ohio Higher Education Institutions
Lana Evans (Chair) and David Haiduc
OADE Research Committee
Presentation to the Ohio Board of Regents
High School to College Subcommittee
Friday, November 5, 2004
Today’s presentation includes
Introduction to Research Committee
 Background of Current Study
 Study Purpose, Results, and
Conclusions
 Future Research Projects
 Questions and Discussion

Purpose of the Research Committee

To enable the organization and its
membership to shape the caliber of
the public and political discussion
regarding developmental education.
Research Committee’s
Responsibilities
Conduct surveys of students, OADE
members, and institutions to gather
data for use in decision-making
 Maintain record of OADE members’
research activities
 Conduct studies which advance or
define the status of developmental
education

Foundational Research Study
Current Project

Foundational research study that
examines and describes the
landscape of developmental
education in Ohio
Statement of the Problem

Ohio’s myriad approaches to
developmental education preclude
practitioners and constituents from
understanding and evaluating the
value of such programs.
NADE Definition
Developmental education programs and services address:

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Academic preparedness
Diagnostic assessment and placement
Development of general and discipline-specific learning
strategies
Affective barriers to learning
Learning assistance
Tutoring, mentoring, and supplemental instruction
Personal, academic, and career counseling
(http://www.nade.net/A1.%20de_definition.htm)
Purpose of the Research

To develop a definitive and
descriptive resource that details
developmental education programs
and procedures in Ohio.
Literature Review

Three Major Studies :
– What Works: A Guide to ResearchBased Best Practices in Developmental
Education (Boylan, 2002)
– Remedial Education at Degree-Granting
Post-secondary Institutions (1998 and
2003)
Methodology

Survey Research

Population of 170 Ohio Institutions
– IPEDS Data (Title IV Institutions)
– Ohio Board of Regents data
Methodology

5 major Carnegie Classification types
– Doctoral/Research Universities
– Master’s Colleges & Universities
– Baccalaureate Colleges
– Associate’s Colleges
– Specialized Institutions
Instrumentation

Expert panel reviewed & approved
questionnaire prior to distribution

Efforts to boost response rate:
– Identified appropriate contact
– National Center for Developmental Education
Director, Dr. Hunter Boylan co-signed cover
letter
– Self-addressed, pre-stamped envelope
– Follow-up phone calls
Instrumentation

Questionnaire Content
– 5 Major Sections
– NADE Definition of Developmental Education

General Developmental Education Information
 Diagnostic Assessment & Placement Procedures
 Developmental/Remedial Education Course Work
 Student Services and Academic Advising
 Services for Students with Disabilities
Response Rate
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170 surveys mailed
59 surveys received
34.71% response rate
44 of non-respondents were specialized colleges
(i.e. arts/music, medical, and business schools).
3 Specialized Colleges responded and offered
remedial course work
41% response rate if these schools are factored
out.
Institutions Responding by Highest Degree Offered
Specialized Masters Only
Religious Studies Institution
0.59%
1.76%
Arts Institution
Medical School
Doctoral/Research Universities
Master's Universities
2.35%
2.94%
7.65%
11.76%
20.59%
Baccalaureate Colleges
Associate's Colleges
0.00%
N=59
52.35%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
Selected Results
How would you categorize your Developmental Education
program/services?
38.46%
61.54%
Primarily decentralized Primarily centralized
N=52
Which of the following cognitive assessment instruments does your
institution use for students’ initial assessment/placement into courses?
ACT
54.24%
40.68%
COM PASS
SAT
35.59%
OTHER
27.12%
27.12%
OWN INSTITUTION'S
HS GPA
25.42%
11.86%
ASSET
TABE
6.78%
5.08%
ACCUPLACER
NELSON DENNEY
3.39%
0.00%
N=59 institutions
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
Students self-assess their skills (i.e., no placement testing
occurs) in which of the following categories
(Please check all that apply):
11%
13%
13%
63%
Math
N=62 responses
Reading
Writing
Not applicable
Does your institution offer remedial course work?
12%
88%
No
N=57
Yes
Developmental/remedial course work is offered
in the following areas:
100.00%
90.00%
79.66%
81.36%
80.00%
70.00%
57.63%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.17%
10.00%
0.00%
Math
N=59 institutions
Reading
Writing
Other
Placement into remedial/developmental course work is mandatory based on
cognitive assessment in which of the following categories (Please check all
that apply):
50.00%
45.00%
40.00%
35.00%
30.00%
25.00%
20.00%
15.00%
10.00%
5.00%
0.00%
34.92%
33.33%
24.60%
7.14%
Math
N=126 responses
Reading
Writing
Not Applicable
At your institution students can bypass remedial coursework:
33%
52%
15%
With permission
N=52
Without permission
Not permitted to bypass
What Types of Institutions Allow
Students to Bypass Remedial?

17 colleges allowed bypass with
permission (13 AA, 4 BA)

8 colleges allowed bypass without
permission (3 MA/PhD, 2 BA, 3 AA)
Do you measure students’ noncognitive
characteristics/variables?
27%
73%
No
N=56
Yes
What time of day does your institution offer remedial courses
(Please check all that apply):
11.88%
48.51%
39.60%
Day
N=136 responses
Evening
Weekends
Developmental/remedial courses are offered
(Please check all that apply):
10.00%
22.86%
67.14%
At a distance
N=70 responses
Web enhanced
Classroom only
Are students restricted from taking college-level courses
while enrolled in developmental/remedial course work?
Frequency
Percent
No
44
86.27%
Yes
7
13.73%
Total
51
100.00%
N=51 responses
Which of the following learning assistance/facilitation
programs is offered by your institution?
Frequency
Orientation (On-going)
Adult basic literacy education
Learning communities
Tutoring (on-line)
Supplemental instruction
Mentoring/coaching
English for speakers/other languages
Content specific labs
Freshman seminar course
Personal counseling
Orientation (short-term)
Workshops (time management, college success, etc.)
Career counseling
Tutoring
Academic advising
N=59 institutions
Percent
3
9
11
14
15
22
22
28
31
40
44
45
48
55
57
59
5.08%
15.25%
18.64%
23.73%
25.42%
37.29%
37.29%
47.46%
52.54%
67.80%
74.58%
76.27%
81.36%
93.22%
96.61%
Which of the following learning assistance/facilitation
programs is offered by your institution? Data sorted by
Carnegie type
Associate's Baccalaureate Doctoral/Research Master's
Tutoring (In-person)
29
15
3
Mentoring/coaching
8
10
2
Freshman seminar course
16
8
3
Tutoring (online)
9
3
1
Supplemental instruction
7
3
3
Orientation (short-term)
23
12
1
Content-specific labs
15
9
2
Adult basic literacy education
8
1
Orientation (on-going)
3
Academic advising
30
15
3
Career counseling
25
12
3
Personal counseling
20
11
3
ESOL
10
6
2
Workshops
23
13
3
Learning communities
5
3
3
N=59 institutions
Total
8
2
4
1
2
8
2
9
8
6
4
6
55
22
31
14
15
44
28
9
3
57
48
40
22
45
11
So What?


Developed baseline description
Determined areas of potential weakness
based best practices
– Mandatory placement not enforced
– Little information collected on noncognitive
characteristics
– Enrollment in other college courses is not
restricted

Searchable database for use in informing
policymakers, parents, students, and
practitioners (Work in progress)
Future Research Needs and Ideas

Develop a success rate database
Disaggregate the data using IPEDS Institutional
Characteristics and examine differences among institutions
Cutoff scores for cognitive assessment instruments
Passing criteria for remedial/developmental courses
Types of grades in remedial/developmental courses
Course repeat and payment policies
Duration of late registration period
Course attendance policies

Questions, Discussion, and Research Ideas
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Contact Information

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Lana Evans, Chair
Director of Grants and Research
Northwest State Community College
(419) 267-5511, Ext. 225
[email protected]
David Haiduc
Assessment and Testing Coordinator
Cuyahoga Community College
(216) 987-2515
[email protected]
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