6
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
All rights reserved.
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
The University of West Alabama
Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to
Explain the objectives of the personnel selection
process.
Identify the various sources of information used
for personnel selection.
Compare the value of different types of
employment tests.
Illustrate the different approaches to conducting
an employment interview.
Describe the various decision strategies for
selection.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–2
Matching People and Jobs
• Selection
 The process of choosing individuals who have
relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected
job openings.
• Selection Considerations
 Person-job fit: job analysis identifies required
individual competencies (KSAOs) for job success.
 Person-organization fit: the degree to which
individuals are matched to the culture and values of
the organization.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–3
FIGURE
6.1
The Goal of Selection: Maximize “Hits”
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–4
FIGURE
6.2
Steps in the Selection Process
Note: Steps may vary. An applicant may
be rejected after any step in the process.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–5
The Selection Process
• Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information
 Reliability

The degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection
procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative
measures.
 Validity

Degree to which a test or selection procedure measures a
person’s attributes.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–6
Reliability as Stability over Time
HIGH RELIABILITY
APPLICANT
Smith
Perez
Riley
Chan
TEST
SCORE
90
65
110
80
RETEST
SCORE
93
62
105
78
VERY LOW RELIABILITY
APPLICANT
Smith
Perez
Riley
Chan
TEST
SCORE
90
65
110
80
RETEST
SCORE
72
88
67
111
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–7
Reliability as Consistency
(Interrater Reliability)
HIGH RELIABILITY
APPLICANT
Smith
Perez
Riley
Chan
Rater #1
9
5
4
8
Rater #2
8
6
5
8
Rater #3
8
5
5
8
VERY LOW RELIABILITY
APPLICANT
Smith
Perez
Riley
Chan
Rater #1
9
5
4
8
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Rater #2
5
9
2
4
Rater #3
6
4
7
2
6–8
Valid and Invalid Tests
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–9
Approaches to Validation
• Criterion-related Validity
 The extent to which a selection tool predicts, or
significantly correlates with, important elements of
work behavior.

A high score indicates high job performance potential; a low
score is predictive of low job performance.
• Concurrent Validity
 The extent to which test scores (or other predictor
information) match criterion data obtained at about
the same time from current employees.

High or low test scores for employees match their respective
job performance.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–10
Approaches to Validation (cont’d)
• Predictive Validity
 The extent to which applicants’ test scores match
criterion data obtained from those applicants/
employees after they have been on the job for some
indefinite period.

A high or low test score at hiring predicts high or low job
performance at a point in time after hiring.
• Validity (or Correlation) Coefficient
 A number ranging from 0.00, denoting a complete
absence of relationship, to 1.00 and to -1.00,
indicating a perfect positive and perfect negative
relationship, respectively.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–11
FIGURE
6.3
Correlation Scatterplots
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–12
Approaches to Validation
• Cross-validation
 Verifying the results obtained from a validation
study by administering a test or test battery to a
different sample (drawn from the same population).
• Validity generalization
 The extent to which validity coefficients can be
generalized across situations.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–13
Approaches to Validation (cont’d)
• Content validity
 The extent to which a selection instrument, such as
a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills
needed to perform a particular job.

Example: typing tests, driver’s license examinations
• Construct validity
 The extent to which a selection tool measures a
theoretical construct or trait.
 Are difficult to validate

Example: creative arts tests, honesty tests
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–14
Sources of Information about Job Candidates
• Application Forms
• Online Applications
• Biographical Information
Blanks (BIB)
• Integrity and Honesty
Tests
• Graphology
• Medical Examinations
• Background Investigations
• Employment Tests
• Polygraph Tests
• Interviews
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–15
Application Forms
• Application date
• Educational background
• Experience
• Arrests and criminal convictions
• National origin
• References
• Disabilities
• EEO and at-will statements
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Weighted application blank
(WAB)
The WAB involves the use of a
common standardized employment
application that is designed to
distinguish between successful and
unsuccessful employees.
6–16
Online Applications
• An Internet-based automated posting,
application, and tracking process helps firms to
more quickly fill positions by:
 Attracting a broader and more diverse applicant
pool
 Collecting and mining resumes with keyword
searches to identify qualified candidates
 Conducting screening tests online
 Reducing recruiting costs significantly
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–17
Biographical Information Blanks
• Sample Questions:
 At what age did you leave home?
 How large was the town/city in which you lived as a
child?
 Did you ever build a model airplane that flew?
 Were sports a big part of your childhood?
 Do you play any musical instruments?
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–18
Background Checks
• Negligent hiring
 The failure of an organization to discover, via due
diligence, that an employee it hired had the
propensity to do harm to others
• Sources of Information
 Social Security verification
 Past employment
 Educational verification
 Criminal records
 Motor vehicle records
 Credit check
 Military records
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–19
FIGURE
6.4
Most Common Types of Background Checks
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6–20
Background Checks (cont’d)
• Checking References
 Telephone, mail, and e-mail checks

Specific job-related information
 Letters of reference
 Online computerized databases
 Privacy Act of 1974


Requires signed requests for reference letters and signed
consent to background checks.
Applies to both educational and private employers.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–21
1
Sample Reference-Checking Questions
Just the Facts
What were the candidate’s dates of employment?
What was the candidate’s title?
What were the candidate’s general responsibilities?
What is your relationship to the candidate (peer, subordinate, superior)?
How long have you known the candidate?
On the Job
How would you describe the overall quality of the candidate’s work? Can you give me
some examples?
(For superiors) What areas of performance did you have to work on?
What would you say are the candidate’s strengths?
What would you say are the candidate’s weaknesses?
How would you compare the candidate’s work to the work of others who performed the
same job?
What kind of environment did the candidate work in?
How much of a contribution do you think the candidate made to your company or
department?
How would you describe the candidate’s ability to communicate?
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–22
1
Sample Reference-Checking Questions (cont’d)
On the Job (cont’d)
How does the candidate handle pressure/deadlines?
How well does the candidate get along with coworkers?
How well does the candidate get along with managers?
How well does the candidate supervise others? Can you give me your impressions of his or her
management style? Describe the candidate’s success in motivating subordinates.
How does the candidate handle conflict situations?
Based on the candidate’s performance with your company, do you think he or she would be good
in the type of position we’re considering him or her for?
What motivates the candidate? How ambitious is he or she?
The Bottom Line
Why did the candidate leave your company?
Would you rehire this person?
Would you recommend this candidate for this type of position?
What type of work is the candidate ideally suited for?
Were there any serious problems with the candidate that we need to be aware of before making
a hiring decision?
Do you have any additional information to share with us about this candidate
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–23
Background Investigations (cont’d)
• Organizations using credit reports must:
1. Check state laws to see if credit reports can legally
2.
3.
4.
5.
be used.
Advise and receive written consent from applicants
if a report will be requested.
Provide a written certification to the consumer
reporting agency as to the purpose of the report.
Provide applicants a copy of the consumer report as
well as a summary of their rights under the CCRRA.
Must provide an adverse-action notice a person if
that person is not hired and contact information
related to the reporting agency.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–24
FIGURE
6.5
TO TEST
TENDENCY TO
Integrity Test Question Examples
DESCRIPTION
Protect
Contains items that require individuals to indicate whether they would protect friends or co-workers who had
engaged in counterproductive behaviors.
Example: I would turn in a fellow worker I saw stealing money.
Be lenient
Contains items in which test takers indicate whether they would be lenient with respect to the wrongdoings of
others.
Example: An employee should be fired if the employer finds out the employee lied on the application bank.
Admit thought
Includes items that require test takers to indicate the degree to which they would engage in counterproductive
thoughts or behaviors.
Example: I’ve thought about taking money from an employer without actually doing it.
Admit behavior
Contains items in which individuals admit to directly participating in actual counterproductive behaviors.
Example: Over the last three years, what’s the total amount of money you’ve taken without permission
from your employer?
Consider
common
Includes items that require the individual to indicate whether there are excuses or justifications for stealing or
performing other questionable behaviors.
Example: Most people I’ve worked with have stolen something at one time or another.
Excuse
Contains items in which individuals indicate whether there are excluses or justifications for stealing or performing
other questionable behaviors.
Example: Someone who steals because his family is in need should not be treated the same as a common
thief.
Lie
Contains items that measure the extent to which the test taker is responding in a socially desirable manner.
Example: Never in my whole life have I wished for anything I was not entitled to.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–25
Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988)
• Use of “lie detectors”
is largely prohibited.
• Act requires qualified
examiners.
• Act requires disclosure
of information where
used.
• Encouraged employers’
use of paper and
pencil integrity and
honesty tests.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–26
Background Investigations (cont’d)
• Graphology
 The use of a sample of an applicant’s handwriting
to make an employment decision.
• Medical Examinations
 Given last as they can be costly.
 Ensure that the health of an applicant is adequate
to meet the job requirements.
 Provides a baseline for subsequent examinations
 ADA requires all exams be job-related and
conducted after an employment offer is made.
 Testing for illegal drugs is allowed.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–27
Drug Testing
• Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988
 Testing for illegal drugs is required applicants and
employees of federal contractors.
• Questions about the efficacy of testing
 Why spend large sums on testing when…

testing for drugs doesn’t appear to make the workplace safer
or improve employee performance?

few applicants actually test positive and alcohol abuse
creates more problems in the workplace?
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–28
Employment Tests
• Employment Test
 An objective and standardized measure of a sample
of behavior that is used to gauge a person’s
knowledge, skills, abilities, and other
characteristics (KSAOs) in relation to other
individuals.
 Pre-employment testing has
the potential for lawsuits.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–29
2
Best Practices for Employee Testing and Selection
Employers should administer tests and other selection procedures without regard to race, color,
national origin, sex, religion, age (40 or older), or disability.
Employers should ensure that employment tests and other selection procedures are properly
validated for the positions and purposes for which they are used. The test or selection procedure
must be job-related and its results appropriate for the employer’s purpose. While a test vendor’s
documentation supporting the validity of a test may be helpful, the employer is still responsible for
ensuring that its tests are valid under UGESP.
If a selection procedure screens out a protected group, the employer should determine whether
there is an equally effective alternative selection procedure that has less adverse impact and, if
so, adopt the alternative procedure. For example, if the selection procedure is a test, the
employer should determine whether another test would predict job performance but not
disproportionately exclude the protected group.
To ensure that a test or selection procedure remains predictive of success in a job, employers
should keep abreast of changes in job requirements and should update the test specifications or
selection procedures accordingly.
Employers should ensure that tests and selection procedures are not adopted casually by
managers who know little about these processes. A test or selection procedure can be an
effective management tool, but no test or selection procedure should be implemented without an
understanding of its effectiveness and limitations for the organization, its appropriateness for a
specific job, and whether it can be appropriately administered and scored.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–30
Classification of Employment Tests
• Cognitive Ability Tests
 Aptitude tests

Measures of a person’s capacity to learn or acquire skills.
 Achievement tests

Measures of what a person knows or can do right now.
• Personality and Interest Inventories
 “Big Five” personality factors:

Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,
neuroticism, openness to experience.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–31
FIGURE
6.6
Is That Your Final Answer?
Answers: 1. a, 2. c, 3. d, 4. d, 5. c, 6. c, 7. b
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–32
CPI Personality Facets and Sample Items
• Agreeableness
• Trust—I believe people are usually honest with me.
• Conscientiousness
• Attention to detail—I like to complete every detail of tasks
according to the work plans.
• Extroversion
• Adaptability—For me, change is exciting.
• Neuroticism
• Self-confidence—I am confident about my skills and abilities.
• Openness to Experience
• Independence—I tend to work on projects alone, even if others
volunteer to help me.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–33
FIGURE
6.7
CPI Personality Facts and Sample Items
Agreeableness
• Consideration—I like to do little things for people to make them feel good.
• Empathy—I take other people’s circumstances and feelings into consideration before making a decision.
• Interdependence—I tend to put group goals first and individual goals second.
• Openness—I do not have to share a person’s values to work well with that person.
• Thought agility—I think it is vital to consider other perspectives before coming to conclusions.
• Trust—I believe people are usually honest with me.
Conscientiousness
• Attention to detail—I like to complete every detail of tasks according to the work plans.
• Dutifulness—I conduct my business according to a strict set of ethical principles.
• Responsibility—I can be relied on to do what is expected of me.
• Work focus—I prioritize my work effectively so the most important things get done first.
Extroversion
• Adaptability—For me, change is exciting.
• Competitiveness—I like to win, even if the activity isn’t very important.
• Desire for achievement—I prefer to set challenging goals, rather than aim for goals I am more likely to reach.
• Desire for advancement—I would like to attain the highest position in an organization some day.
• Energy level—When most people are exhausted from work, I still have energy to keep going.
• Influence—People come to me for inspiration and direction.
• Initiative—I am always looking for opportunities to start new projects.
• Risk-taking—I am willing to take big risks when there is potential for big returns.
• Sociability—I find it easy to start up a conversation with strangers.
• Taking charge—I actively take control of situations at work if no one is in charge.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–34
FIGURE
6.7
CPI Personality Facts and Sample Items (cont’d)
Neuroticism
• Emotional control—Even when I am very upset, it is easy for me to control my emotions.
• Negative affectivity—I am easily displeased with things at work.
• Optimism—My enthusiasm for living life to its fullest is apparent to those with whom I work.
• Self-confidence—I am confident about my skills and abilities.
• Stress tolerance—I worry about things that I know I should not worry about.
Openness to Experience
• Independence—I tend to work on projects alone, even if others volunteer to help me.
• Innovativeness/creativity—I work best in an environment that allows me to be creative and expressive.
• Social astuteness—I know what is expected of me in different social situations.
• Thought focus—I quickly make links between causes and effects.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–35
Classification of Employment Tests (cont’d)
• Physical Ability Tests
 Must be related to the essential functions of job.
• Job Knowledge Tests
 An achievement test that measures a person’s level
of understanding about a particular job.
• Work Sample Tests
 Require the applicant to perform tasks that are
actually a part of the work required on the job.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–36
The Employment Interview
• Why the interview is so popular:
 It is especially practical when there are only a
small number of applicants.
 It serves other purposes, such as public relations
 Interviewers maintain great faith and confidence in
their judgments.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–37
Interviewing Methods
• Nondirective Interview
 The applicant determines the course of the
discussion, while the interviewer refrains from
influencing the applicant’s remarks.
• Structured Interview
 An interview in which a set of standardized
questions having an established set of answers is
used.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–38
Interviewing Methods (cont’d)
• Situational Interview
 An interview in which an applicant is given a
hypothetical incident and asked how he or she
would respond to it.
• Behavioral Description Interview (BDI)
 An interview in which an applicant is asked
questions about what he or she actually did in a
given situation.
• Panel Interview
 An interview in which a board of interviewers
questions and observes a single candidate.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–39
3
Sample Situational Interview Question
QUESTION:
It is the night before your scheduled vacation. You are all packed and ready to go.
Just before you get into bed, you receive a phone call from the plant. A problem
has arisen that only you can handle. You are asked to come in to take care of
things. What would you do in this situation?
RECORD ANSWER:
SCORING GUIDE:
Good: “I would go in to work and make certain that everything is OK. Then I would
go on vacation.”
Good: “There are no problems that only I can handle. I would make certain that
someone qualified was there to handle things.”
Fair:
“I would try to find someone else to deal with the problem.”
Fair:
“I would go on vacation.”
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–40
Interviewing Methods (cont’d)
• Computer Interview
 Using a computer program that requires candidates
to answer a series of questions tailored to the job.
 Answers are compared either with an ideal profile
or with profiles developed on the basis of other
candidates’ responses.
• Video and Digitally-Recorded Interviews
 Using video conference technologies to record and
evaluate job candidates’ technical abilities, energy
level, appearance, and the like before incurring the
costs of a face-to-face meeting.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–41
FIGURE
6.8
Variables in the Employment Interview
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–42
Ground Rules for Employment Interviews
• Establish an interview plan
• Establish and maintain rapport
• Be an active listener
• Pay attention to nonverbal cues
• Provide information freely
• Use questions effectively
• Separate facts from inferences
• Recognize biases and stereotypes
• Control the course of the interview
• Standardize the questions asked
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–43
FIGURE
6.9
Variables in the Employment Interview
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–44
Diversity Management:
Are Your Questions Legal?
• No questions are expressly forbidden.
 Questions related to race, color, age, religion, sex,
or national origin can be hazardous.
 Questions are acceptable if job-related, asked of
everyone, and do not discriminate against a
protected class (e.g., females)
 Consult EEOC and FEP information
when constructing guidelines
for interviewers
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–45
5
Appropriate and Inappropriate Interview Questions
APPROPRIATE QUESTIONS
INAPPROPRIATE QUESTIONS
National origin
What is your name?
Have you ever worked under a
different name?
Do you speak any foreign languages
that may be pertinent to this job?
What is the origin of your name?
What is your ancestry?
Age
Are you over 18?
If hired, can you prove your age?
How old are you?
What is your date of birth?
Gender
(Say nothing unless it involves a
bona fide occupational qualification.)
Are you a man or a woman?
Race
(Say nothing.)
What is your race?
Disabilities
Do you have any disabilities that
may inhibit your job performance?
Are you willing to take a physical
exam if the job requires it?
Do you have any physical defects?
When was your last physical?
What color are your eyes, hair, etc.?
Height and
weight
(Not appropriate unless it is a bona
fide occupational qualification.)
How tall are you?
How much do you weigh?
Residence
What is your address?
How long have you lived there?
What are the names/relationships
of those with whom you live?
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–46
5
Appropriate and Inappropriate Interview Questions (cont’d)
APPROPRIATE QUESTIONS
INAPPROPRIATE QUESTIONS
Religion
(You may inform a person of the
required work schedule.)
Do you have any religious affiliation?
Military record
Did you have any military
education/experience pertinent
to this job?
What type of discharge did you
receive?
Education and
experience
Where did you go to school?
What is your prior work experience?
Why did you leave?
What is your salary history?
Is that a church-affiliated school?
When did you graduate?
What are your hobbies?
Criminal record Have you ever been convicted
of a crime?
Have you ever been arrested?
Citizenship
Do you have a legal right to work
in the United States?
Are you a U.S. citizen?
Marital/family
What is the name, address, and
status telephone number of a person
we may contact in case of an
emergency?
Are you married, divorced, single?
Do you prefer Miss, Mrs., or Ms.?
Do you have any children? How old
are they?
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–47
FIGURE
6.10
“Can-Do” and “Will-Do” Factors in Selection Decisions
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–48
Reaching a Selection Decision
• Selection Considerations:
 Should individuals to be hired according to their highest
potential or according to the needs of the organization?
 At what grade or wage level to start the individual?
 Should selection be for employee-job match, or should
advancement potential be considered?
 Should those not qualified but qualifiable be considered?
 Should overqualified individuals be considered?
 What effect will a decision have on meeting affirmative action
plans and diversity considerations?
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–49
Selection Decision Strategies
Clinical Approach
Subjectivity
Statistical Approach
Objectivity
Compensatory Model - Average
Multiple Cutoff Model - Minimum
Multiple Hurdle Model- Sequential
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–50
Selection Decision Models
• Compensatory Model
 Permits a high score in one area to make up for a
low score in another area.
• Multiple Cutoff Model
 Requires an applicant to achieve a minimum level
of proficiency on all selection dimensions.
• Multiple Hurdle Model
 Only applicants with sufficiently high scores at
each selection stage go on to subsequent stages in
the selection process.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–51
Selection Process (cont’d)
• Selection Ratio
 The number of applicants compared with the
number of people to be hired.
• Cutoff Score
 The point in a distribution of scores above which a
person is considered and below which a person is
rejected.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–52
FIGURE
6.11
Test Scores Scatterplot with Hypothetical Cutoffs
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–53
Selection Process (cont’d)
• Final Decision
 Selection of applicant by departmental or
immediate supervisor to fill vacancy.
 Notification of selection and job offer by the human
resources department.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–54
achievement tests
negligent hiring
aptitude tests
nondirective interview
behavioral description
interview (BDI)
panel interview
compensatory model
concurrent validity
construct validity
content validity
criterion-related validity
cross-validation
multiple cutoff model
predictive validity
reliability
selection
selection ratio
situational interview
structured interview
validity
validity generalization
multiple hurdle model
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6–55
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Managing Human Resources 15e.