Chapter 8 Communication Learning Outcomes 1 Describe the interpersonal communication process and the role of listening in the process. 2 Describe the five communication skills of effective supervisors. 3 Explain five communication barriers and gateways through them. 4 Distinguish between defensive and nondefensive communication. 5 Explain the impact of nonverbal communication. 6 Explain positive, healthy communication. 7 Identify communication technologies and how they affect the communication process. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Communication Communication – the evoking of a shared or common meaning in another person Interpersonal Communication – communication between two or more people in an organization Communicator – the person originating the message Receiver – the person receiving a message Perceptual Screen – a window through which we interact with people that influences the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the communication © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Communication Message – the thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver Feedback Loop – the pathway that completes two-way communication Language – the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a group of people © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Communication Data – uninterpreted and unanalyzed facts Information – data that have been interpreted, analyzed, & and have meaning to some user Richness – the ability of a medium or channel to elicit or evoke meaning in the receiver © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Basic Interpersonal Communication Model / / / / / / / / / Communicator / / / / / / / / / Message • Context • Affect Perceptual screens / / / / / / / / / Receiver / / / / / / / / / Perceptual screens Influence message quality, accuracy, clarity Include age, gender, values, beliefs, culture, experiences, needs Event X Information Richness & Data Capacity MEDIA Medium Face-to-face discussion Telephone Electronic mail Individualized letter Personalized note or memo Formal written report Flyer or bulletin Formal numeric report Information Richness Data Capacity Highest Lowest High Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low High Low High Lowest Highest SOURCE: E. A. Gerloff in Research in Organizational Behavior 6 1984: 191-233. “Information Richness: A New Approach to Managerial Behavior and Organizational Design” by Richard L. Dalt and R. H. Lengel. Reprinted by permission of JAI Press Inc. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Reflective Listening the skill of listening carefully to another person and repeating back to the speaker the heard message to correct any inaccuracies or misunderstandings This complex process needs to be divided to be understood What I heard you say was we will understand the process better if we break it into steps Reflective Listening • Emphasizes receiver’s role • Helps the receiver and communicator clearly and fully understand the message sent • Useful in problem solving © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Reflective Listening Reflective listening emphasizes • the personal elements of the communication process • the feelings communicated in the message • responding to the communicator, not leading the communicator • the role or receiver or audience • understanding people by reducing perceptual distortions and interpersonal barriers © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. One-way vs. Two-way Communication One-Way Communication – a person sends a message to another person and no questions, feedback, or interaction follow • Good for giving simple directions • Fast but often less accurate than two-way communication Two-Way Communication – the communicator and receiver interact • Good for problem solving © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Barriers to Communication Communication Barriers – factors that block or significantly distort successful communication Copyright ©2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved • Physical separation • Status differences • Gender differences • Cultural diversity • Language Nonverbal Communication all elements of communication that do not involve words © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Types of Nonverbal Communication – Proxemics – an individual’s perception and use of space – Kinesics – study of body movements, including posture – Facial and Eye Behavior – movements that add cues for the receiver – Paralanguage – variations in speech, such as pitch, loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, and crying © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Proxemics: Territorial Space Territorial Space – bands of space extending outward from the body; territorial space differs from culture to culture a = intimate <1.5’ b = personal 1.5-4’ a c = social 4-12’ b c d = public >12’ d © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Proxemics: Seating Dynamics Seating Dynamics – seating people in certain positions according to the person’s purpose in communication X X O Cooperation X Competition O O Communication O X O NonCommunication © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Paralanguage Variations in speech send messages What message is sent by – High-pitched, breathy voice – Rapid, loud speech – Interruptions – Tongue clucking © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Examples of DECODING NONVERBAL CUES He’s unapproachable! Boss fails to acknowledge employee’s greeting I wonder what he’s hiding? No eye contact while communicating He’s angry! I’ll stay out of his way! Boss breathes heavily and waves arms My opinion doesn’t count Manager sighs deeply SOURCE: Adapted from “Steps to Better Listening” by C. Hamilton and B. H. Kleiner. Copyright © February 1987. Reprinted with permission, Personnel Journal, all rights reserved. Information Communication Technology (ICT) • • • • • Informational databases Electronic mail systems Voice mail systems Fax machine systems Cellular phone systems © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Characteristics of ICT • Instant exchange of information across geographic boundaries and time zones • Schedules and office hours become irrelevant • Normal considerations of time and distance less important © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. How ITC Affects Behavior • Impersonal— interaction with a machine • Flaming, rude, or obscene outbursts • Bluntness • Intimacy • Uninhibitedness • Interpersonal skills—tact and graciousness • Nonverbal cues— emotional element • Clues to power, organizational position, departmental membership © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Other Ways ICT Affect Behavior • Alters group interaction – Equalize participation – Less influence from dominant people Information overload • • • • Overwhelmed feelings Can’t get away from work Multi-tasking Increases impatience with face-to-face communication © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE USE OF ITC Strive for message completeness Build in opportunities for feedback Do not anticipate immediate response “Is the communication really necessary?” “Disconnect” from technology Provide workplace social interactions © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.