CHAPTER 3
GLOBAL
t
PENG
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Chapter 3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Explain where informal institutions comes from.
2. Define culture and articulate its two main
manifestations.
3. Articulate three ways to understand cultural
differences.
4. Explain why understanding cultural differences is
crucial for global business.
5. Explain why ethics is important.
6. Identify ways to combat corruption.
7. Identify norms associated with strategic responses
when firms deal with ethical challenges.
8. Explain how you can acquire cross-cultural literacy.
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LO1: WHERE DO INFORMAL
INSTITUTIONS COME FROM?
Socially
transmitted
information,
part of the
heritage
we call
cultures, ethics
and norms.
Informal
institutions
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LO2: CULTURE
“the collective programming of the mind which
distinguishes the members of one group or
category of people from another.”
Geert Hofstede
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LO2: TWO COMPONENTS OF
CULTURE
Culture
Language
Religion
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LO3: THREE WAYS TO UNDERSTAND
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
Context Approach: context is the background against
which interaction takes place.
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LO3: THREE WAYS TO UNDERSTAND
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
Cluster Approach: groups countries that share similar
cultures into a cluster.
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LO3: THREE WAYS TO UNDERSTAND
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
Dimension Approach: focuses on multiple dimensions of
cultural differences both within and across cultures.
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LO5: THE IMPORTANCE OF
ETHICS
Ethics – the principles, standards, and norms of
conduct that govern individual and firm behavior.
The value of an ethical
reputation is magnified
during a time of crisis.
Three views on firms’ ethical motivations:
Negative view
Positive view
Instrumental view
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LO5: MANGAING ETHICS
OVERSEAS
Three Core Principles
Respect for human dignity and basic rights
Respect for local traditions
Respect for institutional context
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LO6: CORRUPTION
The abuse of public
power for private
benefits usually in the
form of bribery, in cash
or in kind.
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LO7: STRATEGIC RESPONSES
TO ETHICAL CHALLENGES
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DEBATE: Are cultures converging or
diverging?
Some argue for a
convergence
toward “modern”
Western values
such as
individualism and
consumerism.
Divergence –
others argue that
Westernization in
consumption
does not indicate
Westernization of
values.
Or…Crossvergence
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LO8: ACQUIRING CULTURAL
INTELLIGENCE
Three phases…
Awareness
Knowledge
Skills
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LO8: CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE
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rights reserved.
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