MKTG
4
CHAPTER
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
Marketing
Environment
1
A Marketing Environment
Analysis Framework
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
2
Target Market
Target Market
A defined group ……………a
firm’s product.
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
3
Social Factors
 American values (upward mobility, work ethic, selfsufficiency, conformity)
– Culture: manner in which people live
– Very broad
• Women’s role (U.S. vs Japan)
• Fitness
• Debt
• Time-poor society
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2009 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
4
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
5
Component Lifestyles
Component
Lifestyles
The ………..of choosing goods
and services that meet one’s
……..needs and interests rather
than conforming to a single,
traditional lifestyle.
LO4
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2009 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
6
Demographic Factors
Demography
Chapter 3
The study of people’s
vital statistics, such as
their age, race and
ethnicity, and location.
Copyright ©2009 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
7
Current Demographic Trends
Age
Chapter 3
Tweens
Gen Y
Gen X
Baby Boom
8 to 14 yrs
29 million
1979-1994
60 million
1965-1978
40 million
1946-1964
77 million
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
8
Baby Boomers
 Born between 1946 and 1964
 Nearly 78 million consumers
 Generational Markers

Post WWII economic growth and prosperity; Civil rights
movements; U.S. Space program, Cold War, Vietnam War; Birth
control pill;
 Cultural Transmission

More likely in nuclear families; strongly influenced by television
and peer group
 Core Values

5 Chapter 3
Grew up with sense that security was taken care of; place high
value on youth, personal gratification, health, material wealth;
Generally optimistic, value hope and peace
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
9
Generation X
 Born between 1965-1976
 Approximately 17 million Americans
 Generational Markers

Vietnam, Watergate, advent of MTV, latchkey experiences, higher
rates of divorce (40%); Americans with Disabilities Act (1991)
 Cultural Transmission

Peer culture and mass media
 Core Values

5 Chapter 3
Desire balance in their lives, diversity viewed as norm, motivated
by money, self-reliant, value free time and having fun; “Work to
live, not live to work”; assumed gender equality in the workplace;
First generation to embrace the personal computer and Internet
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
10
Generation Y
 Born between 1977-1995
 Millennials, Echo Boomers, Generation Next, Nexters
 Approximately 60 million Americans
 Generational Markers

5 Chapter 3
Technology/menu driven society; most racially/ethnically diverse
(1 out of 3 is a person of color); 25% from single parent families;
most educated generation – pressure to excel academically; No
recollection of the Reagan era, do not remember the Cold War,
have known only one Germany, world has always had computers,
answering machines, microwave ovens, VCRs
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
11
Seniors
 Born before 1946
 AKA The Veterans, the Silent Generation
 Generational Markers

WWII, the Great Depression, Korean War, Racial segregation;
Advent of television, telephone, mass production of automobiles,
kitchen appliances, phonographs
 Cultural Transmission

Extended families, local social groups (e.g., faith communities,
fraternal organizations, PTAs, neighborhoods)
 Core Values

5 Chapter 3
Respect for authority, loyalty, hard work, sacrifice for the common
good; “Live to work versus work to live”
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
12
Growing Ethnic Markets
 Spending power of ethnic markets by 2011:
 Hispanics: $1.2 trillion
 African Americans: $921 billion
 Asian Americans: $526 billion
 Diversity can result in bottom-line benefits
to companies.
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
13
Marketing to Hispanic
Americans
 The population’s
diversity creates
challenges for
targeting this
group.
 Hispanics tend to
be brand loyal, but
are not aware of many U.S. brands.
 Nearly half of adult U.S. Hispanics have home
Internet access.
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
14
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-n0hr4ViFAA
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
15
Marketing to African
Americans
 Many firms are
creating products
for the African
American market.
 Promotional dollars
and media choices
directed toward
African Americans
continue to increase.
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
16
Marketing to Asian
Americans
 Younger, better educated,
and have highest average
income of all groups
 Many products have been
developed for Asian
American market.
 Cultural diversity within
the Asian American
market complicates
promotional efforts.
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
17
Economic Factors
 Economy: a system of producing, distributing, &
consuming wealth (what is our purchasing power?)
– Shifts (purchasing declines in recession)
– Examples:
• Interest rates influence buying (0% financing)
• Rising costs, inflation unavoidable
– Good life = debt?
– Why are we so in debt?
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
18
Purchasing Power
Purchasing
Power
A comparison of the relative cost of a
set standard of goods and services
in different geographic areas.
LO7
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
19
Recession Marketing Strategies
 Improve existing products
and introduce new ones
 Maintain and expand
customer services
 Emphasize top-of-the-line
products and promote
product value
LO7
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
20
Technological Factors
 Technological: application of knowledge to perform
tasks more efficiently/effectively
• Effective: accomplishing tasks
• Efficient: accomplishing tasks with minimum
use of resources
– Base of economic environment (research)
 New technologies create new opportunities
RSS and blogging
Ethics: consumer research (hits on web sites,
selling your info, privacy??)
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
21
Political Factors
 Political
– International
• Nationalism: emphasis on “our” country
influences trade (buy American)
• Trade groups: ease trade among members
– EU – lowers trade barriers among European
nations (looking East)
– NAFTA – Canada, U.S., and Mexico
– What do you see as the advantages and
disadvantages of each?
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
22
Legal Factors (1)
 Legal (close with political)
– Philosophy:
• Competition is encouraged
• Federal law conveys intent, but not detailed
interpretation
– Sellers must:
• Tell the truth
• Meet contracts
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
23
Legal Factors (2)
 Legal (continued)
– Regulations:
• Food and drugs must be safe & sanitary
• Magnuson-Moss Act: warranties
• Robinson-Patman Act: price discrimination
• Consumer Product Safety Commission (sets
standards)
– Protects from unsafe products (bicycle –
unsafe)
– Stricter on children
• State/local laws vary (California)
– Let the buyer beware (pro-consumer)
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
24
Should this be an illegal ad?
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
25
Competitive Factors
How many competitors?
Control
How big are competitors?
How interdependent is
the industry?
LO10
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
26
Competitive Factors
Competition for Market
Share and Profits
 Firms must work harder
to maintain profits and
market share.
Global Competition
 More foreign firms
are entering U.S. market.
 Foreign firms in U.S. now
compete on product
quality.
Chapter 3
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
27
Check Yourself
Chapter 3
1.
What are the six key macroeconomic factors?
2.
Identify the different generational cohorts.
3.
What key dimension is used to classify an
individual into a given cohort?
4.
What are some important social trends shaping
consumer values these days?
Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
28
Descargar

Chapter 1