CULTURE, Part II
• Globalization and
anti-Americanism
• Negotiations
• Western vs. Asian
culture
• Issues in culture
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
1
Globalization of Culture
• Books by Thomas
Friedman
– The Lexus and the Olive
Tree
– The World is Flat
• Technology allows easier
communication and
exchange between people
– International media
– Internet
• Increased trade among
nations
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
2
Anti-Globalism
• Johny Johansson, In
Your Face: How
American Marketing
Excess Fuels AntiAmericanism
– “Three strikes:”
• Strike 1: Anti-marketing
• Strike 2: Anti-globalism
• Strike 3: AntiAmericanism
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
3
Characteristics of Culture
• Comprehensive
• Acquired (learned)
• Manifested in boundaries of
acceptable thought and behavior-norms and sanctions
• Conscious awareness limited
(frequently taken for granted)
• Dynamic vs. static
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
4
Homogeneity of Culture—Some
Dimensions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Linguistic
Religious
Ethnic
Climatic
Geographic
Institutional/political
Social/income
Source: Usinier and Lee, 2005
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
5
Issues in Negotiation
• Non-verbal messages
• What the other side is likely to hear
(or fail to “hear”)
• Background of individual
– Within the given society (ethnic issues)
– Within the company
– Within the negotiating group
• Timing of concessions
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
6
Negotiation Content
•
•
•
•
Non-task sounding
Task-related exchange of information
Persuasion
Concessions and agreements
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
7
Time Issues in Culture
• Time as tangible, valuable
commodity
– “Time is money” vs.
– Traditional means of
relations
• Monochronic vs.
polychronic approach to
combining events
• Eating times
–
–
–
–
MKTG 376
Regularity vs. flexibility
Social purpose
Meal purpose and content
Distribution of food
consumption across the
day
CULTURE, Part II
• Life as “single continuous
event” vs. a series of
repeating cycles
– Impact of religion,
attachment to nature’s
cycles
• Preferred temporal
orientation
– Past
– Present
– Future
Lars Perner, Instructor
8
Relating to Outsiders
• Perceptions of
outsiders—may be
seen as
– “barbarian”
– “lazy”
– “backward”
– “inefficient” vs.
“un-cultured”
– profane (relative
to in-group’s
religion)
• Tendency to
perceive “outgroups” as more
homogeneous
than one’s own
group—the
Sherif Boys’
Camp studies
• Locus of ingroup—may
depend on
context
Source: Usinier and Lee, 2005
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
9
Cultural “borrowing”
• Adoption of elements from other
cultures—e.g.,
– Language and writing systems
– Products (e.g., jeans, pizza)
• Adjustments/adaptations
• Hidden process; origin may be
unknown to contemporary members
of the culture
Source: Usinier and Lee, 2005
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
10
Some Examples of Borrowing
• Japanese writing
system (sound and
concept
pictorals)—
adapted with
difficulty from
Chinese (concept
only pictorals)
• Arabic numeral
system and
mathematics
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
• English language
words from
– Latin
– Arabic
– Germanic and
Nordic languages
• Major world
religions
Lars Perner, Instructor
11
“Priming” and learning in a
culture
• U.S. professor in Hong Kong started
letter apologizing for his unworthiness
for the job
• U.S. manager left room so that an
employee could “snoop” on
unfavorable report
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
12
Chinese Involvement in Product
Selection
• Low for products consumed
individually in private—emphasis on
price and quality
• Higher for products consumed in
public setting—social significance
becomes more important—e.g.,
– Status
– Harmony with others
MKTG 376
CULTURE, Part II
Lars Perner, Instructor
13
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