E-Learning Survival, E-Learning Success: You Can Do It! Curt Bonk, Indiana University President, CourseShare.com [email protected] http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk http://CourseShare.com Exponential Growth of the Web A Vision of E-learning for America’s Workforce, Report of the Commission on Technology and Adult Learning, (2001, June) • A remarkable 84 percent of two-and four-year colleges in the United States expect to offer distance learning courses in 2002” (only 58% did in 1998) (US Dept of Education report, 2000) • Web-based training is expected to increase 900 percent between 1999 and 2003.” (ASTD, State of the Industry Report 2001). To Cope with the Explosion, We Need Instructor E-Learning Support!!! Problems Faced Administrative: Pedagogical: • “Lack of admin vision.” • “Lack of incentive from admin and the fact that they do not understand the time needed.” • “Lack of system support.” • “Little recognition that this is valuable.” • “Rapacious U intellectual property policy.” • “Unclear univ. policies concerning int property.” • “Difficulty in performing lab experiments online.” • “Lack of appropriate models for pedagogy.” Time-related: • “More ideas than time to implement.” • “Not enough time to correct online assign.” • “People need sleep; Web spins forever.” Best of Online Pedagogical Strategies… Changing Role of the Teacher The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) • From oracle to guide and resource provider • From providers of answers to expert questioners • From solitary teacher to member of team • From total control of teaching environment to sharing as a fellow student • From provider of content to designer of learning experiences. Online Teaching Skills The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) • Technical: email, chat, Web development • Facilitation: engaging, questioning, listening, feedback, providing support, managing discussion, team building, relationship building, motivating, positive attitude, innovative, risk taking • Managerial: planning, reviewing, monitoring, time management Key Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3) The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) • • • • • • • • Ability to provide effective online fdbk (2.86) Ability to engage the learner (2.84) Ability to provide direction and support (2.82) Skills in online listening (2.76) Ability to use email effectively (2.70) Ability to motivate online learners (2.66) Positive attitude to online teaching (2.66) Skills in effective online questioning (2.65) Less Impt Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3) The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) • • • • • • Higher-level Web page development (.606) Use of video/audioconferencing (1.06) Ability to develop simple Web pages (1.45) Skills in using online chat (1.84) Ability to build online teams (2.10) Skills in planning, monitoring trng (2.20) Ability to say dumb things. Ability to offend people. Ability to sleep 24 X 7. Ability to get distracted. The Web Integration Continuum (Bonk et al., 2000) Level 1: Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web Level 2: Web Resource for Student Exploration Level 3: Publish Student-Gen Web Resources Level 4: Course Resources on the Web Level 5: Repurpose Web Resources for Others ======================================= Level 6: Web Component is Substantive & Graded Level 7: Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class Level 8: Entire Web Course for Resident Students Level 9: Entire Web Course for Offsite Students Level 10: Course within Programmatic Initiative Study of Four Classes (Bonk, Kirkley, Hara, & Dennen, 2001) • Technical—Train, early tasks, be flexible, orientation task • Managerial—Initial meeting, FAQs, detailed syllabus, calendar, post administrivia, assign email pals, gradebooks, email updates • Pedagogical—Peer feedback, debates, PBL, cases, structured controversy, field reflections, portfolios, teams, inquiry, portfolios • Social—Café, humor, interactivity, profiles, foreign guests, digital pics, conversations, guests Technological Hat • Address tool/system familiarity • Require early assignment to test technology • Have orientation task, early training • Be flexible, smooth out problems • Plan, test, support Social Hat • • • • • • Create community, set tone, motivate Welcome, thank, invite, reinforce positives Foster shared knowledge Support humor and conversational tone Use tools such as cafes, profiles, pictures Invite to be candid Managerial Hat • Set agenda, timetable/calendar, assignment page • Set objectives, clear times, due dates, expectations • Explain rules, assignments, intended audiences • Assign teams and coordinate meeting times • Monitor discussions and track logins • Provide weekly feedback and class updates • Manage gradebooks • Post grading rubrics Pedagogical Hat • Use PBL or inquiry environment • Refer to outside resources and experts • Coordinate student interaction, team collaboration • Assign roles, set goals, foster peer feedback • Ask probing questions, refocus, nudge, instruct • Scaffold, give advice, mentor • Weave, synthesize, link ideas, provide overviews • Know when to intervene and when to leave alone Review Four Key Instructor Hats – Technical—do students have basics? Does their equipment work? Passwords work? – Managerial—Do students understand the assignments and course structure? – Pedagogical—How are students interacting, summarizing, debating, thinking? – Social—What is the general tone? Is there a human side to this course? Joking allowed? – Other: firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor, conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor, facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge, marketer, assistant, etc. How to Combine these Roles/Hats? E-Moderator • Refers to online teaching and facilitation role. Moderating used to mean to preside over a meeting or a discussion, but in the electronic world, it means more than that. It is all roles combined—to hold meetings, to encourage, to provide information, to question, to summarize, etc. (Collins & Berge, 1997; Gilly Salmon, 2000); see http://www.emoderators.com/moderators.s html. Other Hats • • • • • • • Weaver—linking comments/threads Tutor—individualized attention Participant—joint learner Provocateur—stir the pot (& calm flames) Observer—watch ideas and events unfold Mentor—personally apprentice students Community Organizer—keep system going Still More Hats Assistant Devil’s advocate Editor Expert Filter Firefighter Facilitator Gardener Helper Lecturer Marketer Mediator Priest Promoter 2. Questioning: "What is the name of this concept...?," "Another reason for this might be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast to this might be...,""What else might be important here...?," "Who can tell me....?," "How might the teacher..?." "What is the real problem here...?," "How is this related to...?,“, "Can you justify this?" 5. Feedback/Praise: "Wow, I'm impressed...," "That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure you have considered...," "Thanks for responding to ‘X’...," "I have yet to see you or anyone mention..." 6. Cognitive Task Structuring: "You know, the task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required, you should now summarize the peer responses that you have received...," "How might the textbook authors have solved this case." Converting a Class to the Web… The First Week: Do’s and Don’ts • DO – Encourage introductions – Use icebreaker activities – Help learn the tool – State expectations up front – Allow buffer for late starters • DON’T – Count on students to be ready to go on day one – Start content-based work until everyone is ready to start – Communicate in a manner that you do not wish the learners to adopt Selecting Instructional Media • Determine, as best you can, the technology that learners will be using • Only use that media which will truly enhance the instruction (or, don’t use media for media’s sake) • Make configuring computers (plug-ins, etc.) as easy as possible • Provide transcripts of media elements for learners without plug-ins or with slow connections Assignment Guidelines • Be as explicit as possible regarding expectations • Provide a model whenever possible • State how to turn assignments in – Include file saving and uploading directions as relevant • State when to turn in assignments (may need to include time zone) Designing Discussion • Remember, “discussion” is a generic title given to a complex activity • Discussion can take on many formats • Discussion doesn’t just “happen” -- it must be carefully designed and facilitated Common Instructor Complaints • Students don’t participate • Students all participate at the last minute • Students post messages but don’t converse • Facilitation takes too much time • If they must be absent, the discussion dies off More Reasons Why... • Students post messages but don’t converse, because… – They must post a min # of messages – They think the instructor wants to see how much they know – Not been taught to value conversation – They don’t know how to have an online conversation – Need modeling, good discussion prompts, clear expectations, multiple answers. Redirect Off-Task Students Dealing with Difficult Learners (Barbazette, Feb 2002) • Confront known disruptive participants and ask for help before the event • Know who question askers are and ask for their help before they interrupt • Ask direct questions of talkers and nonparticipants • Ask each person to make a summary of the learning pts • Acknowledge various pts of view. – …that’s an interesting question, how have you handled similar situations? – …how do others of you view this issue? Guide Behavior With Questions and Info Reducing Online Problems or Disruptions • Ask yourself, why are they off task? Look at the pedagogy? • Do they value the assignment? • Are tasks relevant, challenging, & current? • Are ideas valued and woven into the discussion? • Are you organized? • Are students in the right class or level? What to do? Keep it Human Jennifer Hoffman, Learning Circuits; Jan. 2000.; Judith Smith, August, 2001; Clive Sheperd, Jan 2002) • • • • • • • • • Keep the learning process social Design breaks Have agenda or structure; establish rules/procedures Call on by first names Point to role models, archives, or course alumni Ask about interests Include anecdotes and examples Provide consistent feedback Allow or foster learning communities If can’t control, then what to do? • • • • • Join up Give up Commit suicide Find a new job Protest e-learning Is it that simple? NOPE!!! There is a Problem… But How Avoid Shovelware??? “This form of structure… encourages teachers designing new products to simply “shovel” existing resources into on-line Web pages and discourages any deliberate or intentional design of learning strategy.” (Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999) How Bad Is It? “Some frustrated Blackboard users who say the company is too slow in responding to technical problems with its coursemanagement software have formed an independent users’ group to help one another and to press the company to improve.” (Jeffrey Young, Nov. 2, 2001, Chronicle of Higher Ed) Intrinsic Motivation “…innate propensity to engage one’s interests and exercise one’s capabilities, and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges (i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings, and personal curiosity for growth) See: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and selfdetermination in human behavior. NY: Plenum Press. Motivational Terms? See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee) 1. Tone/Climate: Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging 2. Feedback: Responsive, Supports, Encouragement 3. Engagement: Effort, Involvement, Excitement 4. Meaningfulness: Interesting, Relevant, Authentic 5. Choice: Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy 6. Variety: Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns 7. Curiosity: Fun, Fantasy, Control 8. Tension: Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy 9. Interactive: Collaborative, Team-Based, Community 10. Goal Driven: Product-Based, Success, Ownership Encourage activities that motivate thinking. (Sheinberg, April 2000, Learning Circuits) 1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers A. Eight Nouns Activity: a) Introduce self using 8 nouns b) Explain why choose each noun c) Comment on 1-2 peer postings B. Coffee House Expectations a) Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations b) Instructor summarizes and comments on how they might be met (or make public commitments of how they will fit into busy schedules!) 1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers C. Favorite Web Site: Have students post the URL of a favorite Web site or URL with personal information and explain why they choose that one. D. Two Truths, One Lie 1. Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself 2. Class votes on which is the lie E. Chat Room Bud: Create a discussion prompt in one of “X’ number of chat rooms. Introduce yourself in the chat room that interests you. 1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers F. Storytelling Cartoon Time: Find a Web site that has cartoons. Have participants link their introductionsor stories to a particular cartoon URL. Storytelling is a great way to communicate. http://www.curtoons.com/cartooncoll.htm G. Public Commitments: Have students share how they will fit the coursework into their busy schedules. 2. Feedback Requiring Peer Feedback Alternatives: A. Require minimum # of peer comments and give guidance (e.g., Read 3-4 articles and respond to 3-4 peers) B. Peer Feedback Through Templates—give templates to complete peer evaluations. C. Have e-papers contest(s) 2. Feedback: D. Self-Testing and Self-Assessments 2. Feedback (Instructor) E. Reflective Writing Alternatives: 1. Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers 2. PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL 3. Summaries 4. Pros and Cons 1. Email instructor after class on what learned or failed to learn… (David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23; October 2001, p. 18) 2. Feedback (Instructor) F. Anonymous Suggestion Box George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity and Electronics for Engineers: 1. Students send anonymous course feedback (Web forms or email) 2. Submission box is password protected 3. Instructor decides how to respond 4. Then provide response and most or all of suggestion in online forum 5. It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor views, and justified actions publicly. 6. Caution: If you are disturbed by criticism, perhaps do not use. 2. Feedback: G. Double-Jeopardy Quizzing Gordon McCray, Wake Forest University, Intro to Management of Info Systems 1. Students take objective quiz (no time limit and not graded) 2. Submit answer for evaluation 3. Instead of right or wrong response, the quiz returns a compelling probing question, insight, or conflicting perspective (i.e., a counterpoint) to force students to reconsider original responses 4. Students must commit to a response but can use reference materials 5. Correct answer and explanation are presented 3. Engagement: Questioning (Morten Flate Pausen, 1995; [email protected]) A. Shot Gun: Post many questions or articles to discuss and answer any— student choice. B. Hot Seat: One student is selected to answer many questions from everyone in the class. 3. Engagement C. Annotations and Animations: MetaText (eBooks) 3. Engagement: A. Electronic Voting and Polling 1. Ask students to vote on issue before class (anonymously or send directly to the instructor) 2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view 3. Discuss with majority pt of view 4. Repoll students after class (Note: B. Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique: anonymous input till a due date and then post results and reconsider until consensus Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999) 3. Engagement C. Survey Student Opinions (e.g., InfoPoll, SurveySolutions, Zoomerang, SurveyShare.com) 4. Meaningfulness: A. Perspective Taking: Oral History or Expert Interview 1. Perspective sharing discussions: Have learners relate the course material to a real-life experience. Example: In a course on Technology & Culture, students freely shared experiences of visiting grandparents on rural farms. The discussion led to a greater interest in the readings. 4. Meaningfulness: B. Job or Field Reflections 1. Field Definition Activity: Have student interview (via e-mail, if necessary) someone working in the field of study and share their results • As a class, pool interview results and develop a group description of what it means to be a professional in the field 4. Meaningfulness: C. Case Creation and Simulations 1. Model how to write a case 2. Practice answering cases. 3. Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field experiences. 4. Link to the text material—relate to how how text author or instructor might solve. 5. Respond to 6-8 peer cases. 6. Summarize the discussion in their case. 7. Summarize discussion in a peer case. (Note: method akin to storytelling) 4. Meaningfulness: D. Perspective Taking: Foreign Languages Katy Fraser, Germanic Studies at IU and Jennifer Liu, East Asian Languages and Cultures at IU: 1. Have students receive e-newsletters from a foreign magazine as well as respond to related questions. 2. Students assume roles of those in literature from that culture and participate in real-time chats using assumed identity. 4. Meaningfulness: E. Authentic Data Analysis Jeanne Sept, IU, Archaeology of Human Origins; Components: From CD to Web • • • A set of research q’s and problems that archaeologists have posed about the site (a set of Web-based activities) A complete set of data from the site and background info (multimedia data on sites from all regions and prehistoric time periods in Africa) A set of methodologies and add’l background info (TimeWeb tool to help students visualize and explore space/time dimensions) Students work collaboratively to integrate multidisciplinary data & interpret age of site Interpret evidence for site’s ancient environments Analyze info on artifacts and fossils from the site 5. Choice: A. Multiple Topics • Generate multiple discussion prompts and ask students to participate in 2 out of 3 • Provide different discussion “tracks” (much like conference tracks) for students with different interests to choose among • List possible topics and have students vote (students sign up for lead diff weeks) • Have students list and vote. 5. Choice: B. Discussion: Starter-Wrapper (Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000) 1. Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and others participate and wrapper summarizes what was discussed. 2. Start-wrapper with roles--same as #1 but include roles for debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's advocate). Alternative: Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper (Alexander, 2001) Instead of starting discussion, student acts as moderator or questioner to push student thinking and give feedback 6. Variety: A. Just-In-Time-Teaching or Syllabus Gregor Novak, IUPUI Physics Professor (teaches teamwork, collaboration, and effective communication): 1. Lectures are built around student answers to short quizzes that have an electronic due date just hours before class. 2. Instructor reads and summarizes responses before class and weaves them into discussion and changes the lecture as appropriate. B. Variety: The Virtual Classroom Joachim Hammer, University of Florida, Data Warehousing and Decision Support 1. Voice annotated slides on Web; 7 course modules with a number of 15-30 minutes units 2. Biweekly Q&A chat sessions moderated by students 3. Bulletin Board class discussions 4. Posting to Web of best 2-3 assignments 5. Exam Q’s posted to BB; answers sent via email 6. Team projects posted in a team project space 7. Add’l Web resources are structured for students (e.g., white papers, reports, project and product home pages) 8. Email is used to communicate with students 7. Curiosity: A. Electronic Seance • • • • Students read books from famous dead people Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous). Present present day problem for them to solve Participate from within those characters (e.g., read direct quotes from books or articles) • Invite expert guests from other campuses • Keep chat open for set time period • Debrief 7. Curiosity B. Online Fun and Games (see Thiagi.com Or deepfun.com) 1. Puzzle games 2. Solve puzzle against timer 3. Learn concepts 4. Compete 5. Get points 7. Curiosity: C. Electronic Guests & Mentoring 1. Find article or topic that is controversial 2. Invite person associated with that article (perhaps based on student suggestions) 3. Hold real time chat 4. Pose questions 5. Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change their minds?) (Alternatives: Email Interviews with experts Assignments with expert reviews) D. Peer Questions & Team Meeting: Moderated 8. Tension: Role Play A. Role Play Personalities • List possible roles or personalities (e.g., coach, optimist, devil’s advocate, etc.) • Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key roles) • Reassign roles if someone drops class • Perform within roles—refer to different personalities B. Assume Persona of Scholar – Enroll famous people in your course – Students assume voice of that person for one or more sessions – Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic – Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to own 8. Tension. C. Six Hats (from De Bono, `985; adopted for online learning by Karen Belfer, 2001, Ed Media) • • • • • • White Hat: Data, facts, figures, info (neutral) Red Hat: Feelings, emotions, intuition, rage… Yellow Hat: Positive, sunshine, optimistic Black Hat: Logical, negative, judgmental, gloomy Green Hat: New ideas, creativity, growth Blue Hat: Controls thinking process & organization Note: technique used in a business info systems class where discussion got too predictable! 8. Tension: D. Instructor Generated Virtual Debate (or student generated) 1. Select controversial topic (with input from class) 2. Divide class into subtopic pairs: one critic and one defender. 3. Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic 4. Critics and defenders post initial position stmts 5. Rebut person in one’s pair 6. Reply to 2+ positions with comments or q’s 7. Formulate and post personal positions. 9. Interactive: A. Critical/Constructive Friends, Email Pals, Web Buddies 1. Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on commonalities). 2. Post weekly updates of projects, send reminders of due dates, help where needed. 3. Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong and weak, what’s missing, what hits the mark) as well as suggestions for strengthening. In effect, critical friends do not slide over weaknesses, but confront them kindly and directly. 4. Reflect on experience. 9. Interactive: B. Symposia, Press Conference, or Panel of Experts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Find topic during semester that peaks interest Find students who tend to be more controversial Invite to a panel discussion on a topic or theme Have them prepare statements Invite questions from audience (rest of class) Assign panelists to start (Alternative: Have a series of press conferences at the end of small group projects; one for each group) 10. Goal Driven: A. Gallery Tours • Assign Topic or Project (e.g., Team or Class White Paper, Bus Plan, Study Guide, Glossary, Journal, Model Exam Answers) • Students Post to Web • Experts Review and Rate • Try to Combine Projects Motivational Top Ten 1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing 2. Feedback: Self-Tests, Reading Reactions 3. Engagement: Questioning, Polling, Voting 4. Meaningfulness: Job/Field Reflections, Cases 5. Choice: Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper 6. Variety: Brainstorming, Roundrobins 7. Curiosity: Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors 8. Tension: Role Play, Debates, Controversy 9. Interactive: E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels 10. Goal Driven: Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours Pick One…??? (circle one) Questions? Comments? Concerns?