Connecting Online Best Practices to
Intrinsic Motivation Examples
Curt Bonk, Indiana University
Are You Ready?
Who are some of the key
Online Strategies
(Karen Lazenby, University of Pretoria, Nov., 2001)
• Limit lecturing online—promote selfdirected learning
• Set clear rules for posting and interaction
• Explain tasks and overlooked info.
• Let learners synthesize key points.
• Publish best work of students (with
• Involve participation from outside experts
Online Teaching Skills
The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
• Technical: email, chat, Web development
• Facilitation: engaging, questioning, listening, feedback,
providing support, managing discussion, team building,
relationship building, motivating, positive attitude,
innovative, risk taking
• Managerial: planning, reviewing, monitoring, time
– From provider to content to designer of learning
– From oracle to guide and resource provider
– From solitary teacher to member of team
Key Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3)
The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
Ability to provide effective online fdbk (2.86)
Ability to engage the learner (2.84)
Ability to provide direction and support (2.82)
Skills in online listening (2.76)
Ability to use email effectively (2.70)
Ability to motivate online learners (2.66)
Positive attitude to online teaching (2.66)
Skills in effective online questioning (2.65)
E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online,
(Gilly Salmon, (1999) Kogan Page)
1. Know when to stay silent for a few days.
2. Close off unused or unproductive conferences.
3. Provide a variety of relevant conference topics.
4. Deal promptly with dominance, harassment, etc.
5. Weave, summarize, and archive often.
6. Be an equal participant in the conference.
7. Provide sparks or interesting comments.
8. Avoid directives and right answers.
9. Acknowledge all contributions.
10. Support others for e-moderator role.
Pedagogical Recommendations
(Berge, 1995, The role of the online instructor/facilitator)
• Draw attention to conflicting views
• Don’t expect too much/thread
• Do not lecture (Long, coherent sequence
of comments yields silence)
• Request responses within set time
• Maintain non-authoritarian style
• Promote private conversations
Research on Nine Online Courses
(Vanessa Dennen, San Diego State Univ)
• 9 case studies of online classes using
asynchronous discussion
• Topics: sociology, history, communications,
writing, library science, technology, counseling
• Range of class size: 15 - 106
• Level: survey, upper undergraduate, and graduate
• Tools: custom and commercial
• Private, semi-public, and public discussion areas
Poor Instructors
• Little or no feedback
• Always authoritative
• Kept narrow focus of
what was relevant
• Created tangential
discussions, fact
• Only used “ultimate”
Good Instructors
• Provided regular
qual/quant feedback
• Participated as peer
• Allowed perspective
• Tied discussion to
grades, other tasks.
• Used incremental
Collaborative and Constructivist
Web Tasks
(McLoughlin & Oliver, 1999; Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999))
1. Apprenticeship: Q&A; Ask an Expert (chats & async).
2. Case-Based and Simulated Learning: exchange
remote views; enact events online.
3. Active Learning: Design Web pages and project
4. Reflective/Metacognitive Learning: Reflect in online
journals, bulletin boards
5. Experiential Learning: Post (articulate ideas) to
discussion groups
6. Authentic Learning: PBL, search current databases
Framework for Pedagogical CMC Techniques
(Paulsen, 1995, The Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for
Computer-Mediated Communication)
1. One-alone Techniques: Online journals,
online databases, interviews, online
interest groups.
2. One-to-one Techniques: Learning
contracts, internships, apprenticeships.
3. One-to-many Techniques: Lectures,
symposiums, skits.
4. Many-to-many Techniques: Debates,
simulations, games, case studies,
discussion groups, brainstorming,
Delphi techniques, nominal group
process, forums, group projects.
Ideal Environment of
Synchronous Trainer
Jennifer Hoffman, Online Learning Conference (2001, Oct.)
 A private, soundproof room.
 High-speed connection; telephone;
powerful computer; additional computer;
tech support phone #
 Studio microphone and speakers
 A “Do Not Disturb” sign
 Near restroom; pitcher of water
Considerations: The Event
Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2001, March)
Log on early; students come 15 minutes early.
Do tech checks of microphones (sound check).
Check to see if students brought needed items
Perhaps call or send notes to missing students
Vary your instructional strategies; maximize
• Make it visual—color, sound, animation
• Design 10-minute breaks every 90 minutes
Pedagogical Tips
(Bonk 1998; Indiana University)
• Build peer interactivity
• Utilize multiple forms of
• Provide feedback cues (dots)
• Embed choices (avatars, tasks,
• Simplify (everything!!!)
• Offer early feedback
• Scheduling something due early
Just a Lot of Bonk
• Variety: tasks, topics, participants,
accomplishments, etc.
• Interaction extends beyond class
• Learners are also teachers
• Multiple ways to succeed
• Personalization and choice
• Clarity and easy to navigate course
• Find tech mentor, be student b4 teacher
But how to determine the
pedagogical quality of courses and
course materials you develop?
Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for
Success in Internet-Based Distance Ed
(Blackboard & NEA, 2000)
Teaching/Learning Process
• Student interaction with faculty is facilitated
through a variety of ways.
• Feedback to student assignments and questions
is provided in a timely manner.
• Each module requires students to engage
themselves in analysis, synthesis, and
evaluation as part of their course assignments.
• Course materials promote collaboration among
Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for
Success in Internet-Based Distance Ed
(Blackboard & NEA, 2000)
Other Benchmark Categories:
• Institutional Support: incentive, rewards, plans
• Course Development: processes, guidelines,
teams, structures, standards, learning styles
• Course Structure: expectations, resources
• Student Support: training, assistance, info
• Faculty Support: mentoring, tech support
• Evaluation and Assessment: review process,
multiple methods, specific standards
The Sharp Edge of the Cube:
Pedagogically Driven Instructional
Design for Online Education
Syllabus Magazine, Dec, 2001, Nishikant Sonwalkar
• five functional learning styles—
apprenticeship, incidental, inductive,
deductive, discovery.
New Methodology for Evaluation: The
Pedagogical Rating of Online Courses
Syllabus Magazine, Jan, 2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar
The Pedagogical Effectiveness Index:
(1) Learning Styles: (see previous page)
(2) Media Elements: text, graphics, audio,
video, animation, simulation
(3) Interaction Elements: feedback,
revision, e-mail, discussion, bulletin
For more info, e-mail:
New Methodology for Evaluation: The
Pedagogical Rating of Online Courses
Syllabus Magazine, Jan, 2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar
Summative evaluation instrument for
rating online courses:
(1) Content Factors: quality, media, authentic
(2) Learning Factors: interactivity, testing & feedback,
collaboration, ped styles
(3) Delivery Support Factors: accessible, reporting, user
management, content
(4) Usability Factors: clarity, chunk size, layout
(5) Technological Factors: bandwidth, database
connectivity, server capacity,browser
What do we need???
The Web Integration Continuum
(Bonk et al., 2000)
Level 1: Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web
Level 2: Web Resource for Student Exploration
Level 3: Publish Student-Gen Web Resources
Level 4: Course Resources on the Web
Level 5: Repurpose Web Resources for Others
Level 6: Web Component is Substantive & Graded
Level 7: Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class
Level 8: Entire Web Course for Resident Students
Level 9: Entire Web Course for Offsite Students
Level 10: Course within Programmatic Initiative
What are your best
Best Practices…
What is the single biggest obstacle to elearning continuing to grow and
fulfilling its potential?
1. The cost of development?
2. Lack of human contact?
3. Reluctance of training departments
to change?
The problem is much more likely
to be plain boredom!!!
Online Training
From Forrester, Michelle Delio (2000),
Wired News. (Interviewed 40 training
managers and knowledge officers)
We’re Handing out degrees
in electronic page turning!!!
• To get the certificate, learners merely
needed to “read” (i.e. click through)
each screen of material
How Bad Is It?
“Some frustrated Blackboard users who say
the company is too slow in responding to
technical problems with its coursemanagement software have formed an
independent users’ group to help one
another and to press the company to
(Jeffrey Young, Nov. 2, 2001, Chronicle of
Higher Ed)
Must Online Learning
be Boring?
What Motivates Adult Learners
to Participate?
From Learning Designers
to Experience Designers
(Reinhard Ziegler, March 2002, e-learning)
“How are we going to create
environments, simulations, and real
learning experiences unless they’ve
participated in them and reflected on
their importance for
themselves?”…the key is “how to
design the interaction so the user
lives the experience.
“…is motivation that arises from external contingencies.”
(i.e., students who act to get high grades, win a trophy,
comply with a deadline—means-to-an-end motivation)
See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational
resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Intrinsic Motivation
“…innate propensity to engage one’s
interests and exercise one’s capabilities,
and, in doing so, to seek out and master
optimal challenges
(i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings, and
personal curiosity for growth)
See: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R.
M. (1985). Intrinsic
motivation and selfdetermination in human
behavior. NY: Plenum
Motivational Terms?
See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner
motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee)
1. Tone/Climate: Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
2. Feedback: Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
3. Engagement: Effort, Involvement, Excitement
4. Meaningfulness: Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
5. Choice: Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
6. Variety: Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
7. Curiosity: Fun, Fantasy, Control
8. Tension: Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
9. Interactive: Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
10. Goal Driven: Product-Based, Success, Ownership
Encourage activities that
motivate thinking.
(Sheinberg, April 2000, Learning Circuits)
1. Tone:
Ice Breakers
a. Introductions: require not only that
students introduce themselves, but also
that they find and respond to two
classmates who have something in
common (Serves dual purpose of setting
tone and having students learn to use the
b. 99 Seconds of Fame: In an online
synchronous chat, give each student 99 seconds to
present themselves and field questions.
1. Tone/Climate:
Ice Breakers
c. Eight Nouns Activity:
1. Introduce self using 8 nouns
2. Explain why choose each noun
3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings
d. Coffee House Expectations
1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations
2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they
might be met
(or make public commitments of how they will fit into
busy schedules!)
1. Tone/Climate:
Like Ice Breakers
e. KNOWU Rooms:
1. Create discussion forums or chat
room topics for people with diff
experiences (e.g., soccer parent,
runner, pet lovers, like music,
outdoor person). Find those with
similar interests.
2. Complete eval form where list people
in class and interests. Most names
f. Chat Room Buds: Create a
discussion prompt in one of “X’ number
of chat rooms. Introduce yourself in the
chat room that interests you.
Multiple Rooms for Chat
1. Tone/Climate:
Ice Breakers
g. Storytelling Cartoon Time: Find a
Web site that has cartoons. Have participants
link their introductionsor stories to a particular
cartoon URL. Storytelling is a great way to
communicate (alternative: post favorite Web
h. Two Truths, One Lie
1. Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself
2. Class votes on which is the lie
2. Feedback
A. Requiring Peer Feedback
1. Reading Reactions: Require minimum # of
peer comments and give guidance (e.g.,
they should do…)
2. Peer Feedback Through Templates—give
templates to complete peer evaluations.
3. Have e-papers contest(s)
2. Feedback (Instructor)
B. Anonymous Suggestion Box
George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity
and Electronics for Engineers:
1. Students send anonymous course feedback (Web
forms or email)
2. Submission box is password protected
3. Instructor decides how to respond
4. Then provide response and most or all of suggestion
in online forum
5. It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor views, and
justified actions publicly.
6. Caution: If you are disturbed by criticism, perhaps do
not use.
2. Feedback:
C. Double-Jeopardy Quizzing
Gordon McCray, Wake Forest University, Intro to
Management of Info Systems
1. Students take objective quiz (no time limit and not
2. Submit answer for evaluation
3. Instead of right or wrong response, the quiz returns a
compelling probing question, insight, or conflicting
perspective (i.e., a counterpoint) to force students to
reconsider original responses
4. Students must commit to a response but can use
reference materials
5. Correct answer and explanation are presented
2. Feedback:
D. Async Self-Testing and SelfAssessments
2. Feedback:
E. Synchronous Testing & Assessment
(Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet Marta, NW Missouri
State Univ, Syllabus, January 2002)
1. Post times when will be available for 30
minute slots, first come, first serve.
2. Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to
study for.
3. Tell can skip one.
4. Assessment will be a dialogue.
5. Get them there 1-2 minutes early.
6. Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences.
7. Ask q’s, redirect, push for clarity, etc.
8. Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes.
2. Feedback (Instructor)
F. Reflective Writing
1. Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers
2. PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL
3. Summaries
4. Pros and Cons
1. Email instructor after class on what learned or
failed to learn…
(David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23;
October 2001, p. 18)
3. Engagement:
A. Questioning
(Morten Flate Pausen, 1995;
1. Shot Gun: Post many questions or articles to
discuss and answer any—student choice.
2. Hot Seat: One student is selected to answer
many questions from everyone in the class.
3. Engagement
A. Questioning: XanEdu Coursepacks
3. Engagement
B. Annotations and Animations:
MetaText (eBooks)
4. Meaningfulness:
A. Perspective Taking: Oral Histories
and Interviews
1. Perspective sharing
discussions: Have learners relate the
course material to a real-life experience.
Example: In a course on Technology &
Culture, students freely shared
experiences of visiting grandparents on
rural farms. The discussion led to a
greater interest in the readings.
4. Meaningfulness:
B. Perspective Taking: Foreign
Katy Fraser, Germanic Studies at IU
and Jennifer Liu, East Asian
Languages and Cultures at IU:
1. Have students receive e-newsletters from a foreign
magazine as well as respond to related questions.
2. Students assume roles of those in literature from that
culture and participate in real-time chats using assumed
3. Students use multimedia and Web for self-paced lessons
to learn target language in authentic contexts.
4. Meaningfulness:
C. Expert Job Interviews
1. Field Definition Activity: Have
student interview (via e-mail, if necessary)
someone working in the field of study and share
their results
• As a class, pool interview results and develop a
group description of what it means to be a
professional in the field
4. Meaningfulness:
D. Job or Field Reflections
1. Instructor provides reflection or prompt
for job related or field observations
2. Reflect on job setting or observe in field
3. Record notes on Web and reflect on
concepts from chapter
4. Respond to peers
5. Instructor summarizes posts
4. Meaningfulness:
E. Case-Based Learning: Student Cases
1. Model how to write a case
2. Practice answering cases.
3. Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on
field experiences.
4. Link to the text material—relate to how how text
author or instructor might solve.
5. Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
6. Summarize the discussion in their case.
7. Summarize discussion in a peer case.
(Note: method akin to storytelling)
4. Meaningfulness:
F. Authentic Data Analysis
Jeanne Sept, IU, Archaeology of Human
Origins; Components: From CD to Web
A set of research q’s and problems that archaeologists
have posed about the site (a set of Web-based activities)
A complete set of data from the site and background info
(multimedia data on sites from all regions and prehistoric
time periods in Africa)
A set of methodologies and add’l background info
(TimeWeb tool to help students visualize and explore
space/time dimensions)
Students work collaboratively to integrate multidisciplinary data &
interpret age of site
Interpret evidence for site’s ancient environments
Analyze info on artifacts and fossils from the site
5. Choice:
A. Multiple Topics
• Generate multiple discussion prompts and
ask students to participate in 2 out of 3
• Provide different discussion “tracks”
(much like conference tracks) for students
with different interests to choose among
• List possible topics and have students
vote (students sign up for lead diff weeks)
• Have students list and vote.
5. Choice:
B. Discussion: Starter-Wrapper
(Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000)
1. Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and others
participate and wrapper summarizes what was
2. Start-wrapper with roles--same as #1 but include roles for
debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's advocate).
Alternative: Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
(Alexander, 2001)
Instead of starting discussion, student acts as moderator or
questioner to push student thinking and give feedback
5. Choice:
C. Web Resource Reviews
5. Choice and Voice
D. Poll Students for Formative Feedback
6. Variety:
A. Just-In-Time-Teaching
Gregor Novak, IUPUI Physics
Professor (teaches teamwork,
collaboration, and effective
1. Lectures are built around student
answers to short quizzes that have an
electronic due date just hours before
2. Instructor reads and summarizes
responses before class and weaves
them into discussion and changes the
lecture as appropriate.
6. Variety:
B. Just-In-Time Syllabus
(Raman, Shackelford, & Sosin)
Syllabus is created as a "shell" which is thematically
organized and contains print, video, and web
references as well as assignments.
Goal = critical thinking (analysis, evaluation), developing
student interests, collaboration, discussion
e.g., Economics instructors incorporate time-sensitive data, on-line
discussions, and Web links into the delivery of most of the
undergraduate courses in economics. Instructor reads and
summarizes responses before class and weaves them into
discussion and changes the lecture as appropriate.
e.g., To teach or expand discussion of supply or elasticity, an
instructor adds new links in the Just-in-Time Syllabus to breaking
news about gasoline prices and energy blackouts in California.
6. Variety: C. Virtual Classroom
Joachim Hammer, University of Florida, Data
Warehousing and Decision Support
1. Voice annotated slides on Web; 7 course modules with a number
of 15-30 minutes units
2. Biweekly Q&A chat sessions moderated by students
3. Bulletin Board class discussions
4. Posting to Web of best 2-3 assignments
5. Exam Q’s posted to BB; answers sent via email
6. Team projects posted in a team project space
7. Add’l Web resources are structured for students (e.g., white
papers, reports, project and product home pages)
8. Email is used to communicate with students
7. Curiosity:
A. Electronic Seance
Students read books from famous dead people
Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
Present present day problem for them to solve
Participate from within those characters (e.g.,
read direct quotes from books or articles)
• Invite expert guests from other campuses
• Keep chat open for set time period
• Debrief
7. Curiosity
B. Online Fun and Games
1. Puzzle games
2. Solve puzzle against
3. Learn concepts
4. Compete
5. Get points
C. Simulations
Games E-Learners Play, 2001, Clive Shepard
“For people-oriented subjects, SmartForce
is using role-play simulations that
challenge students to solve real-life
problems in realistic situations. The
student interacts with virtual characters
and consults a wide variety of resources,
including white papers, presentations and
web links, in order to realize the goals of
the scenario.”
I. eDrama (Front Desk Hiring)
II. Intermezzon: MoneyMaker Sales Training
Games and Simulations
“There’s something new on the horizon,
though: computer-based soft skills
simulations, which let learners
practice skills such as negotiation and
team building.”
Clark Aldrich, The State of Simulations,
Sept. 2001, Online Learning
7. Curiosity:
D. Electronic Guests & Mentoring
1. Find article or topic that is controversial
2. Invite person associated with that article
(perhaps based on student suggestions)
3. Hold real time chat
4. Pose questions
5. Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone
change their minds?)
(Alternatives: Email Interviews with experts
Assignments with expert reviews)
8. Tension
A. Role Play Personalities
• List possible roles or personalities (e.g., coach, optimist,
devil’s advocate, etc.)
• Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key roles)
• Reassign roles if someone drops class
• Perform within roles—refer to different personalities
B. Assume Persona of Scholar
– Enroll famous people in your course
– Students assume voice of that person for one or
more sessions
– Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic
– Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to own
8. Tension.
C. Six Hats (from De Bono, `985; adopted
for online learning by Karen Belfer, 2001, Ed Media)
White Hat: Data, facts, figures, info (neutral)
Red Hat: Feelings, emotions, intuition, rage…
Yellow Hat: Positive, sunshine, optimistic
Black Hat: Logical, negative, judgmental, gloomy
Green Hat: New ideas, creativity, growth
Blue Hat: Controls thinking process & organization
Note: technique used in a business info systems
class where discussion got too predictable!
8. Tension:
D. Instructor Generated Virtual
Debate (or student generated)
1. Select controversial topic (with input from class)
2. Divide class into subtopic pairs: one critic and
one defender.
3. Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic
4. Critics and defenders post initial position stmts
5. Rebut person in one’s pair
6. Reply to 2+ positions with comments or q’s
7. Formulate and post personal positions.
9. Interactive:
A. Critical/Constructive Friends,
Email Pals, Web Buddies
1. Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on
2. Post weekly updates of projects, send
reminders of due dates, help where needed.
3. Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong
and weak, what’s missing, what hits the mark)
as well as suggestions for strengthening.
In effect, critical friends do not slide over
weaknesses, but confront them kindly and
4. Reflect on experience.
9. Interactive:
B. Symposia of Experts
Find topic during semester that peaks interest
Find students who tend to be more controversial
Invite to a panel discussion on a topic or theme
Have them prepare statements
Invite questions from audience (rest of class)
Assign panelists to start
9. Interactive:
C. Panels of Experts: Be an Expert/Ask an
Expert: Have each learner choose an area in
which to become expert and moderate a forum for
the class. Require participation in a certain
number of forums (choice)
D. Press Conference: Have a series of press
conferences at the end of small group projects;
one for each group)
9. Interactive:
E. Secret Coaches and Proteges
1. Input learner names into a Web site.
2. When learners arrive, it randomly assigns them a
secret protégé for a meeting.
3. Tell them to monitor the work of their protégé but
to avoid being obvious by giving feedback to
several different people.
4. Give examples of comments.
5. At end of mtg, have proteges guess coaches.
6. Discuss how behavior could be used in other
9. Interactive:
F. Online Co-Laborative Psych Experiments
(University of Mississippi)
Contains 30 free psych
• Location independent
• Convenient to instructors
• Run experiments over
large number of subjects
• Can build on it over time
• Cross-institutional
Ken McGraw, Syllabus,
November, 2001
10. Goal Driven
A. Jigsaw Technique: each student
becomes an expert on a topic and teaches
that to his/her group.
e.g., Assign chapters within groups
(member #1 reads chapters 1 & 2; #2 reads 3
& 4, etc.)
10. Goal Driven:
B. Gallery Tours
of Individual or Team Products
• Assign Topic or Project
(e.g., Team or Class White
Paper, Bus Plan, Study
Guide, Glossary,
Journal, Model Exam
• Students Post to Web
• Experts Review and Rate
• Try to Combine Projects
What about
News Flash: “Instant Messenger
(IM) is a huge corporate tool, yet
rarely mentioned in corporate
productivity or learning plans.”
TechLearn TRENDS, Feb. 6, 2002
• Jupiter Media Metrix:
– 8.8 million AOL IM users at work
– 4.8 million MSN users at work
– 3.4 million Yahoo! Messenger users at work
– Doubled from 2.3 billion minutes in Sept. 2000
to 4.9 billion minutes in Sept. 2002.
• It can connect learners to each other and provide
easier access to the instructor (the MASIE Center).
Presentation Tools:
What Are the Common Tools and
Synchronous WBT Products
Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2000, Jan)
• Deluxe (InterWise, LearnLinc, Centra)
– 2-way audio using VOIP, one-way or two-way video, course
scheduling, tracking, text chat, assessment (requires thick
client-side software)
• Standard (HorizonLive, PlaceWare)
– One-way VOIP or phone bridge for two-way audio, text chat,
application viewing, (requires thin client-side app or browser
• Economy (Blackboard, WebCT)
– Browser-based, chat, some application viewing (Requires Javaenabled browsers, little cost, free)
“There are, say, 20 features
that encompass live elearning, and all the products
have 17 of them.”
Jennifer Hofmann, quoted by Wendy Webb, Online Learning,
November, 2001, p. 44.
Web Conferencing Features
• Audio (VOIP, bridge) and Videostreaming
• Application Sharing or Viewing (e.g., Word
and PowerPoint) Includes remote control
and emoticons
• Text (Q&A) Chat (private and public)
• Live Surveys, Polls, and Reports
• Synchronous Web Browsing
• File Transfer
Web Conferencing Features
• Content Windows—HTML, PowerPoint
• Discussion Boards—post info, FAQs, post
session assignments
• Archive Meeting—record and playback
• Breakout Rooms
• Shared Whiteboards
• Hand-Raising and Yes/No Buttons
Synchronous Activities
1. Webinar, Webcast
2. Guest speaker moderated (or open) Q&A forum
3. Instructor meetings, private talk, admin help
4. Quick Polls/Quizzes, Voting Ranking
5. Surveys
6. Team activities or meetings or Peer Q&A
7. Collaborative writing
8. Brainstorming ideas, What-Ifs, Quick reflections
9. Graphic Organizers in Whiteboard (e.g., Venn)
10. Online Mentoring or Language Learning
1. Webinar, Webcast
2. Discussion plus Chat (e.g., StarterWrapper + Sync Guest Chat)
3. Instructor Meetings and Support
3. Instructor Online Office Hours
4. Electronic Voting and Polling
1. Ask students to vote on issue before class (anonymously or
send directly to the instructor)
2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view
3. Discuss with majority pt of view
4. Repoll students after class
(Note: Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique:
anomymous input till a due date
and then post results and
reconsider until consensus
Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)
Poll Your Students Online
5. Survey Student Opinions
(e.g., InfoPoll, SurveySolutions, Zoomerang,
6. Peer Questions & Team Meeting
7. Collaborative Document Writing Online:
Peer-to-Peer Collaboration
8. Brainstorming
• Come up with interesting or
topic or problem to solve
• Anonymously brainstorm ideas
in a chat discussion
• Encourage spin off ideas
• Post list of ideas generated
• Rank or rate ideas and submit to
• Calculate average ratings and
distribute to group
9. Graphic Organizers (e.g., Digital
9. Graphic Organizers (e.g., Map edit tool)
Mapedit Tool
Mapedit allows multiple users to add,
delete, and move symbols and lines
on the map overlay. The Mapedit
program, was developed to create map
overlays, emulating plastic sheets on
which symbols are drawn that are laid
onto a map. And if students want a
whiteboard, they simply have to open a
blank overlay (no map background).
10. Online Language Support
(pronunciation, communication, vocabulary, grammar, etc.)
Motivational Top Ten
1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing
2. Feedback: Self-Tests, Reading Reactions
3. Engagement: Q’ing, Polling, Voting
4. Meaningfulness: Job/Field Reflections, Cases
5. Choice: Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper
6. Variety: Brainstorming, Roundrobins
7. Curiosity: Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors
8. Tension: Role Play, Debates, Controversy
9. Interactive: E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels
10. Goal Driven: Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours
Pick One…??? (circle one)
Pick an Idea
• Definitely Will Use:
• May Try to Use:
• No Way:

A Ten Level Web Integration Continuum for Educational