Technology Integration for
Student Learning
Curt Bonk, Indiana University
President, CourseShare
[email protected]
http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk
http://CourseShare.com
Models of Technology in
Teaching and Learning
(Dennen, 1999, Bonk et al., 2001)
• Enhancing the Curriculum
– computers for extra activities: drill and practice CD
• Extending the Curriculum
– transcend the classroom with cross-cultural
collaboration, expert feedback, virtual field trips and
online collaborative teams.
• Transforming the Curriculum
– allowing learners to construct knowledge bases and
resources from multiple dynamic resources regardless
of physical location or time.
My Technology Use
• Stand Alone Computer Presentations
• School and University Computer Labs
• Distance Education: Web (WebCT, Blackboard)
and Videoconferencing Courses
• Electronic Mail
• Computer Conferencing & Collab Writing
• Specific Technology Equipment
– Document Camera, Fax, CD-ROM, Scanner,
Digital Camera, camcorders, Videotape,
Stereos, Scanner, Telephone, Audiotape.
More Technology Tools
• Cognitive Tools: graphing tools, spreadsheets, word
processors, and databases
• Class Management: Gradebooks, track students
• Presentation/Integration: Smart lecturns
• Testing: Essay grade, computer adaptive testing
• Classroom Assessment: Digital portfolios
• MBL--sensors, probes, microphones, motion det
• Hand held Devices: Graphing calculators, palm pilots
• Assistance Technology: screen magnifiers, speech
synthesizers and digitizers, voice recognition devices, touch
screens, alternative keyboards
Online Exams and Gradebooks
Technology Ideas
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Bring in experts via video/computer conferencing
Teleconferencing talks to tchrs & experts
Reflect on field & debate cases on the Web
Make Web resources accessible
Collab with Students in other places/countries
Have students generate Web pages/pub work
Represent knowledge with graphing tools
More Technology Ideas
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Take to lab for group collaboration.
Take to computer lab for Web search.
Take to an electronic conference.
Put syllabus on the Web.
Create a class computer conference.
Have students do technology demos.
Post Syllabus is Important!
Still More Technology Idas
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Find Free Concept Clips on Internet.
Show Web site glossary--let explore & eval.
Final project presentations with technology
Scavenger hunt (including items on Web).
Explore simulations and Web sites.
Create electronic portfolios (CD, Web, video)
Peer Mentoring sign up.
Web Resource and Tool Reviews
Teacher E-Portfolios
• Digital pictures of
student activities
• Handouts from
coursework
• Philosophy
statements
• Videotapes of
teaching
• Audio recordings
• Lesson plans
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Letters to parents
Letters of rec
Sample writing
Newspaper clippings
of their activities
• Work from students
• Student evaluations
• Self-evaluations
Blended Learning:
Sample Synchronous and
Asynchronous Activities
(David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002,
p. 23; October 2001, p. 18)
10 Blended Asynchronous Activities
1. Social Ice Breakers: intros, favorite Web sites
2. Learner-Content Interactions: self-testing
3. Scenario-Based Simulations
4. Starter-Wrapper Discussion
5. Anonymous Suggestion Box
6. Role Play, Debate, Assume Persona of a Scholar
7. Online Experiments and Demonstrations
8. Case-Based Learning and Authentic Data Analysis
9. Online Reflection or Polling
10. Perspective Taking: Foreign Languages
1. Social Ice Breakers
a. Introductions: require not only that
students introduce themselves, but also
that they find and respond to two
classmates who have something in
common (Serves dual purpose of setting
tone and having students learn to use the
tool)
b. Favorite Web Site: Have students post the
URL of a favorite Web site or URL with personal
information and explain why they choose that one.
1. Tone/Climate:
Social Ice Breakers
c. Scavenger Hunt
1. Create a 20-30 item online scavenger
hunt (e.g., finding information on
the Web)
2. Post scores
d. Two Truths, One Lie
1. Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself
2. Class votes on which is the lie
2a. Learner-Content Interactions: SelfTesting
2b. Students Play Online Jeopardy Game
www.km-solutions.biz/caa/quiz.zip
2c. Double-Jeopardy Quizzing
Gordon McCray, Wake Forest University, Intro to
Management of Info Systems
1. Students take objective quiz (no time limit and not
graded)
2. Submit answer for evaluation
3. Instead of right or wrong response, the quiz returns a
compelling probing question, insight, or conflicting
perspective (i.e., a counterpoint) to force students to
reconsider original responses
4. Students must commit to a response but can use
reference materials
5. Correct answer and explanation are presented
3. Scenario-Based Simulations
4a. Discussion: Starter-Wrapper
(Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000)
1. Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and others
participate and wrapper summarizes what was
discussed.
2. Start-wrapper with roles--same as #1 but include roles for
debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's advocate).
Alternative: Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
(Alexander, 2001)
Instead of starting discussion, student acts as moderator or
questioner to push student thinking and give feedback
4b. Multiple Discussion
Topics
• Generate multiple discussion prompts and
ask students to participate in 2 out of 3
• Provide different discussion “tracks”
(much like conference tracks) for students
with different interests to choose among
• List possible topics and have students
vote (students sign up for lead diff weeks)
• Have students list and vote.
4c. Discussion and Questioning
(Morten Flate Pausen, 1995; [email protected])
1. Shot Gun: Post many questions or articles
to discuss and answer any—student choice.
2. Hot Seat: One student is selected to
answer many questions from everyone in
the class.
3. 20 Questions: Someone has an answer
and others can only ask questions that have
“yes” or “no” responses until someone
guesses answer.
5a. Web-Supported Group
Reading Reactions and Feedback
1. Give a set of articles.
2. Post reactions to 3-4 articles
that intrigued them.
3. What is most impt in readings?
4. React to postings of 3-4 peers.
5. Summarize posts made to their
reaction.
(Note: this could also be done in teams)
5b. Critical Friend Feedback
5c. Requiring Peer Feedback
Alternatives:
1. Require minimum # of peer
comments and give guidance (e.g.,
they should do…)
2. Peer Feedback Through Templates—
give templates to complete peer
evaluations.
3. Have e-papers contest(s)
5d. Formative Feedback
Anonymous Suggestion Box
George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity
and Electronics for Engineers:
1. Students send anonymous course feedback (Web
forms or email)
2. Submission box is password protected
3. Instructor decides how to respond
4. Then provide response and most or all of suggestion
in online forum
5. It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor views, and
justified actions publicly.
6. Caution: If you are disturbed by criticism, perhaps do
not use.
6a. Role Play:
Assume Persona of Scholar
– Enroll famous people in your course
– Students assume voice of that person
for one or more sessions
– Enter debate topic or Respond to
debate topic
– Respond to reading reflections of
others or react to own
6b. Role Play Personalities : Idea
Generator Creative Energy/Inventor
• Brings endless energy to online
conversations and generates lots
of fresh ideas and new
perspectives to the conference
when addressing issues and
problems.
Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer Dude
• In this role, the student does little or
nothing to help him/herself or his/her
peers learn. Here, one can only sit back
quietly and listen, make others do all the
work for you, and generally have a laid
back attitude (i.e., go to the beach) when
addressing this problem.
6c. Six Hats (from De Bono, `985; adopted
for online learning by Karen Belfer, 2001, Ed Media)
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White Hat: Data, facts, figures, info (neutral)
Red Hat: Feelings, emotions, intuition, rage…
Yellow Hat: Positive, sunshine, optimistic
Black Hat: Logical, negative, judgmental, gloomy
Green Hat: New ideas, creativity, growth
Blue Hat: Controls thinking process & organization
Note: technique used in a business info systems
class where discussion got too predictable!
6d. Instructor Generated Virtual
Debate (or student generated)
1. Select controversial topic (with input from class)
2. Divide class into subtopic pairs: one critic and
one defender.
3. Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic
4. Critics and defenders post initial position stmts
5. Rebut person in one’s pair
6. Reply to 2+ positions with comments or q’s
7. Formulate and post personal positions.
7. Online Co-laborative Psych Experiments
PsychExperiments
(University of Mississippi)
Contains 30 free psych
experiments
• Location independent
• Convenient to instructors
• Run experiments over
large number of subjects
• Can build on it over time
• Cross-institutional
Ken McGraw, Syllabus,
November, 2001
8a. Case-Based Learning: Student Cases
1. Model how to write a case
2. Practice answering cases.
3. Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on
field experiences.
4. Link to the text material—relate to how how text
author or instructor might solve.
5. Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
6. Summarize the discussion in their case.
7. Summarize discussion in a peer case.
(Note: method akin to storytelling)
8b. Instructor or Text Generated Cases
8c. Cases from News
Authentic Data Analysis
Jeanne Sept, IU, Archaeology of Human Origins;
Components: From CD to Web
• A set of research questions and problems that
archaeologists have posed about the site (a set
of Web-based activities)
• A complete set of data from the site and
background info (multimedia data on sites from
all regions and prehistoric time periods in Africa)
• A set of methodologies and add’l background
info (TimeWeb tool to help students visualize,
analyze, interpret, and explore space/time
dimensions)
9a. Reflective Writing
Alternatives:
1. Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers
2. PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL
3. Summaries
4. Pros and Cons
1. Email instructor after class on what learned or
failed to learn…
(David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23;
October 2001, p. 18)
9b. Thoughtful
Reflections on Web
9c. Electronic Voting and Polling
1. Ask students to vote on issue before class (anonymously or
send directly to the instructor)
2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view
3. Discuss with majority pt of view
4. Repoll students after class
(Note: Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique:
anomymous input till a due date
and then post results and
reconsider until consensus
Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)
9d. Survey Student Opinions
(e.g., InfoPoll, SurveySolutions, Zoomerang,
SurveyShare.com)
10. Perspective Taking: Foreign
Languages
Katy Fraser, Germanic Studies at IU
and Jennifer Liu, East Asian
Languages and Cultures at IU:
1. Have students receive e-newsletters from a foreign
magazine as well as respond to related questions.
2. Students assume roles of those in literature from that
culture and participate in real-time chats using assumed
identity.
3. Students use multimedia and Web for self-paced lessons
to learn target language in authentic contexts.
Blended Synchronous
Activities?
(Sheinberg, April 2000, Learning Circuits)
Synchronous WBT Products
Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2000, Jan)
• Deluxe (InterWise, LearnLinc, Centra)
– 2-way audio using VOIP, one-way or two-way video, course
scheduling, tracking, text chat, assessment (requires thick
client-side software)
• Standard (HorizonLive, PlaceWare)
– One-way VOIP or phone bridge for two-way audio, text chat,
application viewing, (requires thin client-side app or browser
plug-ini)
• Economy (Blackboard, WebCT)
– Browser-based, chat, some application viewing (Requires Javaenabled browsers, little cost, free)
Web Conferencing Features
• Audio (VOIP, bridge) and Videostreaming
• Application Sharing or Viewing (e.g., Word
and PowerPoint) Includes remote control
and emoticons
• Text (Q&A) Chat (private and public)
• Live Surveys, Polls, and Reports
• Synchronous Web Browsing
• File Transfer
10 Synchronous
Activities
1. Webinar, Webcast
2. Synchronous Testing and Assessment
3. Sync Guests or Expert Forums, Séance
4. Threaded Discussion Plus Expert Chat
5. Moderated Online Team Meeting
6. Collaborative Online Writing
7. Online Mentoring
8. Graphic Organizers in Whiteboard (e.g., Venn)
9. Human Graphs (videoconferencing)
10. Stand and Share (videoconferencing)
1. Webinar
2. Synchronous Testing & Assessment
(Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet Marta, NW Missouri
State Univ, Syllabus, January 2002)
1. Post times when will be available for 30
minute slots, first come, first serve.
2. Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to
study for.
3. Tell can skip one.
4. Assessment will be a dialogue.
5. Get them there 1-2 minutes early.
6. Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences.
7. Ask q’s, redirect, push for clarity, etc.
8. Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes.
3a. Electronic Guests & Mentoring
3b. Electronic Seance
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Students read books from famous dead people
Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
Present present day problem for them to solve
Participate from within those characters (e.g.,
read direct quotes from books or articles)
• Invite expert guests from other campuses
• Keep chat open for set time period
• Debrief
4. Threaded Discussion plus Expert
Chat (e.g., Starter-Wrapper + Sync Guest Chat)
5. Moderated Online Team Meeting
6. Collaborative Online Writing:
Peer-to-Peer Document Collaboration
7. Online Mentoring
(e.g., GlobalEnglish)
8. Graphic Organizers
(e.g., Digital Whiteboards)
9. Human Graph (formative Feedback)
When Videoconferencing
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Have students line
up on a scale (e.g.,
1 is low and 5 is
high) on camera
according to how
they feel about
something (e.g.,
topic, the book,
class).
Debrief
10. Stand and Share (Interaction) when
Videoconferencing
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Have students think about a topic
or idea and stand when they have
selected an answer or topic.
Call on students across sites and
sit when speak.
Also, sit when you hear your
answer or your ideas are all
mentioned by someone else.
Look for Tech Champions
Joachim Hammer, University of Florida, Data
Warehousing and Decision Support
1. Voice annotated slides on Web; 7 course modules
with a number of 15-30 minutes units
2. Biweekly Q&A chat sessions moderated by
students
3. Bulletin Board class discussions
4. Posting to Web of best 2-3 assignments
5. Exam Q’s posted to BB; answers sent via email
6. Team projects posted in a team project space
7. Web resources: white papers, reports, projects
Pick an Idea
• Definitely Will Use:
___________________________
• May Try to Use:
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• No Way:
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Questions?
Comments?
Concerns?
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A Ten Level Web Integration Continuum for Educational