Unit VIII – Boom Times and Challenges (1919-1945) Chapter 24 Section 1 Boom Times Boom Times The Big Idea American industries boomed in the 1920s, changing many Americans’ way of life. Main Ideas President Harding promised a return to peace and prosperity. Calvin Coolidge supported a probusiness agenda. American business boomed in the 1920s. In 1928, Americans elected Herbert Hoover, hoping he would help good financial times continue. Main Idea 1: President Harding promised a return to peace and prosperity. The end of World War I impacted the American economy. Factories cut back on production. Millions of soldiers left military. Unemployment rose sharply. Prices soared Wages could not keep up with rising prices. Workers went on strike. Voters blamed Wilson’s Democratic Party for the hard times. Warren G. Harding (04:43) 1920 Presidential Election Republicans chose Warren G. Harding as their candidate. Harding chose Calvin Coolidge as his running mate. Campaign strategy: promise to return country to stability and prosperity. Return to Nomalcy. Harding won a landslide victory with 60 percent of the popular vote. Immediately worked to strengthen the economy However, the presidency faced problems. Corruption of presidential appointees Teapot Dome scandal involved the first cabinet member ever to be convicted of a crime for his actions while in office. President Harding and Return to Normalcy President Harding was out of his depth in dealing with most foreign affairs. But he tried to be decisive. He would not join the League of Nations and ignored the Versailles Treaty. Instead the U.S. made a separate peace with Germany- July 2, 1921. When the world was at war no one could feel at peace. Harding’s Scandal and Sudden Death Harding compensated for his poor governing skills by hiring highly skilled cabinet members. U.S. Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon reformed the tax system. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes and Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover were also incredibly successful cabinet members. Some cabinet members, however, were old friends from Ohio, called the Ohio Gang, who were later convicted of taking bribes. Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall was convicted and jailed for accepting bribes to allow oil companies to drill federal reserves on government land called the Teapot Dome in Wyoming. Harding, distressed by rumors, took a trip to Alaska, and collapsed after giving over 85 speeches in Alaska and died not too long after. Harding’s popularity was high when he died, but his own failings and the corruption of his administration soured his reputation over time. The Washington Naval Conference Public Pressure • Peacetime brought pressure to reduce the size of U.S. armed forces to save money and reduce war threats. • But people feared world naval powers, including Great Britain and Japan, were in an arms race, when competing nations build more and more weapons to avoid one nation gaining a clear advantage. • Hoping to stop an arms race, the U.S. organized the Washington Naval Conference, inviting all major naval powers. The Conference • Countries cut back the size of their navies and scrapped existing ships and some under construction. • The conference also led to an agreement on several issues threatening world peace, including plans to avoid competition among the world’s military powers for control of China. • Many Americans thought the conference was a success, including Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes. Though the conference was somewhat successful, it was not long before world tension rose again and more ships were built for war. Return to Peace and Prosperity Explain – What caused unemployment at the end of World War I? Identify Cause and Effect - Why did Mellon believe tax cuts for the wealthy would benefit all Americans? Recall – Why did Harding’s friends keep him “walking the floor nights”? Main Idea 2: Calvin Coolidge supported a pro-business agenda. Calvin Coolidge became president in August 1923 after Harding died of a heart attack. Fired all of the officials involved in corruption scandals during Harding’s administration. Gained popularity for his work Coolidge elected president in 1924 election. Moved forward on a pro-business agenda Lowered taxes for wealthy Raised tariffs on foreign goods to decrease domestic competition Vetoed Congressional attempts to provide aid to farmers through price regulation Calvin Coolidge (04:38) Calvin Coolidge • Vice President Calvin Coolidge took the office of president in the early hours following Harding’s death. Upbringing Coolidge in Office • Raised in a modest rural Vermont home; his father ran a store and liked politics. • As president, he got rid of officials suspected of corruption under Harding. • Graduated from college in Amherst, Massachusetts, and took up law and politics in the Republican Party • Elected governor of Massachusetts and gained fame for stopping the Boston Police strike • Thought business helped society, and government should be limited • Lowered taxes, reduced federal spending, would not help farmers or war veterans Coolidge the Man • Serious and straightforward , known as “Silent Cal” • He liked playing practical jokes on White House staff but hated small talk. • He was popular at the time but did not run for re-election in 1928. Returning to Prosperity Europeans wanted to avoid another devastating war. In 1928, the United States and 14 other countries signed the Kellog-Briand Pact. Agreement that outlawed war Eventually signed by 62 nations Some complained that the pact was unenforceable. Others saw the pact as a sign that most countries wanted to prevent another global conflict. The Kellogg-Briand Pact • Though the U.S. refused to join the League of Nations, a strong interest in preventing war remained. • The French proposed a treaty with the U.S. outlawing war between two nations, but the U.S. responded with a bigger idea. • Secretary of State Frank Kellogg proposed an agreement that would involve many countries. • The Kellogg-Briand Pact resulted, stating that all countries who signed it renounced war as a solution for international controversies. • The pact presented a high ideal for a war-torn world, and more than 60 nations signed on. • Yet the pact had no system for enforcement, only the nations’ promises, and soon after, the world would realize that it was not enough to stop war from happening again. Coolidge’s Pro-business Administration Recall – Under what circumstances did Vice President Coolidge become president? Draw Conclusions – What was the result of Coolidge’s firing of all officials who had been involved in the bribery scandals? Evaluate – What is your opinion of the Kellogg-Briand Pact? Main Idea 3: American business boomed in the 1920s. Between 1921 and 1929, U.S. manufacturing doubled. As jobs and wages increased, so did people’s ability to buy new products. New products changed the way Americans lived. Ford Revolutionizes Industry • The first cars appeared in the U.S. in the 1800s, but only the rich could buy them, until Henry Ford began selling the Model T in 1908. • Ford’s vision combined three main ideas. 1. Make cars simple and identical instead of doing highly expensive custom manufacturing. 2. Make the process smooth, using interchangeable parts and moving belts. 3. Determine how workers should move, and at what speed, to be the most productive. • These ideas formed the first large-scale moving assembly line, a production system in which the item being built moves along a conveyor belt to workstations that usually require simple skills. • By the 1920s Ford made a car every minute, dropping prices so that by 1929 there were about 22 million cars in America. • Ford raised his workers’ wages so they could also buy cars, but he opposed unions, and assembly lines were very boring. Rise of the Automobile Henry Ford, allowed customers to buy cars using an installment plan. Other automobile companies began to offer installment plans. The automobile changed the way Americans lived. Could take jobs farther away from where they lived Gave people a sense of freedom and adventure Henry Ford: Changing the Way Americans Worked, Played, and Traveled (02:42) Life in the Jazz Age Automobile As the end of the decade neared, Ford and Chevrolet locked horns in a fierce pricing battle that continued through the Thirties. Other automakers, such as Cadillac, Packard, and Chrysler, began to have an impact on the market. Virtually every household in America owned an automobile, and it quickly became an integrated part of American life. Parents would drive to work in their automobiles. Families could visit friends and family who lived farther away. And young people found a whole new way to have fun. Entertainment and recreation as well as work. A wide variety of new industries were spawned- petroleum, manufacturing, road construction, etc. The Magnificent Doble The Doble steamers of the 1920's were almost miracles of precision, workmanship, performance, reliability and power. They simply ran away from the best of the competition -- Cadillac's, Lincoln's, Packard's, Pierce-Arrows, Rolls Royce, or what have you. As for durability and reliability the Doble had no match. Doble did not guarantee his steam engines for just 10,000 miles, or a year. He guaranteed them for 100,000 miles!! Abner Doble, creator of the magnificent Doble steam car, born in 1890, descended from an early California family, Young Abner built his first car when only 16 years of age. PERFORMANCE Max Speed MPH 95 Max RPM 1300 Max Sustained Speed 75 0 to 75 14.68 sec Breaking Poor PRICE $ 9750.00 in 1924 A DOBLE E19 was driven 186,000 miles over a 20 year period by Chas T. Briar requiring only three sets of tires, two batteries and a patch on the nicrome firebox, obtaining 10 to 14 miles per gallon on fuel oil. Growing Industries Factory employment rose as parts were needed for automobile production. Government spent millions improving roads. New business opportunities arose along roadways to serve travelers, including gas stations, restaurants, and motels. Electricity was more widely available, and companies began creating electrical appliances to make household chores easier. Advertising industry boomed as companies competed to sell their goods. Inventions • Henry Ford was one of several people in the 1900’s whose inventions changed Americans’ lifestyles. • The first practical dishwasher was invented by Josephine Garis-Cochrane, a socialite concerned with protecting her 17th century tableware, which was becoming chipped at the hands of her servants. • When her husband died, she turned to manufacturing them full time. • The Columbian Exposition of 1893 used her new machines in it enormous kitchens. • Upon her death, the company was sold and in 1940 became the Kitchen Aid division of the Whirlpool Corporation. Industry Changes Society Car Effects • Demand for steel, rubber, glass, and other car materials soared. • Auto repair shops and filling stations sprang up. • Motels and restaurants arose to meet travelers’ needs. • Landowners who found petroleum on their property became rich. Cities and Suburbs • Detroit, Michigan, grew when Ford based his plants there, and other automakers followed. • Other midwestern cities, like Akron, Ohio, boomed by making car necessities like rubber and tires. • Suburbs, which started thanks to trolley lines, grew with car travel. Tourism • Freedom to travel by car produced a new tourism industry. • Before the auto boom, Florida attracted mostly the wealthy, but cars brought tourists by the thousands. • Buyers snatched up land, causing prices to rise. • Some Florida swamps were drained to put up housing. The New Consumer • During the 1920s, an explosion of new products, experiences, and forms of communication stimulated the economy. New Products • New factories turned out electrical appliances like refrigerators and vacuum cleaners, as more homes were wired for electricity. • The radio connected the world, and by the late 1920s, 4 homes in 10 had a radio, and families gathered around it nightly. • The first passenger airplanes appeared in the 1920s, and though they were more uncomfortable than trains, the thrill excited many Americans. Creating Demand • Advertisers became the cheerleaders of the new consumer economy. • Persuasive advertising gained a major role in the economy. • Advertisers paid for space in publications, and companies sponsored radio shows. • Advertising money made these shows available to the public, and ads gave the products wide exposure. New Ways To Pay In the early 1900s, most Americans paid for items in full when they bought them, perhaps borrowing money for very large, important, or expensive items like houses, pianos, or sewing machines. Borrowing was not considered respectable until the 1920s, when installment buying, or paying for an item over time in small payments, became popular. They bought on credit, which is, in effect, borrowing money. Consumers quickly took to installment buying to purchase new products on the market. By the end of the decade, 90 percent of durable goods, or longlasting goods like cars and appliances, were bought on credit. Advertisers encouraged the use of credit, telling consumers they could “get what they want now” and assuring them that with small payments they would “barely miss the money.” The Radio Most radio historians assert that radio broadcasting began in 1920 with the historic broadcast of KDKA Radio became a product of the mass market Between 1923 and 1930, 60 percent of American families purchased radios. Families gathered around their radios for night-time entertainment Radio stations broadcast things like popular music, classical music, sporting events, lectures, fictional stories, newscasts, weather reports, market updates, and political commentary. The Federal Radio Commission was set up in 1926; the Radio Act of 1927 organized the Federal Radio Commission. Crystal radios, like the one at left, were among the first radios to be used and manufactured. The Phonograph The phonograph or Victrola was developed as a result of Thomas Edison's work on two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone. Uses of the Phonograph- according to Edison Letter writing dictation Phonographic books, The teaching of elocution. Reproduction of music. The "Family Record"--a registry of sayings, reminiscences, etc., by members of a family in their own voices, and of the last words of dying persons. Music-boxes and toys. Clocks The preservation of languages Educational purposes. Connection with the telephone Washing machines In 1922 The Maytag Company introduced a system of forcing water through the clothes by means of an agitator rather than dragging the clothes through the water. This system is most commonly used now. Even as early as 1875 there had been more than 2,000 patents issued for various washing devices. Not every idea worked, of course. One company built a machine designed to wash only one item at a time. What may have been the first "laundromat" was opened in 1851 by a gold miner and a carpenter in California. Their 12-shirt machine was powered by 10 donkeys. Earliest washers were hand powered by means of a wheel, pump handle or similar device. One, was driven by twisted ropes which powered the washer by "unwinding" somewhat like the use of a rubber band to power model airplanes. One washer contained rollers which were pushed back and forth by hand to squeeze out dirt. Several featured "stomping" devices and one - called a "Locamotive" was moved rapidly back and forth on a track washing the clothes by slamming them against the walls of the tub. Business Booms Recall – Which manufacturer helped make the automobile more affordable? Identify Cause and Effect – What resulted from the increase of jobs and wages in the 1920’s? Interpret – In what way did Ford cut costs of production? Judge – Why do you think Ford wanted his automobile to be more affordable? Business Booms Explain – From a worker’s point of view, what was good about working for Ford? Compare – How did people buy expensive items before Ford’s installment plan? Make Generalizations – In what ways did the growth of industries improve the lives of Americans? Main Idea 4: In 1928, Americans elected Herbert Hoover, hoping he would help good financial times continue. 1928 Election Herbert Hoover was the Republican candidate. Public support was strong. Promised that he would maintain economic prosperity New York governor Alfred E. Smith was Democratic candidate. Campaign focused on issues facing city-dwellers. Religious faith was also an issue; he was the first Catholic to run for president. Hoover elected with 58 percent of the popular vote. Hoover’s Campaign Slogan One campaign slogan that is still often quoted is a promise made by candidate Herbert Hoover in the 1928 presidential election. He promised Americans “a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.” Hoover Elected Recall – What caused the public to support the Republican Party? Identify– Who was Hoover’s opponent in the election? Predict – Do you think Hoover was correct in saying that America would see “the final triumph over poverty”?