Fighting the Recession
After WWI, 2 million
soldiers were looking
for work
 Factories were closing
because they were no
longer getting orders
for wartime goods from
European nations
Republicans Rule the 1920s
 All the presidents of the
1920s were Republican
Warren G.
Harding 19211923 (died in
The names of the 3
presidents are Harding,
Coolidge, and Hoover
Herbert Hoover 1929-1933
“A Return to Normalcy”
This became Warren G.
Harding’s campaign
slogan when he
accidentally messed up
the word, “Normality”
 Americans loved it and
elected him
Warren G. Harding
Twenty-Ninth President
Born: November 2, 1865 in
Marion, OH
Did not approve of the
League of Nations
Won election with 60% of
the national vote.
Successfully cut taxes and
designed budget
Scandalous administration
and ineffective governor
Died: August 2, 1923
Presidential election of 1920
"Less government in business and more business
in government."
What did Harding’s administration
It cut taxes, especially for the rich
 It stripped the federal budget of its
wartime girth.
 Set higher restrictions on immigration.
Limiting annual # of immigrants that
America would allow.
 Supported anti-lynching legislation
Voyage of Understanding
Perhaps in an effort to
break away from his
 Set out across the
United States stopping
to give speeches along
the way.
 Never-ending game of
Harding’s Death Brings Doom to his
Within months of
Harding’s death his
reputation was
 His scandalous
friends began to
President Harding’s Corrupt
Harry M. Daugherty involved with other
men that involved a
rigged sale of some
government property.
One person went to
jail and another
committed suicide.
Thomas W. Miller –
Harding appointed to
the position of Alien
Property Custodian
and practiced fraud and
went to jail.
The Teapot Dome Scandal
Secretary of the
Interior, Albert Fall
accepted a bribe to
lease government land
to oil executives
 One of these areas was
called “Teapot Dome”
in Wyoming
 Fall was sent to prison
Charles Forbes
One of Harding’s old buddies
Head of the Veteran’s Bureau
Stole millions of dollars from the bureau
“I can take care of my enemies
all right, but my…friends,
they’re the ones that keep me
walking the floors at night!” –
After a bunch of betrayals, Harding died of
a heart attack in August, 1923
Vice President Calvin Coolidge
Becomes President
“Silent Cal” spoke and
spent little (Harding loved
to throw parties and give
long speeches)
He forced
Corrupt officials
to resign
Calvin Coolidge
Thirtieth President (19231929)
 Born: July 4, 1872
Plymouth Notch,Vermont
 Became President when
Warren G. Harding died
 Isolationist foreign policy
 Favored tax cuts and
limited aid to farmers
 Died: January 5, 1933
1924 Re-Election
He was re-elected in 1924 with the
slogan “Keep Cool With Coolidge”
From War Goods to Consumer Goods
Coolidge cut regulations on
 Americans’ incomes rose
 People began to buy
refrigerators, radios,
vacuums, and other
 Businesses began to
advertise their products
“Coolidge Prosperity”
“The business of
America is business.
The man who builds a
factory builds a temple.
The man who works
there worships there.”
◦ Calvin Coolidge
What does President
Calvin Coolidge believe
American Prosperity
rests on?
Buying on Credit
Installment Buying= Buying on Credit
(Buy now, pay later)
 Demands for goods jumped, but so did
Americans’ debt
“If we want anything, all we have to do is
go and buy it on credit. So that leaves us
without any economic problems
whatsoever, except that perhaps some
day to have to pay for them.”
–Comedian Will Rogers
Soaring Stock Market
By the late 1920s, more
people were investing in
the stock market
People became rich
Bull Market: Period of
rapidly increasing stock
Prices of stocks rose more
quickly than the value of
the companies themselves
American Foreign Policy in the 1920s
Most all Americans (including Harding and
Coolidge) wanted to remain “isolationist”
1. The U.S. still needed to protect economic
interests in Mexico
2. The U.S. gave $10 million in aid to Russia during
a famine
3. The U.S. still signed the “Kellogg-Briand Pact”
with 61 other nations (which outlawed war)
“Hopeful that, encouraged by their example,
all the other nations of the world will join
in this humane endeavor and by adhering
to the present Treaty as soon as it comes
into force bring their peoples within the
scope of its beneficent provisions, thus
uniting the civilized nations of the world
in a common renunciation of war as an
instrument of their national policy”
-Section of the Kellogg-Briand Pact
Herbert Hoover had gained
fame for setting up the food
programs during WWI. He
believed in the government
taking a “hands off’ approach
to dealing with the economic
problems of the time.
•Thirty-first President (19291933)
•Born: August 10, 1874 in West
Branch, Iowa.
•Laissez-faire: French term
meaning hands off approach.
Herbert Clark Hoover
Herbert Hoover was born in
West Branch, Iowa in 1874.
He was a member of the
inaugural class at Stanford
University where he studied
Hoover’s wife, the former
Lou Henry, was athletic and
brilliant. She was the first
woman to graduate from
Stanford and met Herbert in
the geology lab.
Lou Hoover spoke five
languages, assisted her
husband in his geology and
engineering work, often
translating his articles and
Hoovers’ Mining Career
Herbert made a specialty of
turning around struggling
operations with organization
and technology
His wife helped translate his
work and bridge the cultural
gaps in foreign nations. Their
work made them wealthy.
They were forced to flee China
for a time during the Boxer
Rebellion, an insurrection
aimed at purging the nation of
western influence.
While in London, at the
outbreak of the First World
War, the Hoovers organized an
impromptu organization to
evacuate expatriated and
vacationing Americans from
During WWI, Germany invaded Belgium
on the way France.
Britain and France placed a blockade on
the Central Powers which kept them from
importing food.
Germany no longer had enough food for
its own population, let alone occupied
countries such as Belgium.
Hoover, living in London, organized his
entire mining firm as a relief operation for
Hoover negotiated with the Allied nations
to allow the relief ships through the
blockade and negotiated with the
Germans to not attack the ships with
Secretary of Commerce
With Hoover was invited to serve
in the cabinet as Secretary of
Commerce of Republican
President Warren G. Harding.
While many members of the
Harding cabinet were implicated in
controversies and scandals, Hoover
remained unscathed and, thus,
retained his post under Calvin
By the 1920’s the American
economy was transformed,
industry and commerce, rather
than agriculture, now provided the
backbone of the American
As Commerce Secretary, Hoover
was in the middle of the economic
transformation, leading to the
impression, that Herbert Hoover
was everywhere.
Woodrow Wilson placed Hoover
in charge of agricultural production
for the American war effort.
Hoover was immediately
In addition to rationalizing the
American production system,
Hoover convinced Americans that
it was patriotic to go without in
war time.
Cutting back became known as
“Hooverizing,” rationing was one
way that World War I affected
people on the home front.
Seeking to manage domestic
consumption in order to feed the
U.S. Army and to assist Allied
armies and civilians., the U.S. Food
Administration declared “Food Will
Win the War.”
“They will be fed!”
Following the war, Hoover turned
the United States Food
Administration into a relief
organization for the devastated
populations, including the
defeated Central Powers, in
American aid fed two million
people per day in Poland alone.
When a critic accused Hoover of
helping the Bolsheviks by
providing food aid to the Soviet
Union, Hoover responded in the
following speech, “Twenty million
people are starving. Whatever
their politics, they will be fed.”
1928 Election
Hoover V. Alfred Smith (Catholic)
"A chicken in every pot and a car in
every garage."
Hoover’s Presidency
Hoover believed
unnecessary government
threatened prosperity and
the spirit of the American
 Foreign Affairs. Hoover
cited the maintenance of
peace as his prime
objective in his
administration's foreign
policy. He was willing to
cooperate with, but not
join, the League of Nations.
Several months into his presidency………..
Who do you think was the better
president during the 20’s?
of Harding
Harding &
Harding and
All 3 similar
of Hoover
of Coolidge
and Hoover

Republican Decade - Montgomery County Schools