12. The panic surrounding the threat of communism in the early 1920s was called the " Red Scare “ 13. 1920s, union membership did what? It dropped considerably due in large part to the “ red scare.” 14. To protect their own interests, employers often accused striking workers of being Communists 15. What fear was most closely tied to the public's negative reactions to organized labor in the 1920s? fears of communism 16. Who are the men in the cartoon? radicals 17. In this cartoon, what bigger idea does the "light" represent? the truth about America 18. According to the cartoon, which of the following is an example of the kind of ideas that shut out the light? Soviet doctrines 19. What is the main difference between the two men in the cartoon? One is a leader 20. Come up with a statement that you feel best expresses the main idea of this cartoon? Radicals use foreign and communist propaganda to block the good, honest ideals of America. Radicals use the ideas of foreign and Communist countries to block the truth of the American way of life. 21. According to the cartoon, where do American radical leaders get their ideas? The cartoon implies that radical ideas come from foreign lands, especially communist Russia. 22. How are the two men in the cartoon different? What statement might this cartoon be making about their roles? While both men are radicals, one man is labeled as a leader. Because the leader is doing all the work and is offering more radical propaganda ("Sunlight is unhealthy anyhow!"), the radical leaders are the most dangerous because they lead others astray. 23. How do you think the cartoonist felt about radicals? Support your opinion with details from the cartoon. The cartoonist opposes radical ideals. The "light" that the radicals are shutting out represents positive things like truth, Americanism, and public opinion. The cartoon suggests that radical leaders are liars who encourage others to believe that American ideas are "unhealthy." The statement about sunlight is ironic; the artist believes that "American" ideals are healthy and radical ones unhealthy. 24. What are some of the reasons that membership in labor unions dropped during the 1920s? 1. Many Americans had come to believe that labor unions fostered communism. 2. Much of the American work force consisted of new immigrants who were unwilling to threaten their survival by fighting for their rights. 3. Unions had difficulty organizing workers who spoke a variety of languages. Farmers who had recently become industrial workers were used to relying solely on themselves and had no interest in joining unions. 4. Most unions excluded African Americans and women. Strikes such as the Boston police strike and the steel strike threatened, or appeared to threaten, the public safety and American way of life. 25. Why were workers not allowed to strike during World War 1? Nothing was allowed to interfere with the war effort. 26. Why did so many strikes occur after the war? Wages had not kept pace with rising prices. Section 2 27. The Kellogg-Briand Pact rejected war as an instrument of national policy. It provided no means of enforcing the "no war" agreement. Because of this it was considered useless. 28. The main goal of the Washington Naval Conference was to reduce the threat of what? war 29. This tariff (60%) raised taxes on goods entering the United States. As a result of this tariff, Britain and France were not able to sell enough goods to pay off their war debts. Fordney-McCumber Tariff Traditional American protectionism triumphed after the electoral victory of the Republicans. The Fordney–McCumber Tariff (September 1922) was the highest in U.S. history and angered the Europeans, whose efforts to acquire dollars through exports were hampered even as the United States demanded payment of war debts. In raw materials policy, however, the United States upheld the Open Door.... Hawley-Smoot-The act brought retaliatory tariff acts from foreign countries, U.S. foreign trade suffered a sharp decline, and the depression intensified. 30. What plan arranged for loans to be made to Germany so that it could pay war reparations. The Dawes Plan 31. What gang consisted of various friends or associates, (personal friends that President Harding put into his cabinet) who took advantage of their political positions to gain wealth and influence. The Ohio gang 32. What scandal involved the secret leasing of oil-rich lands owned by the United States government to private oil companies. The Teapot Dome scandal His secret shortcomings would pale in comparison to those of his powerful handlers. "I have no trouble with my enemies," he said after taking office. "[It's] my . . . friends . . . that keeping me walking the floors nights!" His closest allies in government would be implicated in the Teapot Dome scandal, and his secretary of the interior would become the first executive cabinet member ever convicted and sent to prison. Section 3 34. The first practical peacetime use of airplanes was for: carrying mail 35. The main factor causing urban sprawl in the 1920s was the: automobile 36. A dollar down and a dollar forever" represents a form of credit called the: installment plan. 37. List three results of the growing popularity and availability of the automobile 1. changes in American landscape 2. urban sprawl 3. changes in American architecture Economic Effects of the Automobile: 1. Promoted growth of other industries. Especially petroleum, rubber, and steel. 2. Helped fuel the creation of a national system of highways. Automobiles required better roads. After WWI, federal funds became available for building highways and a major industry was born. 3. Created new service facilities. Filling stations, garages, and roadside restaurants sprang up across the nation. Motels (the word itself is a blend of 'motor' and 'hotel') catering to the needs of motorists began to replace hotels. Social Effects of the Automobile: 1. Created a more mobile society. Cars broke down the distinctions between urban and rural America. With the automobile came the new tradition of the "Sunday drive," and many city folks got their first chance to tour the rural countryside. Rural Americans, on the other hand, drove into cities to shop and to be entertained. 2. Broke down the stability of family life. Now it was far easier for individual family members to go their own way. There were four major ways in which the Federal government supported big business. 1. High tariff policies. The Fordney-McCumber Act (1922) and the Hawley-Smoot Act (1930) created the highest-ever schedule of tariffs for foreign-made goods. 2. Andrew Mellon. Secretary of the Treasury from 1921 to 1932. In response to his demands, Congress repealed the excess profits tax and reduced the rates for corporate and personal income taxes. Mellon provided business leaders with a list of tax loopholes which the IRS had drawn up at Mellon's request. 3. Cutbacks in the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). The federal government had created the FTC to regulate big business and to look into unfair trade practices, but the commission did less and less of this in the 1920s. 4. Herbert Hoover, as Secretary of Commerce and as President, Hoover encouraged price-fixing and believed that the government was responsible for helping businesses profit. 38. Although the 1920s were prosperous years for the United States, why is this prosperity considered superficial? Can you see any similarities between the United States in the 1920s and today? There were several signs that the prosperity of the 1920s was superficial. 1. First, companies were producing great quantities of goods, which led to expanding businesses. 2. But with this expansion, the income gap between workers and managers grew. Wealth was not being distributed evenly. Also, some "backbone" industries, like the iron and railroad industries, were not a part of the prosperity of the 1920s. Mining and farming also suffered losses during this time 3. Americans everywhere were living above their means-buying goods on credit. Similar situations can be found today. As some industries rise (especially information and computer services), others fall. Americans are still buying many goods on credit and going into debt as a result.