Europe
Early Countries Histories
Western European Countries
• England
– Anglo Saxons
• Came around 450 AD (From Germany)
• Formed numerous kingdoms in England..ruled by Sheriffs
• Invaded some by Vikings from Denmark (combined Dane and
Anglo Cultures)…around 800 AD
• Edward the Confessor (King died)…distant relative was
William of Normandy (in France). William claimed the English
throne (William the Conqueror). He ruled form 1066-1087
Early England
• England
– William’s Legacy
• Henry II (William’s Grandson)
– Strengthened the Royal Authority of Kings by creating a special
Army that protected the King
• Thomas Beckett (Archbishop of Canterbury)
– Once had been good friends with Henry II
– Disagreed with Henry’s attempt to prosecute certain members of
the church
• Beckett was murdered by Henry’s men
• Eleanor of Aquitaine: From France, Henry II’s wife
– Helped strengthen ties between France and England
• Henry’s rule increased the power of the King
Early England
• England cont..
– Magna Carta: Written document
• Protected the liberties of nobles and gave limited rights
to the ordinary people of England
• Created because King John was threatened by a
rebellion from the nobles
– Common Laws
• Laws based on customs and judges decisions, rather
then written codes.
• Became common throughout England
Early England
• England conflicts
– Hundred Year’s War (1337-1453)
• Edward III (England) claimed land in France after death
of French King
• England won many battles but eventually lost the war
• New Things:
– Long Bow’s, gun powder, cannons (Eliminated the Knights)
– England’s King lost power to Parliament
– War of Roses (1455-1485)
• Civil War in England
• House of Lancaster defeated the House of York
English Rulers
• England cont…
– House of Tudor (Began with Henry Tudor of Lancaster)
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New rulers of England after the War of Roses
Henry VII: Made England prosperous
Henry VIII: Established the Anglican Church (against Pope)
Mary I: First Queen, was a devoted Catholic (unlike her
Dad)….got the nickname Bloody Mary because of how
ruthless she was trying to destroy the Anglican Church.
• Elizabeth I: Mary’s Half Sister…took charge once Mary died
in 1558 (She was Protestant)
English Rulers
• England cont..
– Reign of Elizabeth I
• Never married because she did not want to weaken England
• Mary Queen of Scots: Heir and closest relative of Elizabeth
– Mary (Catholic) and Phillip II of Spain tried to plot against Elizabeth
– She found out and cut off Mary’s Head
• Spanish Armada
– Spain attempted to invade England with an Armada…a bunch of
ships
– England’s Navy defeated the Armada and Spain never really
threatened England again
England and Religion
• England
– Religious Problems
• Puritans: Wanted to change the Anglican Church even
more…get rid of all things Catholic.
• Elizabeth fined everyone who was not Anglican
• English Parliament: Gentry (landowners) and Burgesses
(business people).
– James I
• King James I took over after Elizabeth. (was from Scotland)
• King James version of the Bible
• James didn’t do much to help improve country
England and Civil War
• England
– Civil War
• Charles: James’ son…believed Kings were better than
everyone else. Married a French Catholic Princess
• Charles did not give the Parliament any rights
• Charles dealt with revolts in Scotland and
Ireland..didn’t have any money to fund a good army to
stop those revolts.
• Argument between Charles and Parliament over who
should be in charge of the Army led to a Civil War
• Charles was defeated by Oliver Cromwell (Puritan),
England became a commonwealth and Charles was
beheaded.
Becoming Great Britain
• Steps towards becoming Great Britain
• Cromwell’s rule was ineffective, England turned back to
having a King. (Navigation Acts)
• Charles II came back to England, lifted some Puritan
restrictions and went to war with the Dutch..winning
New Amsterdam (New York)
• Tories and Whigs: 2 political parties that were
developing in English Parliament. (did not want a
Catholic ruler)
• Charles II died, his Catholic brother James II won the
throne
Becoming Great Britain
• Steps towards becoming Great Britain
• Parliament did not like James II b/c he was Catholic.
• They convinced his oldest daughter, Mary (who had
married a Dutch Protestant Prince named William of
Orange) to rebel against her father.
• Glorious Revolution: James II left and William and Mary
took the throne.
• Thomas Hobbes vs. John Locke
– Hobbes: People live in anarchy and are selfish
– Locke: People gave up some rights to be ruled…still had right
to live, enjoy liberty, and have property
• Habeas Corpus: Protected individuals against unfair
treatment after they had been arrested
Becoming Great Britain
• Steps towards becoming Great Britain
• English Bill of Rights: Parliament chose who would rule
the country and protected the rights of citizens
• Act of Settlement: Kept Catholics from English throne
• Significance: England would still have a king BUT the
real power is with Parliament
• Act of Union
• England and Scotland united to become Great Britain
• Strengthened both areas; helped compete w/ France
• Ireland would be added in 1801 (not liked by Ireland)
Great Britain
• Great Britain
• Queen Anne (1702-1714) had 17 children, she lived
longer than all of them
• Both King George I and II were born in Germany and
really had no idea what was going on.
• Prime Minister: Leader of Great Britain’s Parliament
• Limited Constitutional Monarchy: King/Queen was the
head of the state but powers were limited by
constitution.
Early France
• Early France Monarchy
• Henry IV: Huguenot (minority protestant), eased
religious tension.
• Louis XIII: Son, ruled but was very weak.
• Cardinal Richelieu: Helped Louis XIII strengthen the
crown and country. Was harsh on regional kings and
Huguenots.
• 30 Years War: Protestant Rebellions to Holy Roman
Emperor. Richelieu kept France out of the fighting until
the end. When it was over, France had won land and
other areas lost power.
France
• Early France Monarch
– Louis XIV:
• Starting in 1643, he ruled France for 72 years.
• Believed that the Kings were “divine” and made a huge
compound at Versailles.
• Jean-Baptiste Colbert: Adviser, wanted France to
expand all over the world.
• Increase military to 400,000 soldiers. Wanted to
expand to the Rhine River. Other countries joined
together to stop this from happening.
• Last war was over Louis grandson being named King of
Spain. France lost war, Phillip could be King of Spain
but countries could never unite.
French Revolution
• Start of the French Revolution
• 97% of people belong to the Third Estate fell into the
middle or lower class in France.
• Families got larger, people needed more money to
survive (wasn’t happening)
• Louis XV: ruled for 20 year..peaceful but country was
still in more debt due to Louis XIV
• Louis XVI: married Marie Antoinette (Austrian), debts
continued to grow (thanks to helping America).
• The people of the Third Estate got sick of not being
represented and formed their own form of government
which is when the revolution started.
French Revolution
• French Revolution
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National Assembly: Name of Third Estate Government
National Guard: Name of Third Estate Army
Mass riots and looting all over Paris
The Old Regime (nobles, etc) left France
Constitution of 1791
– Limited the power of King, 3 Branches (executive, leg, judicial)
– Louis XVI did not like it, tried to leave France but was caught
– Things did not go smooth, not everyone bought in, people
were poor, no executive power
– Conservatives, Radicals, Moderates
• Other monarchies wanted to help Louis XVI
– Invaded by Austria and Prussia
French Revolution
• End of Monarchy
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Louis XVI had plotted against his own people (they knew it)
Legislative Branch suspended the power of King
Louis XVI was behead by the guillotine (Shocked Europe)
France finally defeated Austria and Prussia
Felt threatened by other countries: conscription
Reign of Terror
– “complete destroy both internal and external enemies”
– A lot of people (even the ones who started the violence) ended up
being executed.
Napoleon
• Napoleon Bonaparte
• Young general who took control of France’s Army
• Led France in Wars from 1796-1815
• He defeated most of the powerful countries in Europe
and established a vast empire. He did struggle against
the British and Russia
• He led a coup against the French government and
Napoleon took over as dictator.
• He did some good things for the government of France
– Organized all French Law
– Established the Bank of France
Napoleon
• Napoleon cont..
• Napoleon named the Emperor of France
• France continued to fight with Great Britain and
Napoleon continued to win battles on land
• Eventually Napoleon controlled much of Europe (Spain
to Russia)…introduced modern military techniques and
got rid of feudalism
• Spain was able to overthrow France’s rule
• Napoleon became mad at Russia, ordered 600,000
soldiers to invade.
• Czar Alexander allowed French troops to take
Moscow..Alexander burnt the city and watched the
French troops suffer without shelter during the winter
Napoleon
• Napoleon
• He decided to retreat in October…huge mistake
• 2/3 of the troops did not make it out of Russia alive
• Other armies were excited to finally get a shot to beat
the weakened French Army
• Battle of Waterloo: Final defeat of Napoleon and the
French Army.
Post Napoleon
• Post Napoleon France
• Louis Philippe became King in 1830, did not have a lot
of power.
• He issued a decree that restricted the ability of citizens
to speak freely. Led to riots and Philippe leaving the
throne.
• Louis-Napoleon: Nephew of Napoleon
– Won an election in 1848, tried to build support but was only
able to serve for 1 term due to constitution.
– He organized a military coup on the National Assembly.
– Renamed Napoleon III, served for ten years and did both good
(modernization) and bad (exiled critics)
France Wars
• Post Napoleon France
– Crimean War
• Russia and France disputed lands in the Middle East
• France, GB and Ottoman Empire formed an alliance
against Russia. France won glory but really nothing else
• Florence Nightingale and battlefield nurse
– Franco Prussian War
• France suffered many defeats to the Prussians.
• France had to give lands to Prussia.
– Republic
• Became an official Republic in 1875.
Germany and Italy
• German and Italian Early History
• Otto I: Similar to Charlemagne. H was able to unite the
German tribes and parts of Northern Italy. (936 AD)
• Named the area the Holy Roman Empire which it would
still be called for around 900 years.
• Germany and Italy have a common bond.
• Henry III: (1046-1056) held the strongest rule of any of
the kings. He put the church second.
• This would be a constant debate: Who had more
power, the king or pope?
Germany and Italy
• German and Italian Early History
– Struggles between Popes and Rulers
• Henry IV (took over at 5) fought with Pope Gregory VII
• Main issue was who could appoint bishops
• Gregory urged the nobles to get rid of Henry and Henry
begged for forgiveness
• This limited the power that the kings had over the church
– Fredrick Barbarossa (Red Beard)
• Ruled from 1152-1190, wanted to control Northern Italian
Cities. This failed.
– Innocent III
• 1198-1216….greatly strengthened the church
• He felt that all Kings were weak and below him
Germany and Italy
• Early Germany and Italy
• Emperors were never able to fully unite Germany and
Italy and they really very little power.
• Each area remained divided into small and independent
cities and feudal states. (Princes and Knights had pwr).
• Hapsburgs: Named Emperor (not a lot of power)
– Used marriages and smart military moves to conquer much of
Central Europe (Netherlands, Luxemburg, Austria, Spain, Italy)
– Became one of the most powerful families of Europe but
could not ever unite all of the old Holy Roman Empire
German Isolation
• German Isolation
• By the 1740’s, the Holy Roman Empire was a mess of
different peoples (languages, religions, etc)
• Made it difficult for anyone to rule effectively
• Hollenzollerns were a rival family in Northern Germany
that began to unite some of the areas around Baltic Sea
• Frederick William I: 3 generation made the Prussian
Army stronger, eventually into the strongest Army in
Europe during the 1700s.
• Frederick William II: Fredrick the Great, despite
seeming uninterested in his youth, became a great
leader of Prussia (Northern Germany)
German Isolation
• German Isolation
• Prussia was able to invade parts of the Austria
controlled by the Hapsburgs
• Seven Years War
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War that involved almost all the European countries
Prussia/GB vs France/Austria/Russia
Part of the French and Indian War
No clear winner, Russia and Prussia actually became friends
• Improvements
– Fredrick the Great spent the next twenty years fixing Prussian
economic and social situation
German Unification
• German Unification
• Prussia was invaded by Napoleon in the early 1800s
• By 1815, they had fought back against him and created
the German Confederation (Prussia, Saxony, Lower
Rhine River Valley).
• The Holy Roman Empire was abolished by Napoleon
and not restored.
• First step was to abolish tariffs between different states
on Prussia and Germany
• Still acted independent politically
German Unification
• German Unification
• William I became the King of Prussia. He appointed
Otto von Bismarck to be the head of the cabinet.
• Both of them opposed democracy
• Bismarck: Wanted to find away to weaken Austria’s
influence on some of the German States
• Prussia and Austria went to war with Denmark to win
two smaller states (Holstein and Schleswig) that were
made up mostly of German people.
• Prussia then dominated Austria in 7 weeks, shocking
the rest of the world. The Northern German states
united with Prussia to for the North German
Confederation
German Unification
• German Unification
• Bismarck needed to get the Southern German states to
join the Northern German Confederation
• Bismarck sent a fake letter to the French, made the
French mad and they declared war on Germany.
• This is what caused the Southern German states to
unite with the Northern German Confederation.
• Created a new German Empire that included all
German states except Austria.
• Kaiser: Name given to the German Emperor
Italian Unification
• Italian Unification
• Italy remained divided into multiple states by 1800
• By 1948, people began to lead revolts in throughout Italy
• Revolts were unsuccessful because liberals and
nationalist could not get along
• King Victor Emmanuel II and Camillo Benso di Cavour
took control of the government of Sardinia.
• Both of them liked how Great Britain was set up.
• Biggest threat was Austria, convinced the French to help
them get rid of Austrians in Northern Italian States.
Italian Unification
• Italian Unification
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The war with Austria united Tuscany, Modena, and Parma
The French backed out and unification was put on hold
Two Sicilies: Made up the Southern Half of Italy
Giusepee Garibaldi: Leader of a movement to unite the
Southern half of Italy.
• Garibaldi and King Emmanuel met in 1860…compromised
to unify Italy.
• By 1870, Italy had become unified but still had problems
being a divided nation.
Spain
• Spain
– Islam
• Conquered by the Moors in 711
• General Tariq
• Would rule parts of Spain until the 1400’s
– Ferdinand and Isabella
• Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile united Spain
in 1479.
• Captured Granada (last Muslim strong hold) in 1492
• Kicked anyone out who was not Catholic.
Spain
• Charles V
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Member of the Hapsburgs
Holy Roman Emperor and Spain’s King @ same time
Focused a lot on defending Europe against the Turks
Drained his financial resources
• Phillip II
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Son of Charles V, took control of all aspects of Spain’s govt.
Devout Catholic=Spanish Inquisition
Defended Catholics and Spain throughout Europe
Did fail in invading England w/ Spanish Armada
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Europe - Mediapolis Community School