Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Chapter 2
The American Colonies
Emerge
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Daily Question(s)
• List reasons why colonizing the New
World was so attractive to European
nations.
• How were the Spaniards able to conquer
the Native American people?
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Building a Spanish Empire
• Conquistadors – men
eager for personal
glory and material
gain
• Searched Central and
South America for
silver and gold
• Spread the word of
God
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Hernan Cortes Arrives in Mexico
• A Spanish expedition
consisting of 11 ships
set sail westward in
hopes of expanding
the Empire.
• Used his personal
wealth to finance the
trip
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Hernan Cortes Arrives in Mexico
• 1519 Cortes’ armada
arrived at Veracruz
• Montezuma (Aztec
Leader) sent envoys
to greet the Spaniards
• The Spaniard fired
shots to intimidate the
greeting party
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Hernan Cortes Arrives in Mexico
Reports went back to Montezuma, saying: "The noise
weakened one, dizzied one. Something like a stone
came out of their weapons in a shower of fire and
sparks. The smoke was foul; it had a sickening, fetid
smell."
Another message characterized the visitors as people
with "very light skin, much lighter than ours. They all
have long beards, and their hair comes only to their
ears"
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Hernan Cortes Arrives in Mexico
• The envoys also
described the visitors,
who traveled on
horseback, as beasts
with "two heads and
six legs“
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Cortes Subdues the Aztec
• Aztec leader,
Montezuma thought
Cortes was a god,
gave Cortes a portion
of the Aztec gold
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Cortes Subdues the Aztec
• Possessed
technological
advantage and
defeated the Aztec
• Cortes's victory in
Mexico transformed
Spain into the richest
nation in world in the
1500s.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Exploring Florida
• 1513 Juan Ponce de
Leon
• Searching for the
legendary fountain of
youth
• 1521 died due to
injuries suffered when
fighting Native
Americans
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Exploring Florida
• Hernando De Soto
– In 1539, de Soto’s
conquistadors
crossed present-day
Florida, Georgia,
South Carolina, North
Carolina, Tennessee,
Alabama, Mississippi,
and Arkansas.
– St. Augustine – 1st
permanent European
settlement in the New
World.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Exploring Florida
• Spanish abandoned
exploration in 1562,
disease, starvation,
and natives
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Seven Cities of Cibola
• 1540 Francisco
Vasquez de
Coronado searched
for riches in present
day Arizona, New
Mexico, Texas,
Oklahoma, and
Kansas
• found nothing in two
years
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
New Mexico
• Juan de Oñate
– established the
colony of New
Mexico, with
Santa Fe as the
capital (after
1607)
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
• Desire of the Spanish
monarchy to spread
the word of God
• Priests were to teach
natives “trades and
skills with which they
might live richly”
• Priests learned native
languages and
baptized natives
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Encomienda
• Encomienda
• a system in which
Spanish authorities
granted colonial
landlords the service
of Native Americans
as forced laborers.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Encomienda
• Natives farmed,
ranched, or mined for
Spanish landlords,
who had received the
rights to their labor
from Spanish
authorities.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
• Castas - racial
hierarchy
Spaniards
Mestizo
Indians
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Resistance to the Spanish
• The Catholic
missionaries who
settled north of
Mexico not only tried
to Christianize the
peoples they
encountered but also
attempted to impose
Spanish culture on
them.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Conflict in New Mexico
• Spanish priests
suppressed many of
their ceremonial
dances and rituals.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Conflict in New Mexico
• During the 1670s,
priests and soldiers
around Santa Fe
began forcing Native
Americans to help
support the missions
by paying an offering
of either goods or
services.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Pueblo Revolt
• One unfortunate
Native American
who felt the sting of
a Spanish whip was
the Pueblo religious
leader, Pope’.
• The priest punished
Pope’ for his
worship practices,
which they
interpreted as
witchcraft.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Pueblo Revolt
• In 1680, he led a
well-organized
uprising against the
Spanish that
involved some
17,000 warriors
from villages all
over New Mexico.
Taos Pueblo
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Pueblo Revolt
• Destroyed Catholic
churches, executed
priests, and drove the
Spaniards back into
New Spain.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Pueblo Revolt
• For the next 14 yearsthe southwest region
of the future United
States once again
belonged to the
original inhabitants.
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
In – Class/HW
Spanish Explorers in North America Map
Turn to page 36
• Complete as much as possible from the map – you will
need to use other resources to finish the map/questions
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Chapter 2 The American Colonies Emerge