The Rise of
Spain
Centralizing
Spain
• Marriage of
Isabella of Castile
and Ferdinand of
Aragon
• Catholic
monarchs
• Created religious
orthodoxy
Spanish
Inquisition
• Enforce the
conversion of
Moors and Jews
• Interrogated and
punished those
questioning
Church doctrine
• Reinforced the
power of the
monarchy
Spain’s
Economy
• Colonial Empire
– 10 % Crown’s
income
– triple silver
resources
• 16th century
European Boom
• Traded with
France and Italian
city-states.
• Supplied the
colonies
Spain’s
Monarchy
Spanish Hapsburg
• Charles V (son of
Joanna) a Hapsburg
(1519 - 1558)
• Holy Roman
Emperor
• Many wars and high
taxation
• Philip II inherited
Spain
• Developed larger
bureaucracy
• Logistics created
difficulties
• Phillip II (1556 – 1598)
• Inherited Portugal,
possessed 17 provinces
of the Netherlands and
the Free County of
Burgundy.
•
•
•
•
1550 - 1650
Potosi
Cervantes Don Quixote
Lope de Vega wrote
200 dramas
• El Greco, Murillo, and
Velazquez
• Jesuit Suarez philosphy
Decline of Spain
•
•
•
•
Overextended
Dutch Revolt
High taxation
Inquisition in land
of Calvinists
• Duke of Alba
(Council of
Troubles)
Revolt of the Netherlands
• Spanish Road
• Spanish Mutinies
• Spanish Desertion
Defeat of the
Spanish Armada
• Maurice de
Nassau
• Price Revolution (Gold and
Silver from America)
• 1568 - 1598 5 times the military
expenditures of the Dutch,
English and French.
• 1576, epidemics, plagues, harvest
failures.
• New taxation (Excise [sales] Tax)
History
• Ruled by Spain (Charles V)
1516 - 1648
• Federalist union
• Defensive alliance against
Spain
• Did not want absolutism
• Seven provinces with States
General
• Autonomy, provincial
sovereignty, and religious
pluralism
• Nobility weak economic and
political role
• Oligarchy
• House of Orange served as
chief officials
• 17th century saw development
• Amsterdam Public Bank
backbone of financial operations
• Facilitate foreign trade
• Expanded agriculture
• Land reclamation, increased
productivity sustain larger
population
• 1630s 2,500 ships accounted
for 1/2 of Europe shipping
• Trade monopolies were
granted
• Dutch East India Company
• Established company
settlements in the East
• Famous
mathamatician,
physicist, and
astronomer
• Father of
microbiology.
• Improved the
microscope
• Laid foundations
for international
law
• Freedom of the
seas
• Greatest Painters
in European
history.
• Most important
Dutch Painter
• Rival resources of population
(England and France)
• Wars against England drained
resources.
• Foreign tariffs on Dutch goods
• Colonial empire lagged behind
• Louis XIV
• Industry could not compete
(wages and technology)
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